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MPPE014 Non-Linear Beam Dynamics Studies of the Diamond Storage Ring coupling, resonance, lattice, storage-ring 1410
  • R. Bartolini, A.I. Baldwin, M. Belgroune, I.P.S. Martin, J.H. Rowland, B. Singh
    Diamond, Oxfordshire
  • J.K. Jones
    CCLRC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire
  The non-linear beam dynamics have been investigated for the non-zero dispersion lattice of the Diamond storage ring. Effects in realistic lattice configurations such as the introduction of coupling errors, beta beating, closed orbit correction, quadrupole fringe field and in-vacuum and helical insertion devices have been studied in the presence of realistic physical aperture limitations. Frequency map analysis together with 6D tracking allows identification of the limiting resonances as well as the loss locations and calculation of the influence of non-linear longitudinal motion on the Touschek lifetime. The sensitivity of the lattice to some of these effects leads to the identification of a better working point for the machine.  
MPPE041 Orbit Stability at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source synchrotron, shielding, dipole, quadrupole 2687
  • L. Liu, P.F. Tavares
    LNLS, Campinas
  A task force has been implemented at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory to improve the beam orbit stability in the 1.37 GeV electron storage ring. The main problems faced during this year (2004) were due to the installation of a second RF cavity in the machine. We describe the main problems and the solutions that were implemented.  
MPPE069 Optics for the ALBA Lattice lattice, insertion, insertion-device, synchrotron 3777
  • M. Muñoz, D. Einfeld
    CELLS, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès)
  ALBA will be a third generation synchrotron light source built in Spain near Barcelona. The lattice chosen for ALBA consists in an extended DBA-like structure with finite dispersion in the straight sections, providing low emittance (under 5nmrad), small beam cross sections at the source points (σ x ~ 150 micrometers and σ y ~ 10micrometers), and a large number of straight sections (4 times 8m, 12 times 4.2m and 8 times 2.6m). The small circumference (268 meters) and medium energy (3GeV) makes it challenging to provide the desired emittance while preserving a large enough dynamic aperture and energy acceptance. This paper reviews the main beam dynamics issues (dynamic aperture, energy acceptance, closed correction, lifetime, influence of insertion devices, and higher multipoles of magnets) and the solutions adopted.  
MPPP003 FALSE BPM READINGS AFFECTING ORBIT FEEDBACK feedback, insertion, insertion-device, synchrotron 847
  • H.-S. Kang, J. Choi, M.-H. Chun, K.M. Ha, J.Y. Huang, Y.-C. Kim, E.-H. Lee, T.-Y. Lee, W.W. Lee, J.-H. Suh
    PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk
  Funding: Ministry of Science and Technology, Korea.

A slow global orbit feedback (SOFB) is routinely operating in the usual user service operation at PLS. The orbit feedback uses 22 correctors in each plane which have 20-bit capability for the vertical plane and 16-bit capability for the horizontal plane, and the feedback speed is 4 seconds. The orbit stability in RMS was maintained below 1 mm in both planes for one hour and 3 mm for a 12-hour operation. The BPM chamber movement due to the change of synchrotron radiation heat load mainly limits the SOFB performance. The intensity dependence of BPM electronics is well compensated by a look-up table of BPM.

MPPP021 Evolution of the Machine Impedance following the ESRF Upgrade to Low-Gap NEG Coated Aluminium Chambers impedance, single-bunch, simulation, insertion 1712
  • T.F. Günzel, L. Farvacque, T. Perron, J.-L. Revol
    ESRF, Grenoble
  The installation of 5 meter-long, 8 mm vertical aperture insertion device (ID) aluminum chambers coated in house with non evaporable getter material is progressing at a rate of one chamber per shutdown. The evolution of the impedance with associated consequences on instability thresholds, following the installation of a number of low aperture insertion device chambers will be reported. In particular the impedance measurement using the local bump method allowed the identification and the replacement of the chambers of highest impedance. Correlation with the evolution of the single bunch instability thresholds and the theoretical prediction will be discussed. It could be observed that change in vertical aperture has a sensible effect on the single bunch horizontal threshold.  
MPPP022 The Impedance of Selected Components of the Synchrotron Light Source Petra III impedance, synchrotron, dipole, insertion 1751
  • R. Wanzenberg, K. Balewski
    DESY, Hamburg
  At DESY it is planned to convert the PETRA ring into a synchrotron radiation facility, called PETRA III, in 2007. Since the impedance of the machine determines its performance with respect to coupled and single bunch instabilities it is important to know the wakefields and higher order modes (HOMs) of the different components of the vacuum system. Numerical calculations of wakefields and HOMs are presented for several components of PETRA III, including the rf-cavities, shielded bellows and tapered vacuum chamber transitions. The impedance of these components is presented in terms of the loss and kick parameters.  
MPPP034 Collective Effects in the TLS Storage Ring after the Installation of Superconducting RF Cavity storage-ring, feedback, collective-effects, impedance 2360
  • P.J. Chou, J. Chen, K.-T. Hsu, C.-C. Kuo, C. Wang, M.-H. Wang
    NSRRC, Hsinchu
  A superconducting rf cavity designed by Cornell University was installed in the storage ring at Taiwan Light Source in December of 2004. The purpose of rf system upgrade is to achieve a stored beam current of 400 mA without collective instabilities caused by high-order-modes of rf cavities. Beam measurements related to collective effects are performed. Results are compared with those measured prior to the rf system upgrade. Theoretical studies on collective effects after the rf upgrade are also presented.  
MPPP037 A Model Study of Transverse Mode Coupling Instability at NSLS-II. impedance, resonance, undulator, damping 2500
  • A. Blednykh, J.-M. Wang
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  The vertical impedances of the preliminary designs of NSLS-II MGUs are calculated by means of GdfidL code. The TMCI thresholds corresponding to these impedances are estimated using an analytically solvable model.  
MPPP044 Impedance Calculation for Ferrite Inserts impedance, space-charge, resonance, beam-losses 2818
  • S.-Y. Lee, S. Breitzmann
    IUCF, Bloomington, Indiana
  • K.Y. Ng
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: NSF PHY-0244793; DOE DE-FG02-92ER40747.

Passive ferrite inserts were used to compensate the space charge impedance in high intensity space charge dominated accelerators. We study the narrowband longitudinal impedance of these ferrite inserts. We find that the shunt impedance and the quality factor for ferrite inserts are inversely proportional to the imaginary part of the permeability of ferrite materials. We also provide a receipe for truly passive space charge impedance compensation and, at the same time, avoiding the narrowband microwave instabilities.

MPPP046 Transient Resistive Wall Wake for Very Short Bunches laser, electron 2926
  • G.V. Stupakov
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: Work supported by U.S. Department of Energy, contract DE-AC03-76SF00515.

The catch up distance for the resistive wall wake in a round pipe is approximately equal to the square of the pipe radius divided by the bunch length. The standard formulae for this wake are applicable at distances much larger than the catch up distance. For extremely short bunches, considered recently by Zholents and Fawley in application for SASE (PRL, vol. 92, p. 224801), this formation length can be tens of meters. In this paper, we calculate the resistive wall wake for such a beam at distances compared with the catch up distance assuming a constant wall conductivity. We also discuss how the derivation can be modified to include the frequency dependence of the conductivity characteristic for very short wavelength.

MPPP051 Transverse Impedance of Two-Layer Tube impedance, multipole, dipole, undulator 3138
  • M. Ivanyan, A.V. Tsakanian
    CANDLE, Yerevan
  The exact analytical expressions for the multipole longitudinaland transverse impedances of two-layer tube with finite wall thickness areobtained. The numerical examples for the impedances of the vacuum chamberwith laminated walls are given.  
MPPP052 Longitudinal Impedance Measurements of the Components for the BEPCII impedance, kicker, storage-ring, injection 3212
  • D.M. Zhou, W. Kang, J.Q. Wang, L.J. Zhou
    IHEP Beijing, Beijing
  • G. Huang
    TUB, Beijing
  Funding: Work supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under contract No.10375076.

A longitudinal impedance measurement system was established for the BEPCII. The measurements, done in the frequency domain, are based on the coaxial wire method using HP/Agilent 8720ES network analyzer. The applications of the TRL calibration technique and absorbers were investigated to find a good approach for impedance measurements. The impedance, larger than 20 Ohm and below 6 GHz, can be measured using the TRL calibration technique in the experiment. And better measurement results were got using the reference pipes with the absorbers. So, this system satisfies the requirements of the BEPCII. This paper gives a review on this impedance measurements system for the BEPCII. The measurements results show that there are no serious impedance problems for BEPCII bellows and injection kickers, agreeing well with the numerical simulations. More improvements on this system are in progress.

MPPT005 A New Slotted-Pipe Kicker Magnet for BEPCII Storage Ring kicker, impedance, injection, storage-ring 955
  • W. Kang, Y. Hao
    IHEP Beijing, Beijing
  The requirements of BEPCII injecting kicker magnets are so severe. In the range of ?x=±20mm, the field uniformity is required to be better than ±1% in the central plane, ±2% in the y=5mm plane and ±5% in y=10mm plane, while the effective beam impedance of each kicker magnet must be lower than 0.025O. For the large aperture of vacuum chamber and the fast risetime of kicker magnetic field, the two schemes of low impedance kicker magnets used in other accelerator labs in the world are not adaptive to the BEPCII storage ring. A new slotted-pipe kicker magnet, which uses the ceramic bars with metal coating films as the image current conducting paths, proposed in this article solves the difficult problems of BEPCII kicker magnet design. And the successful construction of a prototype has demonstrated that the new scheme of kicker magnets is viable and the structure design of the kicker magnet is reasonable.  
MPPT006 The Extraction Kicker System of the RCS in J-PARC kicker, extraction, impedance, proton 1009
  • J. Kamiya, T. Takayanagi
    JAERI/J-PARC, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken
  • T. Kawakubo, S. Murasugi, E. Nakamura
    KEK, Ibaraki
  The kicker magnet plays a role of extracting the proton beam which is accelerated up to 3GeV by the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron in J-PARC. The kicker system is required the fast rise time of the magnetic field because the interval between the beam bunches is only 349nsec. The kicker magnet is the distributed type. The findings in our measurements revealed that the delay time in the magnet is about 180nsec. The power supply has the pulse forming network system, which consists of co-axial cables whose characteristic impedance is 10 ohm. We accomplished the current rise time of 80 nsec quickness. Therefore we had a good prospect of the fast rise time of the magnetic field. The characteristic impedance of the kicker magnet was also measured. The value was close to 10 ohm. There will be no large mismatching between the power supply and the magnet. This pulse magnet is installed in the vacuum chamber to prevent the electric discharge. Outgas from the components has the adverse effects the vacuum in the accelerator. We have reduced the outgas rate from the ferrite core and aluminum plates which construct the magnet by backing them at appropriate temperature.  
MPPT013 New Pulsed Orbit Bump Magnets for the Fermilab Booster Synchrotron booster, injection, quadrupole, linac 1341
  • J.R. Lackey, D.J. Harding, J.A. John, V.S. Kashikhin, A. Makarov, E. Prebys
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH03000.

The beam from the Fermilab Linac is injected onto a bump in the closed orbit of the Booster Synchrotron where a carbon foil strips the electrons from the Linac’s negative ion hydrogen beam. Although the Booster itself runs at 15Hz, heat dissipation in the orbit bump magnets has been one limitation to the fraction of the cycles that can be used for beam. New, 0.28T pulsed window frame dipole magnets have been constructed that will fit into the same space as the old ones, run at the full repetition rate of the Booster, and provide a larger bump to allow a cleaner injection orbit. The new magnets use a high saturation flux density Ni-Zn ferrite in the yoke rather than laminated steel. The presented magnetic design includes two and three dimensional magnetic field calculations with eddy currents and ferrite nonlinear effects.

MPPT017 Design of Switching Magnet for 20-MeV Beamlines at PEFP proton, extraction, multipole, simulation 1575
  • H.S. Suh, H.S. Han, S.-H. Jeong, Y.G. Jung, H.-S. Kang, H.-G. Lee, K.-H. Park, C. K. Ryu
    PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk
  Funding: Ministry of Science and Technology.

The PEFP(Proton Engineering Frontier Project) proton linac is designed to have two proton beam extraction lines at the 20-MeV and 100-MeV end. The 20-MeV extraction line is branched out into 5 beamlines by using the switching magnet. The magnet bends the proton beam by +20, +10, 0, -10, -20 degrees, respectively, and has an AC frequency of 5 Hz with a programmable ac power supply. It employs an H-shape, 0.45 T magnetic field, 0.5 m effective magnet length, 30x5 cm bore aperture. The pole shape is optimized for the field levels. Laminated steel of 0.5 mm is enough to suppress the eddy current effect in the yoke. This paper presents the magnet specification and primary design.

MPPT021 Magnetic Measurement System for the NSLS Superconducting Undulator Vertical Test Facility undulator, survey, multipole, instrumentation 1730
  • D.A. Harder, G. Rakowsky, J. Skaritka
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  One of the challenges of small-gap superconducting undulators is measurement of magnetic fields within the cold bore to characterize the device performance and to determine magnetic field errors for correction or shimming, as is done for room-temperature undulators. Both detailed field maps and integrated field measurements are required. This paper describes a 6-element, cryogenic Hall probe field mapper for the NSLS Superconducting Undulator Vertical Test Facility (VTF). The probe is designed to work in an aperture only 3 mm high. A pulsed-wire insert is also being developed, for visualization of the trajectory, for locating steering errors and for determining integrated multi-pole errors. The pulsed-wire insert will be interchangeable with the Hall probe mapper. The VTF and the magnetic measurement systems can accommodate undulators up to 0.4 m in length.

*J. Skaritka et al., MEDSI’04.

MPPT026 Insertion Device Upgrade Plans at the NSLS undulator, impedance, insertion, insertion-device 1949
  • T. Tanabe, A. Blednykh, D.A. Harder, M. Lehecka, G. Rakowsky, J. Skaritka
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  This paper describes plans to upgrade insertion devices at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, U.S.A. The aging wiggler (W80) at X25 is being replaced by a 1 m long in-vacuum mini-gap undulator (MGU-18) optimized for a dedicated macromolecular crystallography program. A new, 1/3 m long, in-vacuum undulator (MGU-13.5), will be installed between a pair of RF cavities at X9, and will serve a new beamline dedicated for small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Both MGU’s will have provision for cryocooling the NdFeB hybrid arrays to 150K to raise the field and K-value and to obtain better spectral coverage. Design issues of the devices and other considerations, especially magnetic measurement methods in low temperature will be discussed.  
MPPT036 R&D of Short-Period NbTi and Nb3Sn Superconducting Undulators for the APS undulator, electron, photon, injection 2419
  • S.H. Kim, C. Doose, R. Kustom, E.R. Moog, I. Vasserman
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38.

A superconducting undulator (SCU) with a period of 14.5 mm is under development at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The undulator is designed to achieve a peak field on the beam axis of 0.8 T with an 8 mm pole gap and an average current density of 1 kA/mm2 in the NbTi coil. A 22-period half-section of a SCU has been fabricated. The SCU half-section was charged up to near the average critical current density jc of 1.4 kA/mm2, and the stability margin was measured by imposing external heat fluxes on the coil at 4.2 K in pool boiling LHe. The magnetic fields along the midplane of the SCU were measured using a Hall-probe field-mapping unit installed in a vertical dewar. The first test of a Nb3Sn short-section SCU reached an average current density of 1.45 kA/mm2, slightly higher than the jc for the NbTi SCU.

MPPT041 Improvement of the Geometrical Stability of the LHC Cryodipoles when Blocking the Central Support Post dipole, superconducting-magnet, laser, alignment 2675
  • F. Seyvet, J. Beauquis, E.D. Fernandez Cano, J.-B. Jeanneret, A. Poncet, D. Tommasini
    CERN, Geneva
  The LHC will be composed of 1232 horizontally curved 16 meter long super-conducting dipole magnets cooled at 1.9K, supported within their vacuum vessel by three Glass Fiber Resin Epoxy (GFRE) support posts. The two support posts at the dipole extremities were initially designed free to slide longitudinally with respect to the vacuum vessel and the central support post was designed free to slide transversally. However the magnet shape did not retain the tight geometrical tolerances, of the order of fractions of mm, imposed by machine aperture and magnetic corrector centering requirements. Thereafter a modification to the supporting system, removing the initial transversal degree of freedom of the lower flange of the central support post with respect to the vacuum vessel, was designed and implemented. This paper describes the design of the magnet/cryostat interface with and without blockage of the central support post, analyzes the additional mechanical loads related to the modification and reviews the experimental results with respect to the requirements for beam aperture and magnetic corrector centering.  
MPPT044 The Construction of the Low-Beta Triplets for the LHC quadrupole, multipole, insertion, dipole 2798
  • R. Ostojic, M. Karppinen, T.M. Taylor, W.  Venturini Delsolaro
    CERN, Geneva
  • R. Bossert, J. DiMarco, SF. Feher, J.S. Kerby, M.J. Lamm, T.H. Nicol, A. Nobrega, T.M. Page, T. Peterson, R. Rabehl, P. Schlabach, J. Strait, C. Sylvester, M. Tartaglia, G. Velev
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  • N. Kimura, T. Nakamoto, T. Ogitsu, N. Ohuchi, t.s. Shintomi, K. Tsuchiya, A. Yamamoto
    KEK, Ibaraki
  The performance of the LHC depends critically on the low-beta triplets, located on either side of the four interaction points. Each triplet consists of four superconducting quadrupole magnets, which must operate reliably at up to 215 T/m, sustain extremely high heat loads and have an excellent field quality. A collaboration of CERN, Fermilab and KEK was set up in 1996 to design and build the triplet systems, and after nine years of joint effort the production will be completed in 2005. We retrace the main events of the project and present the design features and performance of the low-beta quadrupoles, built by KEK and Fermilab, as well as of other vital elements of the triplet. The experience in assembly of the first triplet at CERN and plans for tunnel installation and commissioning in the LHC are also presented. Apart from the excellent technical results, the construction of the LHC low-beta triplets has been a highly enriching experience combining harmoniously the different competences and approaches to engineering in a style reminiscent of physics experiment collaborations, and rarely before achieved in accelerator building.  
MPPT045 The Assembly of the LHC Short Straight Sections (SSS) at CERN: Project Status and Lessons Learned collider, background, quadrupole, instrumentation 2890
  • V. Parma, N. Bourcey, P.M. Dos Santos de Campos, R.C. Feitor, mg. Gandel, R. Lopez, M. Schmidlkofer, I. Slits
    CERN, Geneva
  The series production of the LHC SSS has started in the beginning of 2004 and is foreseen to last until end 2006. The production consists in the assembly of 474 cold masses housing superconducting quadrupoles and corrector magnets within their cryostats. 87 cold mass variants, resulting from various combinations of main quadrupole and corrector magnets, have to be assembled in 55 cryostat types, depending on the specific cryogenic and electrical powering schemes required by the collider topology. The assembly activity features the execution of more than 5 km of leak-tight welding on 20-bar design pressure cryogenic lines in stainless steel and aluminium, according to high qualification standards and undergoing severe QA inspections. Some 2500 leak detection tests, using He mass spectrometry, are required to check the tightness of the cryogenic circuits. Extensive electrical control work, to check the integrity of the magnet instrumentation and electrical circuits throughout the assembly of the SSS, is also carried out. This paper presents the current status of production, the assembly facilities at CERN, work organisation and Quality Assurance issues, and the acquired assembly experience after one and a half years of production.  
MPPT055 The LANSCE Switchyard Kicker Project kicker, diagnostics, injection, power-supply 3310
  • M.S. Gulley, H.W. Alvestad, W.C. Barkley, D.B. Barlow, D.S. Barr, G.A. Bennett, L.J. Bitteker, E. Bjorklund, M.J. Borden, M.J. Burns, G. Carr, J.L. Casados, S. Chacon, S. Cohen, J.F. Cordova, J.A. Faucett, L.E. Fernandez, D.H. Fitzgerald, M. Fresquez, F.R. Gallegos, R.W. Garnett, J.D. Gilpatrick, F. Gonzales, F.W. Gorman, M.J. Hall, D.J. Hayden, D. Henderson, G.D. Johns, D.M. Kerstiens, M.D. Lusk, A.J. Maestas, H.P. Marquez, D. Martinez, M.P. Martinez, J.B. Merrill, R.E. Meyer, E.A. Morgan, A.C. Naranjo, J.F. O'Hara, F.R. Olivas, M.A. Oothoudt, T.D. Pence, E.M. Perez, C. Pillai, B.J. Roller, A.M. Romero, D.B. Romero, F.P. Romero, G. Sanchez, J.B. Sandoval, S. Schaller, F.E. Shelley, R.B. Shurter, J.R. Sims, J.L. Stockton, J. Sturrock, V.P. Vigil, J. Zaugg
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
  Until 2003, the existing configuration of the LANSCE switchyard did not allow simultaneous delivery of the H- beam to Lines D and X. In the late 1990’s, with increased activities in Areas B and C, which serve the ultracold neutron experiments (UCN) and proton radiography (PRad), respectively, planning began to increase beam availability to all areas by installing a kicker system, dubbed the "Switchyard Kicker." The Switchyard Kicker is a system of two pulsed and two direct current magnets that enables simultaneous, uninterrupted beam delivery to Line D for the Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) Facility and, on request, a tailored H- beam pulse to Line X for the pRad and UCN research areas. The project received funding in July 2001 for design and implementation. During the 2003 Extended Maintenance Period this upgrade was installed in the Switchyard and commissioned during the Accelerator Turn-On period in the summer of 2003. With the commissioning successful, LANSCE now routinely operates in "Kick" mode, delivering simultaneous beam to Line X and Line D, increasing beam availability to all areas and simplifying production scheduling.  
MPPT058 Progress on the Focus Coils for the MICE Channel focusing, emittance, coupling, power-supply 3417
  • M.A. Green
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  • Y. Ivanyushenkov
    CCLRC/RAL, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon
  • W. Lau, R. Senanayake, S.Q. Yang
    OXFORDphysics, Oxford, Oxon
  Funding: This work was supported by the Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy under DOE contract number DE-AC03-76SF00098.

This report describes the progress on the magnet part of the absorber focus coil module for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). MICE consists of two cells of a SFOFO cooling channel that is similar to that studied in the level 2 study of a neutrino factory. The MICE absorber focus coil module consists of a pair of superconducting solenoids, mounted on an aluminum mandrel. The coil package that is in its own vacuum vessel surrounds an absorber, which does the ionization cooling of the muons. Either a liquid or solid absorber is within a separate vacuum vessel that is within the warm bore of the superconducting magnet. The superconducting focus coils may either be run in the solenoid mode (with the two coils at the same polarity) or in the flip mode (with the coil at opposite polarity causing the field direction to flip within the magnet bore). The superconducting coils will be cooled using a pair of small 4 K coolers. This report discusses the progress on the MICE focusing magnets, the magnet cooling system and the magnet current supply system.

MPPT059 Progress on the Coupling Coil for the MICE Channel coupling, focusing, power-supply, superconductivity 3468
  • M.A. Green, D. Li, S.P. Virostek, M.S. Zisman
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  • Y. Ivanyushenkov
    CCLRC/RAL, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon
  • W. Lau, A. E. White, H. Witte, S.Q. Yang
    OXFORDphysics, Oxford, Oxon
  Funding: This work was supported by the Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy under DOE contract number DE-AC03-76SF00098.

This report describes the progress on the coupling coil module for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). MICE consists of two cells of a SFOFO cooling channel that is similar to that studied in the level 2 study of a neutrino factory. The MICE RF coupling coil module consists of a superconducting solenoid, mounted around four cells of conventional 201.25 MHz closed RF cavities. This report discusses the progress that has been made on the superconducting coupling coil that is around the center of the RF coupling module. This report also describes the process one would use to cool the coupling coil using a single small 4 K cooler. The coupling magnet power system and quench protections system is also described.

MPPT070 Construction and Power Test of the Extraction Kicker Magnet for the Spallation Neutron Source Accumulator Ring kicker, extraction, SNS, power-supply 3831
  • C. Pai, H. Hahn, H.-C. Hseuh, Y.Y. Lee, W. Meng, J.-L. Mi, D. Raparia, J. Sandberg, R.J. Todd, N. Tsoupas, J.E. Tuozzolo, D.S. Warburton, J. Wei, D. Weiss, W. Zhang
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge.

Two extraction kicker magnet assemblies that contain seven individual pulsed magnet modules each will kick the proton beam vertically out of the SNS accumulator ring into the aperture of the extraction lambertson septum magnet. The proton beam then travels to the 1.4 MW SNS target assembly. The 14 kicker magnets and major components of the kicker assembly have been fabricated in BNL. The inner surfaces of the kicker magnets were coated with TiN to reduce the secondary electron yield. All 14 PFN power supplies have been built, tested and delivered to ORNL. Before final installation, a partial assembly of the kicker system with three kicker magnets was assembled to test the functions of each critical component in the system. In this paper we report the progress of the construction of the kicker components, the TiN coating of the magnets, the installation procedure of the magnets and the full power test of the kicker with the PFN power supply.

MPPT071 The Lambertson Septum Magnet of the Spallation Neutron Source septum, extraction, lattice, target 3847
  • J. Rank, Y.Y. Lee, W.J. McGahern, G. Miglionico, D. Raparia, N. Tsoupas, J.E. Tuozzolo, J. Wei
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work performed under contract for SNS, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge.

In the Spallation Neutron Source, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, multiple-stage injections to an accumulator ring increase intensity until a final extraction delivers the full proton beam to the target via transfer line. This extraction is achieved by a series of kicker elements and a thin septum Extraction Lambertson Septum Magnet. Here we discuss the lattice geometry, beam dynamics and optics, and the vacuum, electromagnetic and electromechanical design aspects of the SNS Extraction Lambertson Septum Magnet. Relevant datums are established. Beam optics is studied. Vector calculus is solved for pitch and roll angles. Fundamental magnet sections are depicted schematically. Coil, pole and yoke design calculations and electromagnetics optimization are presented.

MPPT076 Conceptual Designs of Magnet Systems for the Taiwan Photon Source sextupole, storage-ring, quadrupole, dipole 3979
  • C.-H. Chang, H.-H. Chen, T.-C. Fan, M.-H. Huang, C.-S. Hwang, J.C. Jan, W.P. Li, F.-Y. Lin, H.-C. Su
    NSRRC, Hsinchu
  The National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC) at Taiwan is designing a 3.0 GeV energy with ultra-low emittance storage ring for new Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) project. The storage has a circumference of 514 m with 24 periods of double-bend achromatic magnet system. The conceptual designs for each magnet family for the storage ring are optimize for operation of electron energy at 3.0- 3.3 GeV. This paper reviews the preliminary design and the key accelerator magnet issues.  
MPPT083 Radiation Damage to Advanced Photon Source Undulators radiation, undulator, electron, synchrotron 4126
  • S. Sasaki, C. Doose, E.R. Moog, M. Petra, I. Vasserman
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  • N.V. Mokhov
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: Supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Science under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38.

Radiation-induced magnetic field strength losses are seen in undulator permanent magnets in the two sectors with small-aperture (5 mm) vacuum chambers. Initially, simple retuning of the affected undulators could restore them to full operation. As the damage has accumulated, however, it has become necessary to disassemble the magnetic arrays and either replace magnet blocks or remagnetize and reinstall magnet blocks. Some of the damaged magnet blocks have been studied, and the demagnetization was found to be confined to a limited volume at the surface close to the electron beam. Models for the magnetic damage were calculated using RADIA* and were adjusted to reproduce the measurements. Results suggest that a small volume at the surface has acquired a weak magnetization in the opposite direction. Small magnet samples provided by NEOMAX and Shin-Etsu are being placed in the storage ring tunnel for irradiation exposure testing. Simulations of the radiation environment at the undulators have been performed.

*O. Chubar, P. Elleaume, J. Chavanne, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 481 (1998).

MPPT091 Managing Coil Epoxy Vacuum Impregnation Systems at the Manufacturing Floor Level To Achieve Ultimate Properties in State-of-the-Art Magnet Assemblies monitoring, radiation, insertion, induction 4260
  • J.G. Hubrig
    Innovation Services, Inc, Knoxville, Tennessee
  • G.H. Biallas
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Liquid epoxy resin impregnation systems remain a state-of-the-art polymer material for vacuum and vacuum/pressure impregnation applications in the manufacture of both advanced and conventional coil winding configurations. Epoxy resins inherent latitude in processing parameters accounts for their continued popularity in engineering applications, but also for the tendency to overlook or misinterpret the requisite processing parameters on the manufacturing floor. Resin system impregnation must be managed in detail in order to achieve device life cycle reliability. This closer look reveals how manufacturing floor level management of material acceptance, handling and storage, pre- and post- impregnation processing and cure can be built into a manufacturing plan to increase manufacturing yield, lower unit cost and ensure optimum life cycle performance of the coil.  
TPAE001 Experiments on Wake Field Acceleration in Plasma and the Program of the Further Works in YerPhI electron, plasma, acceleration, laser 752
  • M.L. Petrosyan, M. Akopov, Y.A. Garibyan, E.M. Laziev, R.A. Melikian, Y. Nazaryan, M.K. Oganesyan, G.M. Petrosyan, L.M. Petrosyan, V.S. Pogosyan, G.K. Tovmasyan
    YerPhI, Yerevan
  Funding: ISTC, Project A-405.

The use of wake field acceleration basically is aimed to obtaining of high acceleration rate in comparison with traditional methods of acceleration. Meantime in the last years in YerPhI it was offered to use wake field acceleration for acceleration of high-current electron bunches on energy about 100 MeV. Experimental installation for research of formation of high-current electron bunches of the given configuration, necessary for wake field acceleration and acceleration of these bunches in plasma is created. The installation is intended for acceleration of electron bunches with a current of few tens amperes and up to energy 1-2 MeV. For excitation of wake waves in plasma the electron accelerator of direct action with use of high-voltage pulse transformer is used. Results of researches have revealed some properties of formation of high-current bunches, especially restrictions of a electron current because of space charge effects at sub-picoseconds duration of bunches. The basic parameters of the wake field acceleration project on energy about 100 MeV are given, taking into account results of researches on experimental installation.

TPAE012 Rectangular Diamond-Lined Accelerator Structure acceleration, impedance, quadrupole, linear-collider 1282
  • C. Wang, V.P. Yakovlev
    Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut
  • J.L. Hirshfield
    Yale University, Physics Department, New Haven, CT
  Funding: Work supported by U.S. DOE.

For high frequency accelerators with normal-conducting structures studied by the NLC/GLC collaboration and the CLIC group, rf breakdown is the main gradient limitation. In this paper, a Ka-band rectangular dielectric-lined structure is described as an attempt to increase accelerating gradient beyond the limits suitable for metallic structures. The structure is based on amorphous dielectrics that are known to exhibit high breakdown limits (~ GV/m). An example is artificial diamond that has already been successfully used on an industrial basis for large-diameter output windows of high power gyrotrons, and is produced industrially in increasing quantities. Artificial diamond has low loss tangent, moderate dielectric constant and high breakdown limit of ~2 GV/m. In the proposed structure diamond-slabs are employed to support high-gradient acceleration fields. Interposition of vacuum gaps between the dielectric slabs and the side walls is shown to reduce Ohmic losses substantially, leading to an increase in shunt impedance and reduced susceptibility to rf breakdown and fatigue on metal surfaces.

TPAE013 Rectangular Dielectric-Lined Two-Beam Wakefield Accelerator Structure acceleration, radiation, extraction, coupling 1333
  • C. Wang, V.P. Yakovlev
    Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut
  • J.L. Hirshfield
    Yale University, Physics Department, New Haven, CT
  • T.C. Marshall
    Columbia University, New York
  Funding: Work supported by U.S. DOE.

A novel dielectric structure is described for a two-beam wake field accelerator (WFA), which consists of three or four rectangular dielectric slabs positioned within a rectangular conducting pipe. This structure can be thought of as equivalent to two symmetric dielectric-lined three-zone rectangular waveguides, joined side-by-side. The design mode in the two-beam structure is the LSM-31 mode, a combination of two symmetric LSM-11 modes of the two three-zone waveguides. This two-channel mode can be employed to decelerate drive particles in one channel and accelerate test particles in the other. It is possible to find structure parameters that give a high ratio of acceleration gradient for the test beam, to deceleration gradient for the drive beam, of the order of 100.

TPAE014 Optical Phase Locking of Modelocked Lasers for Particle Accelerators laser, acceleration, electron, controls 1389
  • T. Plettner, S. Sinha, J. Wisdom
    Stanford University, Stanford, Califormia
  • E.R. Colby
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: Department of Energy DE-FG03-97ER41043, DARPA DAAD19-02-1-0184.

Particle accelerators require precise phase control of the electric field through the entire accelerator structure. Thus a future laser driven particle accelerator will require optical synchronism between the high-peak power laser sources that power the accelerator. The precise laser architecture for a laser driven particle accelerator is not determined yet, however it is clear that the ability to phase-lock independent modelocked oscillators will be of crucial importance. We report the present status on our work to demonstrate long term phaselocking between two modelocked lasers to within one dregee of optical phase and describe the optical synchronization techniques that we employ.

TPAE015 Laser and Particle Guiding Micro-Elements for Particle Accelerators laser, undulator, radiation, focusing 1434
  • T. Plettner, R.M. Gaume, J. Wisdom
    Stanford University, Stanford, Califormia
  • J.E. Spencer
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: Department of Energy contract DE-AC02-76SF00515, DARPA contract DAAD19-02-1-0184.

Laser driven particle accelerators based on the current generation of lasers will require sub-micron control of the laser field as well as precise beam guiding. Hence the fabrication techniques that allow integrating both elements into an accelerator-on-chip format become critical for the success of such particle accelerators. Micromachining technology for silicon has been shown to be one such feasible technology in PAC2003 but with a variety of complications on the laser side. Fortunately, in recent years the fabrication of transparent ceramics has become an interesting technology that could be applied for laser-particle accelerators in several ways. We discuss this area, its advantages such as the range of materials it provides and various ways to implement it followed by some different test examples that have been considered. One important goal of this approach is an integrated system that could avoid the necessity of having to inject either laser or particle pulses into these structures.

TPAE017 Progress on High Power Tests of Dielectric-Loaded Accelerating Structures impedance, acceleration, simulation, plasma 1566
  • C.-J. Jing, W. Gai, R. Konecny, J.G. Power
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  • S.H. Gold
    NRL, Washington, DC
  • A.K. Kinkead
  Funding: This work was supported by the U.S. Dept of Energy, High Energy Physics Division and Office of Naval Research.

This paper presents a progress report on a series of high-power rf experiments that were carried out to evaluate the potential of the Dielectric-Loaded Accelerating (DLA) structure for high-gradient accelerator operation. Since the last PAC meeting in 2003, we have tested DLA structures loaded with two different ceramic materials: Alumina (Al2O3) and MCT (MgxCa1-xTiO3). The alumina-based DLA experiments have concentrated on the effects of multipactor in the structures under high-power operation, and its suppression using TiN coatings, while the MCT experiments have investigated the dielectric joint breakdown observed in the structures due to local field enhancement. In both cases, physical models have been set up, and the potential engineering solutions are being investigated.

TPAE018 34.272 GHz Multilayered Dielectric-Loaded Accelerating Structure impedance, acceleration 1592
  • C.-J. Jing, W. Gai, W. Liu, J.G. Power
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  • A. Kanareykin
    Euclid TechLabs, LLC, Solon, Ohio
  A scheme of multilayered structure design of 34.272 GHz with alternating dielectric of 38 and 9.7 is presented. The multilayer structure employs the Bragg Fiber concepts where the dielectric layers are used to create multiple reflections in order to confine the accelerating fields, thus greatly reducing the power loss of from external metal wall. The structure will operate at TM03 mode instead of normal TM01 mode. Numerical examples for the 2- and 4-layers 34.272 GHz multilayered structures are presented with detailed analysis of TM (acceleration) modes and HEM (parasitic) modes. We found that the power attenuation of the proposed structure can be lowered from ~ 20 dB/m for a single layer structure to ~ 6 dB/m for 2 -4 layered structure in at 34.272 GHz. We will also present a coupler design for the multilayered dielectric-loaded accelerating structure, which has capability of mode selection and high efficient RF transmission.  
TPAE023 3D Metallic Lattices for Accelerator Applications lattice, plasma, simulation, photon 1838
  • M.A. Shapiro, J.R. Sirigiri, R.J. Temkin
    MIT/PSFC, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  • G. Shvets
    The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas
  Funding: DOE-HEP

We present the results of research on 3D metallic lattices operating at microwave frequencies for application in (1) accelerator structures with higher order mode suppression, (2) Smith-Purcell radiation beam diagnostics, and (3) polaritonic materials for laser acceleration. Electromagnetic waves in a 3D simple cubic lattice formed by metal wires are calculated using HFSS. The bulk modes in the lattice are determined using single cell calculations with different phase advances in all three directions. The Brillouin diagram for the bulk modes is presented and indicates the absence of band gaps in simple lattices except the band below the cutoff. Lattices with thin wires as well as with thick wires have been analyzed. The Brillouin diagram also indicates the presence of low frequency 3D plasmon mode as well as the two degenerate photon modes analogous to those in a 2D lattice. Surface modes for a semi-infinite cubic lattice are modeled as a stack of cells with different phase advances in the two directions along the surface. The surface modes are found for both the thin and thick wire lattices in the band below the cutoff. They demonstrate that the lattice acts as a negative dielectric constant material.

TPAE030 Distributed Bragg Coupler for Optical All-Dielectric Electron Accelerator coupling, laser, electron, radiation 2125
  • Z. Zhang, R.D. Ruth, S.G. Tantawi
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: Department of Energy.

A Bragg waveguide consisting of multiple dielectric layers with alternating index of refraction becomes an excellent option to form electron accelerating structure powered by high power laser sources. It provides confinement of a synchronous speed-of-light mode with extremely low loss. However, laser field can not be coupled into the structure collinearly with the electron beam. There are three requirements in designing input coupler for a Bragg electron accelerator: side-coupling, selective mode excitation, and high coupling efficiency. We present a side coupling scheme using a Bragg-grating-assisted input coupler to inject the laser into the waveguide. Side coupling is achieved by a second order Bragg grating with a period on the order of an optical wavelength. The phase matching condition results in resonance coupling thus providing selective mode excitation capability. The coupling efficiency is limited by profile mismatch between the outgoing beam and the incoming beam, which has normally, a Gaussian profile. We demonstrate a non-uniform distributed grating structure generating an outgoing beam with a Gaussian profile, therefore, increasing the coupling efficiency.

TPAE032 Particle-in-Cell Simulations of Lower-Density CM-Scale Capillary Channels laser, plasma, simulation, electron 2248
  • P. Messmer, D.L. Bruhwiler, D.A. Dimitrov, P. Stoltz
    Tech-X, Boulder, Colorado
  • E. Esarey, C.G.R. Geddes, W. Leemans
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  Funding: This work is funded by DOE under contracts DE-FC02-01ER41178, DE-FG02-04ER84097, DE-AC03-76SF00098 and DE-FG03-95ER40926, including the SciDAC Accelerator Project and use of NERSC.

Capillary channels of cm-length and at plasma density low compared to gas jets are promising setups for low noise laser wakefield acceleration. Computationally, however, the large discrepancy of the length scales of the plasma and the laser are a big challenge. Methods are therefore sought that relax the need to concurrently resolve both length scales. Moving windows allow to reduce the size of the computational box to a few plasma wave-lengths, which can already be a big gain compared to the full length of the capillary. On the other hand, average methods allow to relax the constraint to resolve the laser wavelength. These methods split the laser induced current into a fast varying part and a slowly varying envelope. The average over the fast timescales is performed in a semi analytic way, leaving the evolution of the envelope to be modeled. Such an envelope model is currently being incorporated into the VORPAL code.* Preliminary results show considerable time savings compared to fully resolved simulations. The status of this ongoing work will be presented.

*C. Nieter and J. R. Cary, J. Comp. Phys. 196 (2004), p. 448.

TPAE037 Simulation of the Laser Acceleration Experiment at the Femilab/NICADD Photoinjector Laboratory laser, acceleration, electron, interaction-region 2503
  • P. Piot
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  • A.C. Melissinos, R. Tikhoplav
    Rochester University, Rochester, New York
  The possibility of using a laser to accelerate electrons in a waveguide structure with dimension much larger than the laser wavelength was first proposed by Pantell [NIM A 393 pg 1-5 (1997)] and investigated analytically by M. Xie [reports LBNL-40558 (1997) and LBNL-42055 (1998) available from LBNL Berkeley]. In the present paper we present the status of our experimental plan to demonstrate the laser interaction on an electron beam with initial momentum of 40-50 MeV/c. A laser (λ=1.06 micron) operating on the TM*01 mode has been developed. The large wavenumber (k~6x106 m-1) together with the initial low electron momentum poses a serious problem for efficient acceleration. In the present paper, we present start-to-end simulations of the laser acceleration experiment as foreseen to be installed in the upgraded Femilab/NICADD photoinjector laboratory.  
TPAE047 Parameters Optimization for a Novel Vacuum Laser Acceleration Test at BNL-ATF laser, electron, acceleration, simulation 2959
  • L.H. Shao, D. Cline, F. Zhou
    UCLA, Los Angeles, California
  Funding: U.S. DOE.

This paper presents a new VLA theory model which has revealed that the injection electrons with low energy and small incident angle relative to the laser beam are captured and significantly accelerated in a strong laser field. For the further step for verifying the novel-VLA mechanics, we propose to use the BNL-ATF Terawatt CO2 laser and a high-brightness electron beam to carry out a proof-of-principle beam experiment. Experiment setup including the laser injection optics and electron extraction system and beam diagnostics is presented. Extensive optimized simulation results with ATF practical parameters are also presented, which shows that even when the laser intensity is not very high, the net energy gain still can be seen obviously. This could be prospect for a new revolution of vacuum laser acceleration.

TPAE053 Near-GeV Electron Beams from the Laser Wakefield Accelerator in the “Bubble” Regime electron, laser, plasma, simulation
  • N. Hafz, H. Suk
    KERI, Changwon
  • D.-K. Ko, J. Lee
    APRI-GIST, Gwangju
  Funding: This research was funded by the Korean Ministry Science and Technology through the Creative Research Initiative (CRI) Program.

This Communication describes a 2D-PIC simulation of a laser wakefield accelerator in which an ultrashort, petawatt-class laser is focused and propagated through an underdense preformed plasma. We are looking at the phase-spaces of a large number of background plasma electrons that are accelerated to very high energies by the laser-induced plasma bubble. The result shows the possibility of generating a GeV-level electron beam in a few millimeters plasma size. As a future work, we will use a 500 TW laser system, that is under construction at APRI-GIST in Korea, for laser-plasma based accelerator researches to which the current simulation is relevant.

TPAE061 Experimental Investigation of an X-Band Tunable Dielectric Accelerating Structure resonance, acceleration, polarization, electron 3529
  • A. Kanareykin
    Euclid TechLabs, LLC, Solon, Ohio
  • W. Gai, J.G. Power
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  • S.F. Karmanenko, A. Semenov
    Eltech University, St. Petersburg
  • E. Nenasheva
    Ceramics Ltd., St. Petersburg
  • P. Schoessow
    Tech-X, Boulder, Colorado
  Funding: U.S. Department of Energy.

Experimental study of a new scheme to tune the resonant frequency for dielectric based accelerating structure (driven either by the wakefield of a beam or an external rf source) is underway. The structure consists of a single layer of conventional dielectric surrounded by a very thin layer of ferroelectric material situated on the outside. Carefully designed electrodes are attached to a thin layer of ferroelectric material. A DC bias can be applied to the electrodes to change the permittivity of the ferroelectric layer and therefore, the dielectric overall resonant frequency can be tuned. In this paper, we present the test results for an 11.424 GHz rectangular DLA prototype structure that the ferroelectric material's dielectric constant of 500 and show that a frequency tuning range of 2% can be achieved. If successful, this scheme would compensate for structure errors caused by ceramic waveguide machining tolerances and dielectric constant heterogeneity.

TPAE063 Observation of Superposition of Wake Fields Generated by Electron Bunches in a Dielectric-Lined Waveguide electron, acceleration, gun, laser 3609
  • S.V. Shchelkunov, T.C. Marshall
    Columbia University, New York
  • M. Babzien
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • J.L. Hirshfield, M.A. LaPointe
    Yale University, Physics Department, New Haven, CT
  Funding: Research supported by the Department of Energy, Division of High Energy Physics.

We report results from an experiment, done at the Accelerator Test Facility, Brookhaven National Laboratory, which demonstrates the successful superposition of wake fields excited by 50MeV bunches which travel ~50cm along the axis of a cylindrical waveguide which is lined with alumina. Wake fields from two short (5-6psec) 0.15-0.35nC bunches are superimposed and the energy losses of each bunch are measured as the separation between the bunches is varied so as to encompass approximately one wake field period (~21cm). A spectrum of 40 TM0m eigenmodes is excited by the bunch. A substantial retarding wake field (2.65MV/m×nC for just the first bunch) is developed because of the short bunches and the narrow vacuum channel diameter (3mm) through which they move. The energy loss of the second bunch exhibits a narrow resonance with a 4mm (13.5psec) footprint. This experiment may be compared with a related experiment reported by a group at the Argonne National Laboratory where a much weaker wake field (~0.1MV/m×nC for the first bunch) having ~10 eigenmodes was excited by a train of much longer bunches,* and the bunch spacing was not varied.

*J. G. Power, M. E. Conde, W. Gai, R. Konecny, and P. Schoessow, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 3, 101302 (2000).

TPAP002 Summary of Recent Studies of Cryosorbers for LHC Long Straight Sections collider, injection, hadron, electron 791
  • R.V. Dostovalov, V.V. Anashin, A.A. Krasnov
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk
  Funding: This work was supported by CERN AT Division vacuum group.

The vacuum chamber inside some cryogenic elements in the LHC long straight sections will have cold bore (CB) at 4.5K and a beam screen (BS) at temperature between 5 and 20K. The gas molecules desorbed due to photons and electrons will pass through the slots on the BS to the shadowed part between the CB and BS. All desorbed gases except H2 could be adsorbed on the CB and BS but a cryosorber is required to pump H2. The new types of anodized aluminum, porous copper and charcoal-based materials were developed and studied to cryopump H2 at temperatures between 10 and 20K. The advantages and disadvantages of cryosorbers and technological problems of development of new similar cryosorbers were defined. The vacuum parameters of LHC vacuum chamber prototypes with charcoal and two types of carbon fiber cryosorbers were measured. The dynamic pressure behavior at BS temperature oscillations was studied for BS with woven carbon fiber to predict the dynamic pressure at nonstandard or transient regimes of the LHC operation. A main result is that woven carbon fiber cryosorber meets the LHC requirements and can be proposed as cryosorber for LHC. The summary results of these studies are presented.

TPAP008 Measurements of the LHC Collimator Impedance with Beam in the SPS impedance, betatron, pick-up, collimation 1132
  • H. Burkhardt, G. Arduini, R.W. Assmann, F. Caspers, M. Gasior, A. Grudiev, O.R. Jones, T. Kroyer, E. Métral, S. Redaelli, G. Robert-Demolaize, F. Roncarolo, D. Schulte, R.J. Steinhagen, J. Wenninger, F. Zimmermann
    CERN, Geneva
  The transverse impedance of the LHC collimators will likely dominate the overall transverse impedance in the LHC at high energies and potentially limit the maximum intensity. A prototype collimator was recently tested in the SPS. Small, but significant tune shifts depending on the collimator position have been observed using different independent high resolution tune measurement methods. In addition trapped modes predicted from numerical simulation at the ends of the collimator jaws have been identified by bench measurement techniques as well as with the beam. We present a description of the measurements and an analysis of the results.  
TPAP020 Tests of a Roman Pot Prototype for the TOTEM Experiment impedance, insertion, coupling, scattering 1701
  • M. Deile, E. Alagoz, G.M. Anelli, G.A. Antchev, M. Ayache, F. Caspers, E. Dimovasili, R. Dinapoli, F.D. Drouhin, K. Eggert, L. Escourrou, O. Fochler, K. Gill, R. Grabit, F. Haug, P. Jarron, J. Kaplon, T. Kroyer, T. Luntama, D. Macina, E. Mattelon, L. Mirabito, H. Niewiadomski, E.P. Noschis, M. Oriunno, A. Park, A.-L. Perrot, O. Pirotte, J.M. Quetsch, F. Regnier, G. Ruggiero, S. Saramad, P. Siegrist, W. Snoeys, T. Souissi, R. Szczygiel, J. Troska, F. Vasey, A. Verdier
    CERN, Geneva
  • V. Avati, M. Järvinen, M. Kalliokoski, J. Kalliopuska, K. Kurvinen, R. Lauhakangas, F. Oljemark, R. Orava, V. Palmieri, H. Saarikko, A. Soininen, K. Österberg
    Helsinki University, Department of Physics, University of Helsinki
  • V. Berardi, M.G. Catanesi, E. Radicioni
    INFN-Bari, Bari
  • V. Boccone, M. Bozzo, A. Buzzo, S. Cuneo, F. Ferro, M. Macri, S. Minutoli, A. Morelli, P. Musico, M. Negri, A. Santroni, G. Sette, A. Sobol
    INFN Genova, Genova
  • C. Da Vià, J. Hasi, A. Kok, S. Watts
    Brunel University, Middlesex
  • J. Kasper, V. Kundrât, M. V. Lokajicek, J. Smotlacha
    FZU, Prague
  The TOTEM collaboration has developed and tested the first prototype of its Roman Pots to be operated in the LHC.* TOTEM Roman Pots contain stacks of 10 silicon detectors with strips oriented in two orthogonal directions. To measure proton scattering angles of a few microradians, the detectors will approach the beam centre to a distance of 10 σ + 0.5 mm (= 1.3 mm). Dead space near the detector edge is minimised by using two novel "edgeless" detector technologies. The silicon detectors are used both for precise track reconstruction and for triggering. The first full-sized prototypes of both detector technologies as well as their read-out electronics have been developed, built and operated. The tests took place first in a fixed-target muon beam at CERN's SPS, and then in the proton beam-line of the SPS accelerator ring. We present the test beam results demonstrating the successful functionality of the system despite slight technical shortcomings to be improved in the near future.

TOTEM, Technical Design Report, CERN-LHCC-2004-002.

TPAP047 Killing the Electron Cloud Effect in the LHC Arcs electron, dipole, proton, emittance 2971
  • P.M. McIntyre, A. Sattarov
    Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas
  A getter/electrode assembly has been devised to suppress the regeneration mechanism of the electron cloud effect in the arc dipoles of LHC. The assembly consists of a copper foil electrode, supported through an insulating layer on a stainless steel skid, which would rest upon the flat bottom of the beam screen. The electrode is coated with NEG to provide effective pumping of all non-inert gases from the vacuum. Pumping should be enhanced by electron bombardment. By biasing the electrode ~+100 V secondary electrons produced on the surface would be fully re-absorbed, killing the regeneration mechanism. The NEG surface can be regenerated by passing a current through the electrode to heat it to ~240 C. The heat transfer (radiant + conductive) to the beam screen during regeneration is estimated ~10 W/m, within limits to maintain the beam screen at nominal 20 K temperature during regeneration. The entire assembly has been designed so that installation does not require modification of any hardware currently being built for the LHC arcs. The electrode assembly would occupy 1 mm in the vertical aperture of the beam screen.  
TPAT002 Three-Dimensional Simulation of Large-Aspect-Ratio Ellipse-Shaped Charged-Particle Beam Propagation simulation, focusing, space-charge, permanent-magnet 823
  • R. Bhatt, C. Chen, J.Z. Zhou
    MIT/PSFC, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  Funding: U.S. Department of Energy: Grant No. DE-FG02-95ER40919, Grant No. DE-FG02-01ER54662, Air Force Office of Scientific Research: Grant No. F49620-03-1-0230, and the MIT Deshpande Center for Technological Innovation.

The three-dimensional trajectory code, OMNITRAK, is used to simulate a space-charge-dominated beam of large-aspect-ratio elliptic cross-section propagating in a non-axisymmetric periodic permanent magnet focusing field. The simulation results confirm theoretical predictions in the paraxial limit. A realistic magnetic field profile is applied, and the beam sensitivity to magnet nonlinearities and misalignments is studied. The image-charge effect of conductor walls is examined for a variety of beam tunnel sizes and geometries.

TPAT003 Cold-Fluid Equilibrium of a Large-Aspect-Ratio Ellipse-Shaped Charged-Particle Beam in a Non-Axisymmetric Periodic Permanent Magnet Focusing Field simulation, focusing, emittance, permanent-magnet 853
  • J.Z. Zhou, R. Bhatt, C. Chen
    MIT/PSFC, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  Funding: U.S. DOE, Grant: No. DE-FG02-95ER40919,Grant No. DE-FG02-01ER54662, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Grant No. F49620-03-1-0230, and the MIT Deshpande Center for Technological Innovation.

A new class of equilibrium is discovered for a large-aspect-ratio ellipse-shaped charged-particle beam in a non-axisymmetric periodic permanent magnet focusing field. A paraxial cold-fluid model is employed to derive the equilibrium flow properties and generalized envelope equations with negligibly small emittance. A periodic beam equilibrium solution is obtained numerically from the generalized envelope equations. It is shown that the beam edges are well confined in both transverse directions, and that the equilibrium beam exhibits a small-angle periodic wobble as it propagates. A two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) code, PFB2D, is used to verify the theoretical predictions in the paraxial limit, and to establish validity under non-paraxial situations and the influence of the conductor walls of the beam tunnel.

TPAT017 Transverse Impedance of Elliptical Tapers impedance, synchrotron, resonance, undulator 1535
  • B. Podobedov, S. Krinsky
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. DOE.

The geometric impedance of small-gap undulator chambers is of paramount importance for modern light sources because it may drive transverse single bunch instabilities. Analytical expressions are derived for the transverse impedance assuming a slowly tapered vacuum chamber with a confocal elliptical cross-section. The analytical results are confirmed by numerical simulations with the GdfidL Electromagnetic Field simulator and they yield the correct asymptotic limits for both round and flat chambers.

TPAT039 Wavelet-Based Poisson Solver for Use in Particle-in-Cell Simulations simulation, diagnostics, plasma, electron 2601
  • B. Terzic, C.L. Bohn, D. Mihalcea
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois
  • I.V. Pogorelov
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  Funding: Work of B.T., D.M. and C.L.B. is supported by Air Force contract FA9471-040C-0199. Work of I.V.P. is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy contract DE-AC03-76SF00098.

We report on a successful implementation of a wavelet-based Poisson solver for use in 3D particle-in-cell simulations. One new aspect of our algorithm is its ability to treat the general (inhomogeneous) Dirichlet boundary conditions. The solver harnesses advantages afforded by the wavelet formulation, such as sparsity of operators and data sets, existence of effective preconditioners, and the ability simultaneously to remove numerical noise and further compress relevant data sets. Having tested our method as a stand-alone solver on two model problems, we merged it into IMPACT-T to obtain a fully functional serial PIC code. We present and discuss preliminary results of application of the new code to the modelling of the Fermilab/NICADD and AES/JLab photoinjectors.

Corresponding author: B.T. (bterzic@nicadd.niu.edu)

TPAT051 Asymmetrical Spectrum Observed at the KEKB High Energy Electron Ring electron, ion, luminosity, feedback 3176
  • T. Ieiri, Y. Ohnishi, M. Tobiyama
    KEK, Ibaraki
  KEKB is a multi-bunch, high-current, electron/positron collider for B meson physics. The two beams collide at one interaction point (IP) with a finite horizontal crossing angle. The luminosity achieved at KEKB is the best in the world. In order to keep up the performance, the tune of a non-colliding bunch, placed just after a colliding bunch-train, is continuously monitored. It was observed that an electron bunch showed an asymmetrical distribution biased to a higher tune in the vertical tune-spectrum. We found that the asymmetrical spectrum was reinforced by the beam-beam interaction, though the electron bunch did not collide. The asymmetry was reinforced moreover, as the electron bunch approached a bunch-train further. These observations suggest that the asymmetry in the spectrum is not related to trapped-ions or fast-ions observed in an electron single beam, but related to ions produced by the beam-beam interaction, which makes the particles scattered and they might yield new ions due to the collision with residual gas. We can imagine that the ions are accumulated along a bunch-train and some ions survive after colliding bunches passed through in the electron ring. A quantitative analysis remains for future study.  
TPAT069 Numerical Studies of Electromagnetic Instabilities in Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Energy Anisotropy plasma, focusing, simulation, heavy-ion 3780
  • E. Startsev, R.C. Davidson, W.L. Lee
    PPPL, Princeton, New Jersey
  Funding: Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

In intense charged particle beams with large energy anisotropy, free energy is available to drive transverse electromagnetic Weibel-type instabilities. Such slow-wave transverse electromagnetic instabilities can be described by the so-called Darwin model, which neglects the fast-wave portion of the displacement current. The Weibel instability may also lead to an increase in the longitudinal velocity spread, which would make the focusing of the beam difficult and impose a limit on the minimum spot size achievable in heavy ion fusion experiments. This paper reports the results of recent numerical studies of the Weibel instability using the Beam Eigenmode And Spectra (bEASt) code for space-charge-dominated, low-emittance beams with large tune depression. To study the nonlinear stage of the instability, the Darwin model is being developed and incorporated into the Beam Equilibrium Stability and Transport(BEST) code.

TPAT081 Observation of Electron-Ion Effects at RHIC Transition beam-losses, electron, emittance, octupole 4087
  • J. Wei, M. Bai, M. Blaskiewicz, P. Cameron, R. Connolly, A. Della Penna, W. Fischer, H. Huang, U. Iriso, R.C. Lee, R.J. Michnoff, V. Ptitsyn, T. Roser, T. Satogata, S. Tepikian, L. Wang, S.Y. Zhang
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy.

Electron cloud is found to be a serious obstacle on the upgrade path of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). At twice the design number of bunches, electron-ion interactions cause significant instability, emittance growth, and beam loss along with vacuum pressure rises when the beam is accelerated across the transition.

TOAD003 Development of the Beam Diagnostics System for the J-PARC Rapid-Cycling Synchrotron injection, proton, linac, beam-losses 299
  • N. Hayashi, S.H. Hiroki, J. Kishiro, Y.T. Teruyama, R. Toyokawa
    JAERI/J-PARC, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken
  • D.A. Arakawa, S. Lee, T. Miura, T. Toyama
    KEK, Ibaraki
  Development of the beam diagnostics system for the J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) Rapid-Cycling Synchrotron is described. The system consists of Beam Position Monitor (BPM), Beam Loss Monitor (BLM), Current monitors (DCCT, SCT, MCT, FCT, WCM), Tune meter system, 324MHz-BPM, Profile monitor, and Halo monitor. BPM electrode is electro-static type and its electronics is designed for both COD and turn-by-turn measurements. Five current monitors have different time constants in order to cover wide frequency range. The tune meter is consisted of RFKO and the beam pick-up electrode. For the continuous injected beam monitoring, 324MHz-BPM detects Linac frequency. Two types of profile monitor are multi-wire for low intensity tuning and the residual gas monitor for non-destructive measurement.  
TOAD005 Observation of Frequency Locked Coherent Transition Radiation radiation, electron, plasma, single-bunch 452
  • R.A. Marsh, A.S. Kesar, R.J. Temkin
    MIT/PSFC, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  Funding: This work was supported by the Department of Energy, High Energy Physics, under contract DE-FG02-91ER40648.

Measurements of frequency locked, coherent transition radiation (CTR) were performed at the 17 GHz high-gradient accelerator facility built by Haimson Research Corporation at MIT PSFC. CTR produced from a metallic foil placed in the beam path was extracted through a window, and measured with a variety of detectors, including: diode, Helium cooled Si Bolometer, and double heterodyne receiver system. The angular energy distribution measured by the diode and bolometer are in agreement and consistent with calculations for a 15 MeV 200 mA 110 ns beam of 1 ps bunches. Heterodyne receiver measurements were able to show frequency locking, namely inter-bunch coherence at integer multiples of the accelerator RF frequency of 17.14 GHz. At the locked frequencies the power levels are enhanced by the number of bunches in a single beam pulse. The CTR was measured as a comb of locked frequencies up to 240 GHz, with a bandwidth of 50 MHz.

TPPE001 The HERA Volume H- Source electron, plasma, extraction, emittance 788
  • J. Peters
    DESY, Hamburg
  Funding: The support of EEC (Contract HPRI-CT-2001-50021) is gratefully acknowledged.

The HERA RF-Volume Source is the only source that delivers routinely a H – current of 40 mA without Cs. It has been running for years without interruption for maintenance. The production mechanism for H – ions in this type of source is still under discussion. Laser photodetachment measurements have been done at DESY in order to measure the H – distribution in the source. The measurements were done also under extraction conditions at high voltage. The dependency of the quality of the Hminus beam on the frequency was investigated. A frequency range of 1.65 – 9 Mhz was scanned and the emittance was measured for several Hminus currents up to 40 mA. The results of our investigations make further source improvements possible. Recently currents of 60 mA were reached.

TPPE004 The Production of Negative Lithium Beams by Charge Exchange in Cesium Vapours ion, target, electron, ion-source 898
  • M. Re, F. Chines, G. Cuttone, M. Menna, E. Messina
    INFN/LNS, Catania
  • J.-C. Bilheux, D.W. Stracener
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  These measurements were carried out at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL-HRIBF) by researchers from the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS), Catania, Italy and local staff. The Charge Exchange Cell (CEC) consisted of a vacuum chamber containing cesium vapours at a variable temperature, T, in which positive ions accelerated from an ion source were transformed into negative ones by collisions with the Cs atoms. The main goal of this test was to measure the production efficiency for 7Li- ions at different operating conditions, such as 7Li+ beam energy (5 to 55 keV) and Cs temperature (190 to 300 °C). Moreover, the efficiency measurements performed with a 6Li+ projectile beam gave clear indications about the isotopic shift effect. These results are useful to estimate the charge exchange efficiency for 8, 9Li, which will be the first radioactive beams to be produced at the EXCYT facility (EXotics with CYclotron and Tandem). The data showed that the charge exchange efficiency at the minimum energy suitable for beam handling (20-25 keV) is around 1%.  
TPPE016 ISOL Targets Prepared with a New Paint Infiltration Coating Method target, ion, electron 1508
  • Y. Kawai, G. Alton, J. O. Kiggans, D.W. Stracener
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  Funding: Research at ORNL is supported by the U.S. DOE under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC.

A new infiltration paint coating method has been developed for fabricating ISOL targets for radioactive ion beam applications. The technique has been shown to be inexpensive, fast, and almost universal for the uniform deposition of many refractory target materials onto the interior surfaces of complex geometry matrices, such as Reticulated-Vitreous-Carbon-Foam (RVCF). The process yields robust, highly permeable targets with fast diffusion and release properties. We demonstrate the viability of the technique for coating forms of RVCF compressed by factors of 6 and 10 with materials to form targets for use at high energy facilities such as RIA. The use of compressed RVCF, coated with an optimum thickness of target material, reduces target lengths to practical values, while preserving high permeability. We calculate thermal conductivities and diffusion for various targets on 6xRVCF and 10xRVCF.

TPPE021 Simulation Studies of Diffusion-Release and Effusive-Flow of Short-Lived Radioactive Isotopes target, ion, simulation, ion-source 1739
  • Y. Zhang, G. Alton, Y. Kawai
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  Funding: Research supported by the U.S. DOE under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC.

Delay times associated with diffusion release from targets and effusive-flow transport of radioactive isotopes to ion sources are principal intensity limiters at ISOL-based radioactive ion beam facilities, and simulation studies with computer models are cost effective methods for designing targets and vapor transport systems with minimum delay times to avoid excessive decay losses of short lived ion species. A finite difference code, Diffuse II, was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study diffusion-release of short-lived species from three principal target geometries. Simulation results are in close agreement with analytical solutions to Fick’s second equation. Complementary to the development of Diffuse II, the Monte-Carlo code, Effusion, was developed to address issues related to the design of fast vapor transport systems. Results, derived by using Effusion, are also found to closely agree with experimental measurements. In this presentation, the codes will be used in concert to make realistic estimations of intensities of a number of short-lived isotopes that are candidates for use in future nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics experiments at the HRIBF.

TPPE025 Separating the Penning and Analysing Fields in the ISIS H- Ion Source emittance, ion, ion-source, extraction 1910
  • D.C. Faircloth, R. Sidlow, M. Whitehead, T.W. Wood
    CCLRC/RAL/ISIS, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon
  Funding: This work was supported by the European Union High Performance Negative Ion Source (HP-NIS) network, contract number HPRI-CT-2001-50021.

The development of H- ion sources with performances exceeding those achieved today is a key requirement for the next generation of high power proton accelerators. The Penning surface plasma source development program at ISIS is now well established. To allow different ion source designs to be fully tested, the ability to vary the Penning field is required. Until now the Penning field has been generated by the same magnetic circuit that creates the analyzing field, giving no practical way of altering the Penning field alone. This paper describes the infrastructure changes required to allow the Penning field to be independently varied. The effect the Penning field has on beam current, emittance and discharge stability are discussed.

TPPE029 Measurements of Ion Selective Containment on the RF Charge Breeder Device BRIC ion, electron, extraction, simulation 2065
  • V. Variale, A. Boggia, T. Clauser, A. Rainò, V. Valentino
    INFN-Bari, Bari
  • P.A. Bak, M. A. Batazova, G.I. Kuznetsov, S. Shiyankov, B.A. Skarbo
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk
  • G. Verrone
    Università e Politecnico di Bari, Bari
  Funding: Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare.

The "charge state breeder" BRIC (BReeding Ion Charge) is based on an EBIS source and it is designed to accept Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) with charge +1, in a slow injection mode, to increase their charge state up to +n. BRIC has been developed at the INFN section of Bari (Italy) during these last 3 years with very limited funds. Now, it has been assembled at the LNL (Italy) where are in progress the first tests as stand alone source. The new feature of BRIC, with respect to the classical EBIS, is given by the insertion, in the ion drift chamber, of a Radio Frequency (RF) Quadrupole aiming to filtering the unwanted elements and then making a more efficient containment of the wanted ions. In this contribution, the measurements of the selective effect on the ion charge state containement of the RF quadrupole field, applied on the ion chamber, will be reported and discussed. The ion charge state analisys of the ions trapped in BRIC seem confirm, as foreseen by simulation results carried out previously, that the selective containment can be obtained. A modification of the collector part to improve the ion extraction of BRIC will be also presented and shortly discussed.

TPPE034 Possible Scheme of the Analyzing Part of a Cyclotron Injection Beamline with Higher Energy ion, emittance, focusing, injection 2345
  • Yu. Kazarinov
    JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region
  • J.W. Stetson, P.A. Zavodszky
    NSCL, East Lansing, Michigan
  Funding: This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant PHY-0110253.

The ion beam produced with an ECR ion source (ECRIS) with an extraction voltage of 30 kV may be additionally accelerated using a negative voltage of -30 kV applied to the last electrode of the extraction system, connected to the beamline biased to the same -30 kV potential. In this way the kinetic energy of the beam is increased to 60 keV/q, decreasing to half the space charge effect on the beam emittance. Using a large gap analyzing magnet placed right after the ECRIS and no focusing element, the transmission is still close to 100%. The voltage on the beamline must be kept constant from the ECRIS till the image focal plane of the analyzing magnet where the full separation of the beam charge states is achieved. An insulator break separates the biased beamline from the downstream section, which is at zero potential. Passing through this section of the beamline, the ion beam is decelerated to 30 keV/q, the energy necessary for the injection in the cyclotron. In order to prevent the increase of the beam divergence, a focusing solenoid is installed behind the break point. This work will present the results of a simulation of the transport of an argon beam in the proposed beamline.

TPPE041 Multi-Alkali Photocathode Development at Brookhaven National Lab for Application in Superconducting Photoinjectors laser, cathode, electron, gun 2672
  • A. Burrill, I. Ben-Zvi, D. Pate, T. Rao, Z. Segalov
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • D. Dowell
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  In this paper we will report our progress on the development of cesium potassium antimonide photocathodes and their application in superconducting photoinjectors. Quantum efficiencies of 2-3 % at 545 nm, and 10% at 365 nm have been routinely obtained in the test stand, and electron emission uniformity, quantum efficiency at a variety of wavelengths, and lifetime under different vacuum conditions has been well characterized. The extraction of high charge per laser pulse will also be addressed in addition to the comparison of results from two different deposition techniques.  
TPPE045 Normal-Conducting High Current RF Photoinjector for High Power CW FEL coupling, emittance, rfq, simulation 2866
  • S.S. Kurennoy, D.C. Nguyen, D.L. Schrage, R.L. Wood
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
  • V. Christina, J. Rathke, T. Schultheiss
    AES, Medford, NY
  • L.M. Young
    TechSource, Santa Fe, New Mexico
  An RF photoinjector capable of producing high average current with low emittance and energy spread is a key enabling technology for high power CW FEL. The design of a 2.5-cell, pi-mode, 700-MHz normal-conducting RF photoinjector cavity with magnetic emittance compensation is completed. With average gradients of 7, 7, and 5 MV/m in its three accelerating cells, the photoinjector will produce a 2.5-MeV electron beam with 3-nC charge per bunch and transverse rms emittance below 7 mm-mrad. Electromagnetic modeling has been used extensively to optimize ridge-loaded tapered waveguides and RF couplers, and led to a new, improved coupler iris design. The results, combined with a thermal and stress analysis, show that the challenging problem of cavity cooling can be successfully solved. Fabrication of a demo 100-mA (at 35 MHz bunch repetition rate) photoinjector is underway. The design is scalable to higher average currents by increasing the electron bunch repetition rate, and provides a path to a MW-class FEL. This paper presents the cavity design and details of RF coupler modeling.  
TPPE052 Characteristics of Electron Beam Produced by Magnetron Diode with a Secondary-Emission Cathode cathode, electron, gun, target 3197
  • N.G. Reshetnyak, N. Aizatsky, A. Dovbnya, N.A. Dovbnya, V.V. Mytrochenko, V. Zakutin
    NSC/KIPT, Kharkov
  The beam parameters were investigated using an azimuth-sectionalized 8-channel Faraday cup and a 12-channel computer-aided measuring system. The magnetron diode had a cathode (40 mm in diameter) and a 15 mm anode-cathode gap. At a cathode voltage amplitude of 50 kV and a cathode magnetic field of ~1200 Oe, the diode generates a tubular electron beam with an outer diameter of 50 mm, an inner diameter of 44 mm, a beam current of ~50 A. The short time instability of the total beam current, and of the current from each of eight segments of the Faraday cup was estimated to be ~2 … 3%, and long time instability (3 hours) was 5…7 %. Azimuthal distribution of beam current was investigated versus the amplitude, distribution and direction of the magnetic field. At a cathode magnetic field of 1200 Oe, that falls off inhomogeneity in the vicinity of the Faraday cup down to ~800 Oe, the azimuthal beam current distribution has a ± (3 … 5)%. As the magnetic field strength increases up to ~1700 Oe in the region of beam emergence from the gun and the Faraday cup, the azimuthal inhomogeneity of the beam current increases up to ± (100 … 150)%.  
TPPE063 Improved Electron Yield and Spin-Polarization from III-V Photocathodes Via Bias Enhanced Carrier Drift electron, cathode, polarization, laser 3603
  • G.A. Mulhollan, J.C.B. Bierman
    Saxet, Austin, Texas
  • A. Brachmann, J.E. Clendenin, E.G. Garwin, R.E. Kirby, D.-A.L. Luh, T.V.M. Maruyama
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • R.X.P. Prepost
    UW-Madison/PD, Madison, Wisconsin
  Funding: Work at Saxet Surface Science, SLAC and the University of Wisconson is supported by the following U.S. DOE grants respectively: DE-FG02-04ER86231, DE-AC02-76SF00515 and DE-AC02-76ER00881.

Spin-polarized electrons are commonly used in high energy physics. Future work will benefit from greater polarization. Polarizations approaching 90% have been achieved at the expense of yield. The primary paths to higher polarization are material design and electron transport. Our work addresses the latter. Photoexcited electrons may be preferentially emitted or suppressed by an electric field applied across the active region. We are tuning this forward bias for maximum polarization and yield, together with other parameters, e.g., doping profile Preliminary measurements have been carried out on bulk GaAs. As expected, the yield change far from the bandgap is quite large. The bias is applied to the bottom (non-activated) side of the cathode so that the accelerating potential as measured with respect to the ground potential chamber walls is unchanged for different front-to-back cathode bias values. For a bias which enhances emission, the yield nearly doubles. For a bias which diminishes emission, the yield is approximately one half of the zero bias case. The size of the bias to cause an appreciable effect is rather small reflecting the low drift kinetic energy in the zero bias case.

TPPP007 Recent Progress at KEKB luminosity, feedback, beam-losses, injection 1045
  • Y. Funakoshi, K. Akai, K. Ebihara, K. Egawa, A. Enomoto, J.W. Flanagan, H. Fukuma, K.  Furukawa, T. Furuya, J. Haba, S. Hiramatsu, T. Ieiri, N. Iida, H. Ikeda, T. Kageyama, S. Kamada, T. Kamitani, S. Kato, M. Kikuchi, E. Kikutani, H. Koiso, M. Masuzawa, T. Mimashi, A. Morita, T.T. Nakamura, H. Nakayama, Y. Ogawa, K. Ohmi, Y. Ohnishi, N. Ohuchi, K. Oide, M. Ono, M. Shimada, S. Stanic, M. Suetake, Y. Suetsugu, T. Sugimura, T. Suwada, M. Tawada, M. Tejima, M. Tobiyama, N. Tokuda, S. Uehara, S. Uno, N. Yamamoto, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Yano, K. Yokoyama, M. Yoshida, M. Yoshida, S.I. Yoshimoto
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • F. Zimmermann
    CERN, Geneva
  We summarize the machine operation of KEKB during past one year. Progress for this period, causes of present performance limitations and future prospects are described.  
TPPP018 Progress on the MICE Liquid Absorber Cooling and Cryogenic Distribution System emittance, factory, focusing, scattering 1601
  • M.A. Green
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  • E. Baynham, T.W. Bradshaw, P. Drumm, Y. Ivanyushenkov
    CCLRC/RAL, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon
  • M.A.C. Cummings
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois
  • S. Ishimoto
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • W. Lau, S.Q. Yang
    OXFORDphysics, Oxford, Oxon
  Funding: This work was supported by the Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy under DOE contract number DE-AC03-76SF00098.

This report describes the progress made on the design of the liquid hydrogen absorber for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). The absorber consists of a 21-liter vessel that contains liquid hydrogen (1.5 kg) or liquid helium (2.63 kg). The cryogen vessel is within the warm bore of the superconducting focusing magnet for the MICE. The purpose of the magnet is to provide a low beam beta region within the absorber. For safety reasons, the vacuum vessel for the hydrogen absorber is separated from the vacuum vessel for the superconducting magnet and the vacuum that surrounds the RF cavities or the detector. The absorber has two 300 mm-diameter thin aluminum windows. The vacuum vessel around the absorber has a pair of thin aluminum windows that separate the absorber vacuum space from adjacent vacuum spaces. Because the muon beam in MICE is of low intensity, there is no beam heating in the absorber. As a result, the absorber can be cooled using a single 4 K cooler. This report describes progress on the MICE liquid absorber and its cryogenic cooling system.

TPPP025 Modeling Lost-Particle Accelerator Backgrounds in PEP-II Using LPTURTLE scattering, background, electron, optics 1889
  • H. Fieguth, R.J. Barlow
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • W. Kozanecki
    CEA/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette
  Funding: Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

Background studies during the design, construction, commissioning, operation and improvement of BaBar and PEP-II have been greatly influenced by results from a program referred to as LPTURTLE (Lost Particle TURTLE a modified version of Decay TURTLE) which was originally conceived for the purpose of studying gas background for SLC. This venerable program is still in use today. We describe its use, capabilities and improvements and refer to current results now being applied to BaBar.

TPPP028 Simulation of HOM Leakage in the PEP-II Bellows damping, simulation, coupling, higher-order-mode 2050
  • C.-K. Ng, N.T. Folwell, L. Ge, J. Langton, L. Lee, A. Novokhatski
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: Work supported by U.S. DOE contract, DE-AC02-76SF00515.

An important factor that limits the PEP-II from operating at higher currents is higher-order-mode (HOM) heating of the bellows. One source of HOM heating is the formation of trapped modes at the bellows as a result of geometry variation in the vacuum chamber, for example, the masking near the central vertex chamber. Another source comes from HOMs generated upstream that leak through the gaps between the bellows fingers. Modeling the fine details of the bellows and the surrounding geometry requires the resolution and accuracy only possible with a large number of mesh points on an unstructured grid. We use the parallel finite element eigensolver Omega3P for trapped mode calculations, and the S-matrix solver S3P for transmission analysis. The damping of the HOMs by the use of absorbers inside the bellows will be investigated.

TPPP030 Damping Higher Order Modes in the PEP-II B-Factory Vertex Bellows damping, positron, higher-order-mode, impedance 2131
  • S.P. Weathersby, J. Langton, A. Novokhatski, J. Seeman
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract number DE-AC03-76SF00515.

Higher stored currents and shorter bunch lengths are requirements for increasing luminosity in colliding storage rings. As a result, more HOM power is generated in the IP region. This HOM power propagates to sensitive components causing undesirable heating, thus becoming a limiting issue for the PEP-II B-factory. HOM field penetration through RF shielding fingers has been shown to cause heating in bellows structures. To overcome these limitations, a proposal to incorporate ceramic absorbers within the bellows cavity to damp these modes is presented. Results show that the majority of modes of interest are damped, the effectiveness depending on geometrical considerations. An optimal configuration is presented for the PEP-II B-factory IR bellows component utilizing commercial grade ceramics with consideration for heat transfer requirements.

TPPP053 Thin RF Windows for High-Pressure Gas-Filled Cavities beam-cooling, collider, linac, scattering 3224
  • M. Alsharo'a, R.P. Johnson
    Muons, Inc, Batavia
  • M. Gosz, D.M. Kaplan, S. Nair
    Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois
  • A. Moretti, G. Romanov
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: This work was supported in part by DOE STTR grant DE-FG02-02ER86145.

RF cavities for muon ionization cooling channels can have RF windows over their ends to create better internal voltage profiles and to make them independent of each other. To be effective, the conducting window material must be sufficiently transparent to the muons to not affect the beam cooling, which means low mass and low Z. In the case of pressurized RF cavities, as to opposed to those that operate in vacuum, the RF window design is simplified because the heat deposited in the windows from the RF and the beam is carried off by the hydrogen gas. In this report we analyze the thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties of a simple beryllium grid structure to improve the performance of pressurized RF cavities that are to be used for muon beam cooling.

TPPP054 Studies of RF Breakdown of Metals in Dense Gases resonance, collider, klystron, hadron 3259
  • P.M. Hanlet, M. Alsharo'a, R.P. Johnson, M. Kuchnir, K. Paul
    Muons, Inc, Batavia
  • C.M. Ankenbrandt, A. Moretti, M. Popovic, V. Yarba
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  • D.M. Kaplan, K. Yonehara
    Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois
  Funding: This work was supported in part by DOE STTR grant DE-FG02-02ER86145.

A study of RF breakdown of metals in gases has begun as part of a program to develop RF cavities filled with dense hydrogen gas to be used for muon ionization cooling. A pressurized 800 MHz test cell has been used at Fermilab to compare the conditioning and breakdown behavior of copper, molybdenum, chromium, and beryllium electrodes as functions of hydrogen and helium gas density. These results are compared to the predicted or known RF breakdown behavior of these metals in vacuum.

TPPT005 Dual Harmonic Operation with Broadband MA Cavities in J-PARC RCS impedance, acceleration, linac, injection 931
  • M. Yamamoto, M. Nomura, A. Schnase, F. Tamura
    JAERI/J-PARC, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken
  • S. Anami, E. Ezura, K. Hara, Y. Hashimoto, C. Ohmori, A. Takagi, M. Yoshii
    KEK, Ibaraki
  In the J-PARC RCS RF system, the fundamental rf acceleration voltage and the 2nd higher harmonic one are applied to each cavity. This is possible, because the magnetic alloy loaded cavities have a broadband characteristic and require no resonant frequency tuning. The tube amplifier provides both rf components. We calculate the operation of the tube under the condition of the dual harmonic, the non-pure resistive load and the class AB push-pull mode.  
TPPT006 Development of RF Input Coupler with a Coaxial Line TiN-Coated Against Multipactoring simulation, electron, coupling, linac 1006
  • T. Abe, T. Kageyama, H. Sakai, Y. Takeuchi
    KEK, Ibaraki
  In one of the normal-conducting RF cavities used in the KEKB operation, we observed an unexpected rise of the vacuum pressure at certain input-power levels with and without a beam current. From the simulation study, we identify the pressure rises as an effect of the multipactoring discharge in the coaxial line of the input coupler. According to the simulation results, we have decided to make TiN coating on the inner surface of the outer conductor to suppress the multipactoring. In this paper, the status of the development of the TiN-coated input coupler is reported including the recent results of the high-power tests.  
TPPT009 High Gradient Study at KEK on X-Band Accelerator Structure for Linear Collider linear-collider, collider, linac, cathode 1162
  • T. Higo, M. Akemoto, A. Enomoto, S. Fukuda, H. Hayano, N.K. Kudo, S.M. Matsumoto, T. Saeki, N. Terunuma, N. Toge, K.W. Watanabe
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • T.S. Suehara
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo
  We have fabricated accelerator structures for linear collider of the warm X-band design. These were composed of high-precision-machined parts for reliable wake-field suppression and possible cheap mass production. The structure design is mostly based on GLC/NLC design in collaboration with SLAC but the fabrication and the high-power test are being performed at KEK to conclude the feasibility, though the application to the present linear collider project was terminated. In this paper are presented the high gradient performance of these structures, such as the initial conditioning characteristics, the stability under high-field operation and various characteristics at high-gradient operation. We conclude that the stability requirement for the linear collider of the warm X-band design is barely satisfied but the preservation of the stability over very long period of more than several years is to be further studied.  
TPPT012 High Power Testing of Input Couplers for SuperKEKB coupling, electron, monitoring, positron 1294
  • H. Sakai, T. Abe, T. Kageyama, Y. Takeuchi
    KEK, Ibaraki
  In KEKB, 32 ARES cavities have been successfully operated to stably accelerate high-current electron and positron beams. Currently, each ARES cavity is fed with RF power (frequency = 509 MHz) of about 300 kW through an input coupler, which has a ceramic disk window at the coaxial line section following the doorknob transformer section with a capacitive iris at the rectangular waveguide entrance. For SuperKEKB, which is a challenging project to boost the luminosity frontier beyond 1035 cm-2 s-1, the power capability of the input coupler needs to be upgraded to more than 900 kW, while the design power capability for KEKB is 400 kW. Recently, we have constructed a new test stand in order to simulate the actual operating condition for the input coupler to drive the ARES cavity with the maximum beam loading of 9.4 A expected for the SuperKEKB LER. In this article, the key features of the new test stand are described together with the recent results of high-power tests.  
TPPT017 Fabrication and Test of the Drift Tubes for PEFP 20 MeV DTL electron, alignment, proton, site 1552
  • Y.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Cho, H.-J. Kwon, M.-Y. Park
    KAERI, Daejon
  Funding: This work is supported by the 21C Frontier R&D program in the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Korean government.

Drift tubes of PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) 20MeV DTL contain electro-quadrupole magnet composed of commercial enamel wire cooled with water coolant. Those were fabricated through the process of brazing, assembling, electron-beam welding, and post-machining. During the e-beam welding, temperature increase was kept under 50 degree to protect the EQM wire from thermal damage. We performed several tests such as vacuum leak test, hydraulic test, and electrical test. EQM properties such as effective length, magnetic saturation, and offset between magnetic center and geometric center of DT were measured and recorded also.

TPPT020 30 GHz Power Production in CTF3 linac, beam-losses, dipole, beam-loading 1695
  • W. Wuensch, C. Achard, H.-H. Braun, G. Carron, R. Corsini, A. Grudiev, S.T. Heikkinen, D. Schulte, J.P.H. Sladen, I. Syratchev, F. Tecker, I. Wilson
    CERN, Geneva
  One of the major objectives of CTF3 (CLIC Test Facility) is the production of 30 GHz power for the high-gradient testing of CLIC accelerating structures. To this end a dedicated beam line, power generating structure and power transfer line have been designed, installed and commissioned. 52 MW of 30 GHz power with a pulse length of 74 ns and a repetition rate of 16 Hz were delivered to the high-gradient test area. This will allow operation of test accelerating structures in the coming run of CTF3 up to the nominal CLIC accelerating gradient of 150 MV/m and beyond the nominal pulse length. The system is described and the performances of the CTF3 linac, beam line and the rf components are reviewed.  
TPPT025 Breakdown in RF Cavities lattice, site, ion, target 1886
  • J. Norem, A. Hassanein, Z. Insepov, I. Konkashbaev
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: DOE

We present a simple model of breakdown in rf cavities. For most events this involves tensile stress and tensile strength, however other effects can also contribute. We discuss the effects of different materials, fatigue, high pressure gas, primary and secondary emission sites, local field enhancements, dark currents, secondary emission, work functions, magnetic fields, macro and microscopic fracture mechanisms high current densities, surface and subsurface defects, and astronomical power densities. While primarily devoted to normal conductors, this work also has consequences for superconducting rf surfaces.

TPPT029 Fabrication of the Prototype 201.25 MHz Cavity for a Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment factory, collider, electron, instrumentation 2080
  • R.A. Rimmer, S. Manning, R. Manus, H.L. Phillips, M. Stirbet, K. Worland, G. Wu
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  • R.A. Hafley, R.E. Martin, K.M. Taminger
    NASA Langley, Hampton, Virginia
  • D. Li, R.A. MacGill, J.W.  Staples, S.P. Virostek, M.S. Zisman
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  • M. Reep, D.J. Summers
    UMiss, University, Mississippi
  Funding: This manuscript has been authored by SURA, Inc. under DoE Contract No. DE-AC05-84ER-40150, LBNL contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098 and NASA contract IA1-533 subagreement #2

We describe the fabrication and assembly of the first prototype 201.25 MHz copper cavity for the muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE). This cavity was developed by the US MUCOOL collaboration and will be tested in the new Muon Test Area at Fermilab. We outline the component and subassembly fabrication steps and the various metal forming and joining methods used to produce the final cavity shape. These include spinning, brazing, TIG welding, electron beam welding, electron beam annealing and deep drawing. Assembly of the loop power coupler will also be described. Final acceptance test results are included. Some of the methods developed for this cavity are novel and offer significant cost savings compared to conventional construction methods.

TPPT030 RF, Thermal and Structural Analysis of the 201.25 MHz Muon Ionization Cooling Cavity factory, collider, impedance 2119
  • S.P. Virostek, D. Li
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  Funding: This work was supported by the Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy under DOE contract number DE-AC03-76SF00098.

A finite element analysis has been carried out to characterize the RF, thermal and structural behavior of the prototype 201.25 MHz cavity for a muon ionization cooling channel. A single ANSYS model has been developed to perform all of the calculations in a multi-step process. The high-gradient closed-cell cavity is being designed and fabricated for the MUCOOL and MICE (international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment) experiments. The 1200 mm diameter cavity is constructed of 6 mm thick copper sheet and incorporates a rounded pillbox-like profile with an open beam iris terminated by 420 mm diameter, 0.38 mm thick curved beryllium foils. Tuning is accomplished through elastic deformation of the cavity, and cooling is provided by external water passages. Details of the analysis methodology will be presented including a description of the ANSYS macro that computes the heat loads from the RF solution and applies them directly to the thermal model. The process and results of a calculation to determine the resulting frequency shift due to thermal and structural distortion of the cavity will be presented as well.

TPPT036 Higher-Order-Mode Damper Testing and Installation in the Advanced Photon Source 352-MHz Single-Cell RF Cavities storage-ring, simulation, photon, insertion 2443
  • G.J. Waldschmidt, N.P. Di Monte, D. Horan, L.H. Morrison, G. Pile
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: Work supported by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38.

Higher-order-mode dampers were recently installed in the storage ring rf cavities at the Advanced Photon Source to eliminate longitudinal coupled-bunch instability. It was discovered that the 540-MHz cavity dipole mode created beam instability at beam currents in excess of 85 mA causing horizontal emittance blowup. Methods of compensating for the instability by detuning the cavities and adjusting the cavity water temperature were becoming more difficult at higher beam currents as tests were performed to prepare for eventual 300-mA beam current operation. Electric field passive dampers located on the median plane of each cavity were determined to be the most promising solution. Simulation models were created and verified with low-power testing of the dampers. High-power testing of the dampers as well as conditioning of the damper ceramic load were also performed at the APS 352-MHz rf test stand and compared with simulation results. Preliminary test results will be discussed.

TPPT040 X-Band Dipole Mode Deflecting Cavity for the UCLA Neptune Beamline diagnostics, resonance, dipole, simulation 2627
  • R.J. England, B. O'Shea, J.B. Rosenzweig, G. Travish
    UCLA, Los Angeles, California
  • D. Alesini
    INFN/LNF, Frascati (Roma)
  Funding: This work was funded by the Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG03-92ER40693.

We report progress on the design and construction of a nine-cell dipole (TM 110 mode) cavity for use as a temporal diagnostic of the 14 MeV 300 pC electron bunches generated at the UCLA Neptune Laboratory linear accelerator, with an anticipated temporal resolution of 150 fs at a peak input power of 50 kW. The cavity is a center-fed standing-wave pi-mode structure, operating at 9.6 GHz, and incorporating a knife-edge and gasket assembly which minimizes the need for brazing or welding. Results of initial RF tests are discussed and compared with simulation results obtained using the commercial code HFSS.

TPPT041 RF Tuning and Fabrication Status of the First Module for J-PARC ACS coupling, linac, pick-up, factory 2684
  • H. Ao, T. Morishita, A. Ueno
    JAERI/LINAC, Ibaraki-ken
  • K. Hasegawa
    JAERI, Ibaraki-ken
  • M. Ikegami
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • V.V. Paramonov
    RAS/INR, Moscow
  • Y. Yamazaki
    JAERI/J-PARC, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken
  J-PARC Linac starts with 180-MeV SDTL temporary, and it is upgraded to 400-MeV with 21 ACS (Annular Coupled Structure) modules and two ACS bunchers and two debunchers. First buncher module is under fabrication, and second buncher and a few accelerating modules are also planed until FY2006. The first ACS module consists of two 5-cells ACS tanks and a 5-cells bridge cavity for the buncher module. Three RF tuners are installed to the bridge cavity for fine RF tuning. An operating frequency should be tuned to 972 MHz within the fine-tuning range before a brazing process in a factory. The tuning procedure has been studied with RF simulation analysis and cold-model measurements for ACS and bridge cells. This paper describes RF tuning results, fabrication status and related development items.  
TPPT051 High Power Coupler for the TESLA Superstructure Cavities electron, insertion, coupling, SNS 3141
  • Q.S. Shu, G. Cheng, J. T. Susta
    AMAC, Newport News, Virginia
  • S.J. Einarson
    CPI/BMD, Beverley, Massachusetts
  • T. Garvey
    LAL, Orsay
  • W.-D. Müller, D. Proch
    DESY, Hamburg
  • T.A. Treado
    CPI, Beverley, Massachusetts
  Funding: U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-00ER86102.

More and more accelerators are built with superconducting cavities operating at cryogenic temperatures, and the probability of a ceramic window failure presents increasing problems because of the resulting contamination of the cavities surfaces and the resulting accelerating electric field degradation. A cost effective design and fabrication method for the TESLA cavities has been developed in the framework of a DOE STTR grant. This new design replaces the present TESLA cylindrical ceramic windows with two planar disc windows separated by a vacuum space and is optimized for RF input power, vacuum characteristics, and thermal properties. This novel coupler will reduce the costs of fabrication and improve the RF performance of the coupler, the vacuum between the two windows, and the cleaning procedure. Two couplers with this design have been fabricated and are presently being conditioned for testing at DESY, Germany, and LAL, France, on the RF high power testing stand and on a test cryomodule.

TPPT053 Low-Beta SC Quarter-Wave Resonator and Cryomodule for SPIRAL 2 linac, alignment, simulation, injection 3238
  • S. Chel, P.-E. Bernaudin, P. Bosland, G. Devanz, P. Hardy, F. Michel, A. Mosnier
    CEA/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette
  In the framework of the SPIRAL 2 project to be built in GANIL, we studied a complete cryomodule for the low beta (0.07) superconducting linac. The 88 MHz quarter wave resonators were optimised for RF, mechanical and thermal considerations. A prototype resonator, which differs from the final resonator by the Helium tank and the removable end-plate geometry and material, has been built. We present the equipments developped for the preparation of this prototype as well as the results of the RF tests. We also detail the mechanical calculation and measurements of the tuning system, and the main aspects of the cryomodule designed to save longitudinal space.  
TPPT054 CW Operation of the TTF-III Input Coupler klystron, linac, simulation, beam-loading 3292
  • J. Knobloch, W. Anders, M. Martin
    BESSY GmbH, Berlin
  • S. Bauer, M. Pekeler
    ACCEL, Bergisch Gladbach
  • S.A. Belomestnykh
    Cornell University, Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Ithaca, New York
  • A. Buechner, H. Buettig, F.G. Gabriel
    FZR, Dresden
  • D. Kostin, W.-D. Müller
    DESY, Hamburg
  Many newly proposed light sources, operating in the CW regime, are based on superconducting TESLA technology. Since this was originally developed for pulsed, 1-% duty-factor operation, it is important to determine the limitations of the TESLA cryomodule and its components when operated CW. Among the critical components is the RF input coupler. Two tests have been performed to determine the average power limit of the TTF-III system. First, room temperature tests up to 4 kW were performed at the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf. These permitted the calibration of computer codes developed to calculate the temperature distribution in the coupler. The programs then were used to make predictions for the (normal) cold operation of the coupler. At BESSY, the coupler test stand was assembled inside the HoBiCaT horizontal cryostat test facility to operate the coupler in an environment close to that of a real accelerator. The results of the two tests are presented here.  
TPPT061 Prototyping of a 352 MHz, beta=0.17 Superconducting Coaxial Half Wave Resonator linac, proton, ion, heavy-ion 3547
  • A. Facco, F. Scarpa, D. Zenere
    INFN/LNL, Legnaro, Padova
  • V. Zviagintsev
    TRIUMF, Vancouver
  We have designed a 352 MHz superconducting coaxial half wave resonator with beta=0.17. The cavity has a mechanical design similar to the LNL beta=0.31 one developed in 2004. It is very compact (232 mm real-estate length) and it is equipped with a side tuner not exposed to liquid helium, to make it insensitive to pressure fluctuations. Operation is foreseen at 4.2 K. The beta=0.17 cavity fills the gap from 5 to ~25 MeV between the LNL proton RFQ, under construction, and and the existing beta=0.31 half wave resonator. This allows a 5¸100 MeV proton linac working at 352 MHz with 2 types of coaxial HWR cavities with large velocity acceptance, thus able to accelerate also other ion species (e.g. deuterons). A similar scheme was previously proposed for Spoke resonators; the aim of the HWR choice is compactness and cost reduction. The beta=0.17 cavity is presently under construction in the SPES R&D program at LNL; first test results are expected by the end of 2005.  
TPPT067 High Power Coupler Studies for the ERLP coupling, linac, simulation, booster 3736
  • J.H.P. Rogers, C.D. Beard, P.A. Corlett
    CCLRC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire
  Funding: ASTeC, CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory.

Two Superconducting RF modules of the ELBE type have been ordered from Accel Instruments GmbH for use on the Energy Recovery Linac Prototype (ERLP) being built at Daresbury Laboratory. One structure is to be used as a booster module, with an energy gain of 8 MeV, and the other is to act as an energy recovery linac operating at electron beam energy of up to 35 MeV. High power couplers capable of handling up to 10 kW CW are required to provide successful operation of the ERLP. Once received from Accel four couplers including RF windows will be conditioned and tested at FZR Dresden; this paper describes the test procedure anticipated.

TPPT069 Design Considerations for the Mechanical Tuner of the RHIC Electron Cooler SRF Cavity controls, damping, resonance, cryogenics 3786
  • J. Rank, I. Ben-Zvi, M. Blaskiewicz, H. Hahn, G.T. McIntyre
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work is supported by the DOD Joint Technology Office and by the U.S. Department of Energy.

The ECX Project, Brookhaven Lab's predecessor to the RHIC e-Cooler, includes a prototype RF tuner mechanism capable of both coarse and fine tuning of the superconducting RF cavity. This tuner is adapted originally from a DESY design concept but with a longer stroke and significantly higher loads due to our very stiff cavity shape. Structural design, kinematics, controls, thermal and RF issues are discussed and certain improvements are proposed.

TPPT070 Development of the Superconducting 3.9 GHz Accelerating Cavity at Fermilab higher-order-mode, simulation, damping, resonance 3825
  • N. Solyak, T.T. Arkan, P. Bauer, L. Bellantoni, C. Boffo, E. Borissov, H. Carter, H. Edwards, M. Foley, I.G. Gonin, T.K. Khabiboulline, S.C. Mishra, D.V. Mitchell, V. Poloubotko, A.M. Rowe, I. Terechkine
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: U.S. Department of Energy.

A superconducting third harmonic accelerating cavity (3.9 GHz) was proposed to improve beam quality in the TTF-like photoinjector. Fermilab has developed, built and tested several prototypes, including two copper 9-cell cavities, and niobium 3-cell and 9-cell cavities. The helium vessel and frequency tuner for the 9-cell cavity was built and tested as well. In cold tests, we achieved a peak surface magnetic field of ~120mT, well above the 70mT specification. The accelerating gradient was limited by thermal breakdown. Studies of the higher order modes in the cavity revealed that the existing cavity design with two HOM couplers will provide sufficient damping of these modes. In this paper we discuss the cavity design, results of the studies and plans for further development.

TPPT072 Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields on the Performance of a Superconducting Cavity feedback, electron, superconductivity, coupling 3874
  • G. Ciovati, P. Kneisel
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  • J.S. Sekutowicz, W. Singer
    DESY, Hamburg
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. DOE Contract No DE-AC05-84ER40150.

A special two-cell cavity was designed to obtain surface field distributions suitable for investigation of electric and magnetic field effects on cavity performance. The cavity design and preliminary results were presented in a previous contribution. The bulk niobium cavity was heat-treated in a vacuum furnace at 1250C to improve the thermal conductivity. Three seamless hydroformed NbCu cavities of the same design were fabricated to investigate the role of the electron beam welds located in high field areas.

TPPT073 Testing of the New Tuner Design for the CEBAF 12 GeV Upgrade SRF Cavities SNS, radiation, coupling, higher-order-mode 3910
  • E. Daly, G.K. Davis, W.R. Hicks
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Funding: This manuscript has been authorized by SURA, Inc. under Contract No. DE-AC05-84ER-40150 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

The new tuner design for the 12 GeV Upgrade SRF cavities consists of a coarse mechanical tuner and a fine piezoelectric tuner. The mechanism provides a 30:1 mechanical advantage, is pre-loaded at room temperature and tunes the cavities in tension only. All of the components are located in the insulating vacuum space and attached to the helium vessel, including the motor, harmonic drive and piezoelectric actuators. The requirements and detailed design are presented. Measurements of range and resolution of the coarse tuner are presented and discussed.

TPPT075 Influence of Ta Content in High Purity Niobium on Cavity Performance coupling, electron, linac, SNS 3955
  • P. Kneisel, G. Ciovati, G. Myneni
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  • T. Carneiro
    Reference Metals, Bridgeville, Pennsylvania
  • D. Proch, W. Singer, X. Singer
    DESY, Hamburg
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. DOE Contract No DE-AC05-84ER40150.

In a previous paper* we have reported about initial tests of single cell 1500 MHz cavities made from high purity niobium with three different Ta contents of 160 ppm, ~600 ppm and ~1400 ppm. These cavities had been treated by buffered chemical polishing several times and 100 mm, 200 mm and 300 mm of material had been removed from the surfaces. This contribution reports about subsequent tests following post purification heat treatments with Ti and “in situ” baking. As a result, all cavities exhibited increased quench fields due to the improved thermal conductivity after the heat treatment. After the "in situ" baking at 120C for ~40 hrs the always present Q-drop at high fields disappeared and further improvements in accelerating gradient could be realized. Gradients as high as Eacc = 35 MV/m were achieved and there were no clear indications that the cavity performance was influenced by the Ta content in the material. A multi-cell cavity from the high Ta content material is being fabricated and results will be presented at this conference.

*P. Kneisel et al., Linac 2004.

TPPT076 Preliminary Results from Single Crystal and Very Large Crystal Niobium Cavities electron, superconductivity, coupling, SNS 3991
  • P. Kneisel, G. Ciovati, G. Myneni
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  • T. Carneiro
    Reference Metals, Bridgeville, Pennsylvania
  • J.S. Sekutowicz
    DESY, Hamburg
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. DOE Contract No DE-AC05-84ER40150.

We have fabricated and tested several single cell cavities using material from very large grain niobium ingots. In one case the central grain exceeded 7" in diameter and this was used for a 2 GHz cavity. This activity had a dual purpose: to investigate the influence of grain boundaries on the often observed Q-drop at gradients Eacc > 20 MV/m in the absence of field emission, and to study the possibility of using ingot material for cavity fabrication without going through the expensive process of sheet fabrication. The sheets for these cavities were cut from the ingot by wire electro-discharge machining (EDM) and subsequently formed into half–cells by deep drawing. The following fabrication steps were standard: machining of weld recesses, electron beam welding of beam pipes onto the half cells and final equator weld to join both half cell/beam pipe subunits.The cavities showed heavy Q–disease caused by the EDM; after hydrogen degassing at 800C for 3 hrs in UHV the cavities showed promising results, however, a Q-drop above Eacc ~ 20 MV/m was still present. Testing of the cavities is still ongoing – so far accelerating gradients of 30 MV/m have been achieved.

TPPT077 Testing of HOM Coupler Designs on a Single Cell Niobium Cavity coupling, pick-up, superconductivity, SNS 4012
  • P. Kneisel, G. Ciovati, G. Myneni, G. Wu
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  • J.S. Sekutowicz
    DESY, Hamburg
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. DOE Contract No DE-AC05-84ER40150.

Coaxial higher order mode (HOM) couplers were developed initially for PETRA cavitiesand subsequently for TESLA cavities. They were adopted later for SNS and Jlab upgrade cavities. The principle of operation is the rejection of the fundamental mode by the tunable filter configuration of the coupler and the transmission of the HOMs. It has been recognized recently that, in high average power applications, the pick-up probe of the HOM coupler must be superconducting in order to avoid substantial heat dissipation by the fundamental mode fields and deterioration of the cavity Q. In addition, the thermal conduction of existing rf feedthrough designs is only marginally sufficient to keep even the niobium probe tip superconducting in cw operation. We have equipped a single-cell niobium cavity with different HOM coupler configurations and tested the different designs by measuring Q vs Eacc behavior at 2 K for different feedthroughs and probe tipmaterials

TPPT083 RF Conditioning and Testing of Fundamental Power Couplers for SNS Superconducting Cavity Production SNS, klystron, Spallation-Neutron-Source, instrumentation 4132
  • M. Stirbet, G.K. Davis, M. A. Drury, C. Grenoble, J. Henry, G. Myneni, T. Powers, K. Wilson, M. Wiseman
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  • I.E. Campisi, Y.W. Kang, D. Stout
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  Funding: This work was supported by U.S. DOE contract DE-AC0500R22725.

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) makes use of 33 medium beta (0.61) and 48 high beta (0.81) superconducting cavities. Each cavity is equipped with a fundamental power coupler, which should withstand the full klystron power of 550 kW in full reflection for the duration of an RF pulse of 1.3 msec at 60 Hz repetition rate. Before assembly to a superconducting cavity, the vacuum components of the coupler are submitted to acceptance procedures consisting of preliminary quality assessments, cleaning and clean room assembly, vacuum leak checks and baking under vacuum, followed by conditioning and RF high power testing. Similar acceptance procedures (except clean room assembly and baking) were applied for the airside components of the coupler. All 81 fundamental power couplers for SNS superconducting cavity production have been RF power tested at JLAB Newport News and, beginning in April 2004 at SNS Oak Ridge. This paper gives details of coupler processing and RF high power-assessed performances.

TPPT084 Surface Study of Nb/Cu Films for Cavity Deposition by ECR Plasma ion, electron, superconductivity, plasma 4153
  • A.T. Wu, R.C. Ike, H.L. Phillips, A-M. Valente, H. Wang, G. Wu
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Funding: This manuscript has been authorized by SURA, Inc. under Contract No. DE-AC05-84ER-40150 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

Deposition of thin niobium (Nb) films on copper (Cu) cavities, using an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma appears to be an attractive alternative technique for fabricating superconducting radio frequency cavities to be used in particle accelerators. The performance of these Nb/Cu cavities is expected to depend on the surface characteristics of the Nb films. In this paper, we report on an investigation of the influence of deposition energy on surface morphology, microstructure, and chemical composition of Nb films deposited on small Cu disks employing a metallographic optical microscope, a 3-D profilometer, a scanning electron microscope, and a dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometer. The results will be compared with those obtained on Nb surfaces treated by buffered chemical polishing, electropolishing, and buffered electropolishing. Possible implications from this study for Nb deposition on real Cu cavities will be discussed.

TPPT085 Niobium Thin Film Coating on a 500-MHz Copper Cavity by Plasma Deposition plasma, superconductivity, power-supply, ion 4167
  • H. Wang, H.L. Phillips, R.A. Rimmer, A-M. Valente, A.T. Wu, G. Wu
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Funding: This work was supported by DOE contract DE-AC05-84ER40150 Modification No. M175, under which the Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA) operates the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

A system for the deposition, using an ECR plasma source, of a thin film of niobium inside a copper cavity for superconducting accelerator applications has been designed and is being constructed. The system uses a 500-MHz copper cavity as the substrate and the vacuum chamber. The ECR plasma will be created to produce direct niobium ion deposition. The central cylindrical grid is biased to realize the energy controlled deposition. This report describes the design of several subcomponents including the vacuum chamber, RF supply, biasing grid and magnet coils. Operational parameters are compared between a working small-sample deposition system and this system. Initial plasma simulation also suggested that plasma ignition in this cavity system is feasible.

TPPT088 Power Dependence of the RF Surface Resistance of MgB2 Superconductor laser, superconductivity, target, superconducting-RF 4215
  • T. Tajima, A. Findikoglu, A.J. Jason, F.L. Krawczyk, F. M. Mueller, A. H. Shapiro
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
  • R.L. Geng, H. Padamsee, A.S. Romanenko
    Cornell University, Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Ithaca, New York
  • B. Moeckly
    STI, Santa Barbara, California
  MgB2 is a superconducting material that has a transition temperature (Tc) of ~40 K. Recently, it has been shown at 4 K, liquid helium temperature, that the surface RF resistance can be lower than Nb that has the Tc of 9.2 K and has been used for most superconducting RF cavities in the past decades. One of the problems with other high-Tc materials such as YBCO was its rapid increase in RF surface resistance with higher surface magnetic fields. Recently, we have shown that MgB2 shows little increase up to about 120 Oe, equivalent of an accelerating field of about 3 MV/m. The highest field tested was limited by available power. This result is encouraging and has made us consider fabricating a cavity coated with MgB2 and test it. Also, there might be a potential that this material has a higher critical magnetic field that enables the cavity to run at a higher gradient than Nb cavities.  
TPPT089 Commissioning and Operations Results of the Industry-Produced CESR-Type SRF Cryomodules storage-ring, superconducting-RF, synchrotron, klystron 4233
  • S.A. Belomestnykh, R.P.K. Kaplan, H. Padamsee, P. Quigley, J.J.R. Reilly, J. Sears, V. Veshcherevich
    Cornell University, Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Ithaca, New York
  • S. Bauer, M. Pekeler, H. Vogel
    ACCEL, Bergisch Gladbach
  • L.-H. Chang, C.-T. Chen, F.-Z. Hsiao, M.-C. Lin, G.-H. Luo, C. Wang, T.-T. Yang, M.-S. Yeh
    NSRRC, Hsinchu
  • E. Matias, J. Stampe, M.S. de Jong
    CLS, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
  Funding: Work is partially supported by the National Science Foundation.

Upon signing a technology transfer agreement with Cornell University, ACCEL began producing turn-key 500 MHz superconducting cavity systems. Four such cryomodules have been delivered, commissioned and installed in accelerators for operation to date. Two more cryomodules are scheduled for testing in early 2005. One of them will be put in operation at Canadian Light Source (CLS); the other will serve as a spare at Taiwan Light Source (TLS). The commissioning results and operational experience with the cryomodules in CESR, CLS and TLS are presented.

TPPT090 Progress of 2-Cell Cavity Fabrication for Cornell ERL Injector emittance, linac, coupling, superconductivity 4248
  • R.L. Geng, P. Barnes, M. Liepe, V. Medjidzade, H. Padamsee, A.K. Seaman, J. Sears, V.D. Shemelin, N. Sherwood
    Cornell University, Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Ithaca, New York
  Five 1300 MHz superconducting niobium cavities are to be used for the injector of Cornell ERL. The beam power requirement (100 kW each cavity) and the need to minimize emittance dilution due to the cavity structure have important impacts to the design and fabrication of these cavities. We plan to use Conflat stainless-steel flanges brazed to niobium tubes of niobium cavities. The first copper prototy cavity has been built and measured. Most parts for the first niobium cavity have been manufactured also. In this report, we will present the progress of the prototyping copper as well as niobium cavities.  
TPPT096 Cryomodule Design for a Superconducting Linac with Quarter-Wave, Half-Wave, and Focusing Elements quadrupole, alignment, linac, focusing 4317
  • M. J. Johnson, J. Bierwagen, S. Bricker, C. Compton, P. Glennon, T.L. Grimm, W. Hartung, D. Harvell, A. Moblo, J. Popielarski, L. Saxton, R.C. York, A. Zeller
    NSCL, East Lansing, Michigan
  The low-energy section of the driver linac for the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) incorporates the following superconducting elements: quarter-wave resonators, half-wave resonators, and 9 T solenoids. A prototype cryomodule has been designed to house all of these elements. A 31 T/m superferric quadrupole is also included as an alternative focusing element, since its stray magnetic field is more easily shielded. The cryomodule design is based on the RIA v/c=0.47 prototype cryomodule that was successfully tested in 2004.* The design uses a titanium rail structure to support the beam line elements. The beam line assembly is done in a class 100 clean room to maintain resonator cleanliness for optimal high-field performance. The cavities will be equipped with RF input couplers, tuners, and magnetic shields. High Tc current leads are used for both magnets. The cryomodule design takes into account static heat leak requirements and alignment tolerances for the beam line elements. A heat exchanger and J-T throttle valve will be used to provide a continuous supply of liquid helium for 2 K operation.

*T.L. Grimm et al., "Experimental Study of an 805 MHz Cryomodule for the Rare Isotope Accelerator", in Proceedings of the XXII International Linear Accelerator Conference, Lubeck, Germany (2004).

TPPT099 Prototype Superconducting Triple-Spoke Cavity for Beta = 0.63 linac, superconductivity, coupling, electron 4338
  • K.W. Shepard, Z.A. Conway, J.D. Fuerst, M. Kedzie, M.P. Kelly
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract no. W-31109ENG_38.

This paper reports the development status of a 345 MHz, three-spoke-loaded, TEM-class superconducting cavity with a transit-time factor peaked at beta = v/c = 0.62. The cavity has a 4 cm diameter beam aperture, a transverse diameter of 45.8 cm, and an effective (interior) length of 85 cm. The cavity is the second of two three-spoke loaded cavities being developed for the RIA driver linac and other high-intensity ion linac applications. Construction of a prototype niobium cavity has been completed and the cavity has been chemically processed. Results of initial cold tests will be discussed

TPPT100 Superconducting Triple-Spoke Cavity for Beta = 0.5 Ions linac, coupling, ion, superconductivity 4344
  • K.W. Shepard, Z.A. Conway, J.D. Fuerst, M. Kedzie, M.P. Kelly
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract no. W-31-109-ENG-38.

This paper reports results of cold tests of a 345 MHz, three-spoke-loaded TEM-class superconducting niobium cavity being developed for the RIA driver linac and for other high-intensity ion linac applications. The cavity has a beam aperture of 4 cm diameter, an interior length of 67 cm, and the transit-time factor peaks at beta = v/c = 0.5. In tests at 4.2 K, the cavity could be operated cw above the nominal design accelerating gradient of 9.3 MV/m, which corresponds to peak surface fields of 27.5 MV/m electric and 826 gauss magnetic. At this gradient the cavity provides more than 6 MV of accelerating potential. The cavity Q at 9.3 MV/m exceeded the nominal performance goal of 7.3E8. Operation at the design gradient at 4.2 K causes substantial boiling and two-phase flow in the liquid helium coolant, with the potential for microphonic-induced fluctuations of the rf frequency. Total microphonic eigenfrequency fluctuations were measured to be less than 1 Hz RMS in cw operation at 9.7 MV/m at 4.2 K.

TOPA008 First Observation of Laser-Driven Acceleration of Relativistic Electrons in a Semi-Infinite Vacuum Space laser, electron, acceleration, polarization 650
  • T. Plettner, R.L. Byer, T.I. Smith
    Stanford University, Stanford, Califormia
  • E.R. Colby, B.M. Cowan, C.M.S. Sears, R. Siemann, J.E. Spencer
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: Department of Energy DE-FG03-97ER41043.

We have observed acceleration of relativistic electrons in vacuum driven by a linearly polarized laser beam incident on a thin gold-coated reflective boundary. The observed energy modulation effect follows all the characteristics expected for linear acceleration caused by a longitudinal electric field. As predicted by the Lawson-Woodward theorem the laser driven modulation only appears in the presence of the boundary. It shows a linear dependence with the strength of the electric field of the laser beam and also it is critically dependent on the laser polarization. Finally, it appears to follow the expected angular dependence of the inverse transition radiation process.

TOPD002 BEPCII -The Second Phase Construction of the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider luminosity, positron, electron, linac 131
  • C. Zhang, G. Pei
    IHEP Beijing, Beijing
  The Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPC) was constructed for both high energy physics and synchrotron radiation researches. The peak luminosity of the BEPC has reached its design goal of 5*1030 cm-2s-1 at J/sai energy of 1.55 GeV and 1*1031 cm-2s-1 at 2 GeV respectively. As the second phase construction of the BEPC, the BEPCII has been approved with total budget of 640 million RMB. The construction was started in the beginning of 2004 and is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2007. The BEPCII is a double ring machine with its luminosity goal of 1*1033 cm-2s-1 at 1.89 GeV, two orders of magnitude higher than present BEPC. The upgrading of the collider should also provide an improved SR performance with higher beam energy and intensity. The beam currents will be increased to 250 mA at E=2.5 GeV for the dedicated synchrotron radiation operation of the BEPCII. Some key technologies, such as superconducting RF system, low impedance vacuum devices, superconducting micro-beta quadrupoles and etc., are being developed in order to achieve the target of the BEPCII.*

*Submitted on behalf of the BEPCII Team.

WPAE001 Helium Distribution for the Superconducting Devices in NSRRC superconducting-magnet, storage-ring, monitoring, radio-frequency 758
  • F.-Z. Hsiao, S. H. Chang, W. S. Chiou, H.C. Li
    NSRRC, Hsinchu
  In NSRRC up to five superconducting magnets and one superconducting cavity will be installed in the storage ring. At current stage two superconducting magnets and one superconducting cavity are kept in cold condition by one 450W helium cryogenic system. The crucial stable cryogenic condition required from the superconducting cavity is hard to achieve due to the join of superconducting magnets. A second cryogenic system dedicated for the superconducting magnets is planned in the next stage. A switch valve box serves the function for the backup of two cryogenic systems for each other and a 100 meter nitrogen-shielding helium transfer line dedicated for the five superconducting magnets are installed at end of the year 2004. This paper presents the helium distribution design of the two cryogenic systems and the commission result of the recent work.  
WPAE002 Safety Management for the Cryogenic System of Superconducting RF System controls, storage-ring, superconducting-RF, synchrotron 832
  • S.-P. Kao, C.R. Chen, F.-Z. Hsiao, J.P. Wang
    NSRRC, Hsinchu
  The installation of the helium cryogenic system for the superconducting RF cavity and magnet were finished in the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC) at the end of October 2002. The first phase of this program will be commissioned at the end of 2004. This was the first large scale cryogenic system in Taiwan. The major hazards to personnel are cryogenic burn and oxygen deficient. To avoid the injury of the operators and meet the requirements of local laws and regulations, some safety measures must be adopted. This paper will illustrate the methods of risk evaluation and the safety control programs taken at NSRRC to avoid and reduce the hazards from the cryogenic system of the superconducting RF cavity and magnet system.  
WPAE005 Status of the Cryogenic System Commissioning at SNS SNS, linac, Spallation-Neutron-Source, monitoring 970
  • F. Casagrande, I.E. Campisi, P.A. Gurd, D.R. Hatfield, M.P. Howell, D. Stout, W.H. Strong
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  • D. Arenius, J.C. Creel, K. Dixon, V. Ganni, P.K. Knudsen
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Funding: SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The cold section of the Linac consists of 81 superconducting radio frequency cavities cooled to 2.1K by a 2400 Watt cryogenic refrigeration system. The major cryogenic system components include warm helium compressors with associated oil removal and gas management, 4.5K cold box, 7000L liquid helium dewar, 2.1K cold box (consisting of 4 stages of cold compressors), gaseous helium storage, helium purification and gas impurity monitoring system, liquid nitrogen storage and the cryogenic distribution transfer line system. The overall system commissioning strategy and status will be presented.

WPAE007 Commissioning of the LNLS 2 T Hybrid Wiggler wiggler, storage-ring, injection, photon 1072
  • R.H.A. Farias, J.F. Citadini, M.J. Ferreira, J.G.R.S. Franco, A.F.A. Gouveia, L.C. Jahnel, L. Liu, R.T. Neuenschwander, X.R. Resende, P.F. Tavares, G. Tosin
    LNLS, Campinas
  • N.P. Abreu
    UNICAMP, Campinas, São Paulo
  Funding: MCT-CNPq, FAPESP.

We present the results of the commissioning of a 28-pole 2 T Hybrid Wiggler at the 1.37 GeV electron storage ring of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source. The wiggler will be used mainly for protein crystallography and was optimized for the production of 12 keV photons. The very high field and relatively large gap (22 mm) of this insertion device led to a magnetic design that includes large main and side magnets and heavily saturated poles. We present the results of the commissioning with beam, with special attention to the correction of the large linear tune-shift perturbations produced by the wiggler as well as on the reduction of beam lifetime at full energy. Since the injection at the LNLS storage ring is performed at 500 MeV we also focus on the effects of non-linearities and their impact on injection efficiency.

WPAE010 Neutron Flux and Activation Calculations for a High Current Deuteron Accelerator ion, target, ion-source, simulation 1192
  • A. Coniglio, M.P. Pillon, S. Sandri
    ENEA C.R. Frascati, Frascati (Roma)
  • M. D'Arienzo
    CNR/RFX, Padova
  Neutron analysis of the first Neutral Beam (NB) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) was performed to provide the basis for the study of the following main aspects: personnel safety during normal operation and maintenance, radiation shielding design, transportability of the NB components in the European countries. The first ITER NB is a medium energy light particle accelerator. In the scenario considered for the calculation the accelerated particles are negative deuterium ions with maximum energy of 1 MeV. The average beam current is 13.3 A. To assess neutron transport in the ITER NB structure a mathematical model of the components geometry was implemented into MCNP computer code (MCNP version 4c2. "Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System." RSICC Computer Code Collection. June 2001). The neutron source definition was outlined considering both D-D and D-T neutron production. FISPACT code (R.A. Forrest, FISPACT-2003. EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion, December 2002) was used to assess neutron activation in the material of the system components. Radioactive inventory and contact dose rate were assessed considering the potential operative scenarios.  
WPAE011 Electrostatic Deflectors: New Design for High Intensity Beam Extraction septum, cathode, extraction, cyclotron 1245
  • S. Passarello, G. Cuttone, G. Gallo, D. Garufi, A. Grmek, G. Manno, M. Re, E. ZappalÃ
    INFN/LNS, Catania
  Funding: INFN-LNS Catania

During the last years big effort was devoted to increase the electrostatic deflectors’ reliability; this provided a better comprehension of the most significant effects concerning their working conditions. Deflectors were checked during the normal operation of the K800 Superconducting Cyclotron (CS) at LNS, at the operating pressure of 1 10-6 mbar and a magnetic field of 3.5 T, the maximum cathodes voltage was –60kV (120 kV/cm). The maximum extracted beam power was, up to now, 100 W; it is foreseen to extract up to 500 W. In this contribution we present the study, the tests and the design of a new water cooled electrostatic deflector. Particular effort was applied to optimise the beam extraction efficiency, the thermal dissipation, and the mechanical stability. In particularly we implemented new insulators, new anodised aluminium cathodes, new Ta septum, new voltage and water feedthroughs and a more efficient cooling system. All these improvements were performed to increase the mean time between failure and the beam current stability.

WPAE012 Gamma-Ray Irradiation Experiments of Collimator Key Components for the 3GeV-RCS of J-PARC radiation, beam-losses, proton, synchrotron 1309
  • M. Kinsho, F. Masukawa, N. Ogiwara, O. Takeda, K. Yamamoto
    JAERI/J-PARC, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken
  • J. Kusano
    Japan Atomic Energy Institute, Linac Laboratory, Tokai-Mura
  The turbo molecular pump and the stepping motor which can be operated exposed to high radiation has been under development at JAERI for use in the 3GeV-RCS of the J-PARC. In order to determine the extent of radiation damage to those instruments, gamma-ray irradiation testing was performed at JAERI. It was succeed that the turbo molecular pump and stepping motor could operate properly when given an absorption dose more than 15 MGy in a gamma-ray irradiation environment.  
WPAE013 Development of the Collimator System for the 3GEV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron radiation, shielding, electron, beam-losses 1365
  • K. Yamamoto
    JAERI/J-PARC, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken
  • M. Kinsho
    Japan Atomic Energy Institute, Linac Laboratory, Tokai-Mura
  In order to localize the beam loss in the restricted area, the beam collimation system is prepared in the 3GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the Japan Proton Accelerator Complex (J-PARC) Project. The amount of the localized beam loss on the one collimator is estimated about 1.2kW, and that loss generates a large quantity of the secondary radiations. So the beam collimator must be designed that it is covered with enough shielding. We calculated the radiation level of the collimator and decided necessary shielding thickness. This result indicated that the residual dose rate at the outside surface of the shielding is mostly under 1mSv/h. We developed the remote cramp system and rad-hard components in order to reduce the radiation exposure during maintenance of the collimator. And also we coated Titanium Nitride (TiN) film on the inside surface of the vacuum chamber in order to reduce the secondary electron emission from the collimator and chamber surface. Now we investigate the possibility of another coating.  
WPAE017 Installation of the LHC Long Straight Sections (LSS) insertion, shielding, injection, quadrupole 1563
  • S. Bartolome-Jimenez, G. Trinquart
    CERN, Geneva
  The LHC long straight sections (LSS) serve as experimental or utility insertions. There are two high luminosity experimental insertions located at points 1 and 5 and two more experimental insertions at points 2 and 8 which also contain the injection systems. The beams only cross at these four locations and are focused by superconducting low-beta triplets. Insertions 3 and 7 each contain two collimation systems. Insertion 4 contains two RF systems. Insertion 6 contains the beam dumping system. The installation of the LSS is a challenge due to the compact layout that characterises these areas and the difficulties related to the underground work mainly in zones of restricted access. Specific devices are required for handling and installing various heavy and voluminous elements. This paper reviews the installation scenarios, describes the sequences presently planned and highlights the potential problem areas. The particular case of sector 7-8 where the LSS elements will be installed in parallel with the cryogenic distribution line (QRL) is used as an example of a ‘rapid’ installation scheme to illustrate how resources are used. The consequences of possible shortcuts are also mentioned.  
WPAE020 A Large Diameter Entrance Window for the LHC Beam Dump Line proton, simulation, shielding, dumping 1698
  • A. Presland, B. Goddard, J.M. Jimenez, D.R. Ramos, R. Veness
    CERN, Geneva
  The graphite LHC beam dump block TDE has to absorb the full LHC beam intensity at 7 TeV. The TDE vessel will be filled with inert gas at atmospheric pressure, and requires a large diameter entrance window for vacuum separation from the beam dumping transfer line. The swept LHC beam must traverse this window without damage for regular operation of the beam dump dilution system. For dilution failures, the entrance window must survive most of the accident cases, and must not fail catastrophically in the event of damage. The conceptual design of the entrance window is presented, together with the load conditions and performance criteria. The FLUKA energy deposition simulations and ANSYS stress calculations are described, and the results discussed.  
WPAE021 Short Straight Sections in the LHC Matching Sections (MS SSS): An Extension of the Arc Cryostats To Fulfill Specific Machine Functionalities quadrupole, insertion, collider, lattice 1724
  • V. Parma, H. Prin
    CERN, Geneva
  • fl. Lutton
    IPN, Orsay
  Funding: IPN-CNRS, 15 rue Georges Clémenceau 91406 ORSAY, France.

The LHC insertions require 50 specific superconducting quadrupoles, operating in boiling helium at 4.5 K and housed in individual cryostats to form the MS Short Straight Sections (MS SSS). The quadrupoles and corrector magnets are assembled in 8 families of cold masses, with lengths ranging from 5 to 11 m and weights ranging from 60 to 140 kN. The MS SSS need to fulfil specific requirements related to the collider topology, its cryogenic layout and the powering scheme. Most MS SSS are standalone cryogenic and super-conducting units, i.e. they are not in the continuous arc cryostat, and therefore need dedicated cryogenic and electrical feeding. Specially designed cryostat end-caps are required to close the vacuum vessels at each end, which include low heat in-leak Cold-to-Warm transitions (CWT) for the beam tubes and 6 kA local electrical feedthrough for powering the quadrupoles. This paper presents the design of the MS SSS cryostats as an extension of the arc cryostat’s design to achieve a standard and consequently cost-effective solution, and the design solutions chosen to satisfy their specific functionalities.

WPAE022 Progress on the Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for the MICE Cooling Channel scattering, focusing, acceleration, target 1772
  • M.A.C. Cummings
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois
  • S. Ishimoto
    KEK, Ibaraki
  This report describes the progress made on the design of the liquid hydrogen absorber for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). The absorber consists of a 21-liter vessel that contains liquid hydrogen (1.5 kg) or liquid helium (2.63 kg). The cryogen vessel is within the warm bore of the superconducting focusing magnet for the MICE. The purpose of the magnet is to provide a low beam beta region within the absorber. For safety reasons, the vacuum vessel for the hydrogen absorber is separated from the vacuum vessel for the superconducting magnet and the vacuum that surrounds the RF cavities or the detector. The absorber has two 300 mm-diameter thin aluminum windows. The vacuum vessel around the absorber has a pair of thin aluminum windows that separate the absorber vacuum space from adjacent vacuum spaces. The absorber will be cooled down using a heat exchanger that is built into the absorber walls. Liquid nitrogen is used to cool the absorber to 80 K. Liquid helium completes the absorber cool down and condenses hydrogen in the absorber. The absorber may also be filled with liquid helium to measure muon cooling in helium.  
WPAE025 Design for a 1.3 MW, 13 MeV Beam Dump for an Energy Recovery Linac electron, injection, linac, synchrotron 1877
  • C.K. Sinclair
    Cornell University, Department of Physics, Ithaca, New York
  • Y. He, C.H. Smith
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
  Funding: Work supported by Cornell University.

The electron beam exiting an Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is dumped close to the injection energy. This energy is chosen as low as possible while allowing the beam quality specifications to be met. As ERLs are designed for high average beam current, beam dumps are required to handle high beam power at low energy. Low energy electrons have a short range in practical dump materials, requiring the beam size at the dump face be enlarged to give acceptable power densities and heat fluxes. Cornell University is developing a 100 mA average current ERL as a synchrotron radiation source. The 13 MeV optimum injection energy requires a 1.3 MW beam dump. We present a mature design for this dump, using an array of water-cooled extruded copper tubes. This array is mounted in the accelerator vacuum normal to the beam. Fatigue failure resulting from abrupt thermal cycles associated with beam trips is a potential failure mechanism. We report on designs for a 75 kW, 750 keV tube-cooled beryllium plate dump for electron gun testing, and a 500 kW, 5 to 15 MeV copper tube dump for use with the prototype injector under development. We expect to test the beryllium dump within a year, and the higher power copper dump within 2-1/2 years.

WPAE028 Radiation Issues in the Fermilab Booster Magnets booster, proton, radiation, beam-losses 2041
  • E. Prebys
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: Department of Energy.

The demands of the Fermilab neutrino program will require the 30 year old Fermilab 8 GeV Booster to deliver higher intensities than it ever has. Total proton throughput is limited by radiation damage and activation due to beam loss in the Booster tunnel. Of particular concern is the insulation in the 96 combined function lattice magnets. This poster describes a study of the potential radiation damage to these magnets from extended running at the planned intensities.

WPAE030 Thermal Analysis of the Al Window for a New CESR-c Luminosity Monitor photon, luminosity, positron, simulation 2137
  • Y. He, D.H. Rice
    Cornell University, Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Ithaca, New York
  • Y. Li, M.A. Palmer
    Cornell University, Department of Physics, Ithaca, New York
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation.

A luminosity monitor using photons from radiative bhabha events at the CLEO interaction point (IP) has been installed in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR). A key vacuum and detector component is the photon window/converter whose uniformity and thickness are critical for determining the resolution of the total energy deposited in the segmented luminosity monitor. The window design must accommodate the operational requirements of the new monitor at CLEO-c beam energies of 1.5-2.5 GeV and also provide sufficient safety margin for operation at 5.3 GeV beam energies for Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) running. During 5.3 GeV operation, intense stripes of synchrotron radiation from the interaction region superconducting quadrupole magnets as well as nearby bending magnets strike the window. During the course of window development, several materials and designs were evaluated. Thermal stresses were calculated using the finite element code ANSYS for various beam conditions to guide the cooling design. A window using aluminum alloy (6061-T6) was ultimately chosen to provide optimal performance for both CLEO-c and CHESS running conditions. The window has been in successful operation since September 2004.

WPAE031 Mechanical Design of a Heavy Ion Beam Dump for the RIA Fragmentation Line radiation, ion, dipole, heavy-ion 2185
  • W. Stein, L. Ahle
    LLNL, Livermore, California
  • D.L. Conner
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  The RIA fragmentation line requires a beam stop for the primary beam downstream of the first dipole magnet. The beam may consist of U, Ca, Sn, Kr, or O ions. with a variety of power densities. The configuration with highest power density is for the U beam, with a spot size of 3 cm x 3 cm and a total power of up to 300 kW. The mechanical design of the dump that meets these criteria consists of a 50 cm diameter aluminum wheel with water coolant channels. A hollow drive shaft supplies the coolant water and connects the wheel to an electrical motor located in an air space in the floor above the dump. The beam strikes the wheel along the outer perimeter and passes through a thin window of aluminum where 10% of its power is absorbed and the remainder of the beam is absorbed in flowing water behind the window. Rotation of the wheel at 400 RPM results in maximum aluminum temperatures below 100 C and acceptably low thermal stresses of 5 ksi. Rotating the wheel also results in low radiation damage levels by spreading the damage out over the whole perimeter of the wheel. For some of the other beams, a stationary dump consisting of a thin aluminum window with water acting as a coolant and absorber appears to be feasible.  
WPAE041 Development of a New Beam Diagnostics Platform laser, diagnostics, SNS, ion 2669
  • R.T. Roseberry, S. Assadi, G.R. Murdoch
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  Funding: SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge.

The Spallation Neutron Source Project (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source currently under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The availability of space along completed portions of the accelerator for the addition of beam diagnostic is limited. A new platform for mounting a variety of instruments has been created by replacing part of the Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) section of the accelerator developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The design and current capabilities of this instrument platform will be presented along with plans for future enhancements.

WPAE045 Progress on RF Coupling Coil Module Design for the MICE Channel coupling, emittance, factory, superconductivity 2869
  • D. Li, M.A. Green, S.P. Virostek, M.S. Zisman
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  • W. Lau, A. E. White, S.Q. Yang
    OXFORDphysics, Oxford, Oxon
  Funding: This research work is supported by the US Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098.

We describe the progress on the design of the RF coupling coil (RFCC) module for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. The MICE cooling channel design consists of two SFOFO cells that is similar to that of the US Study-II of a neutrino factory. The MICE RFCC module comprises a superconducting solenoid, mounted around four normal conducting 201.25-MHz RF cavities. Each cavity has a pair of thin curved beryllium windows to close the conventional open beam irises, so thatnecessitating separate power feeds for each of the four cavities has to be separately powered. The coil package that surrounds the RF cavities sits is mounted on a vacuum vessel. The RF vacuum is shared between the cavities and the vacuum vessel around the cavities such that. Therefore there is no differential pressure on the thin beryllium windows. This paper discusses the design progress of the RFCC module, the fabrication progress of a prototype 201.25-MHz cavity, and the superconducting coupling coil that will be cooled using a single, small 4 K cooler.

WPAE046 Diffusion Brazing and Welding of the Accelerating Structure microtron, linac 2938
  • V.S. Avagyan
    CANDLE, Yerevan
  Funding: This work has been performed in Yerevan Physics Institute and the Institute of Electrowelding E.O. Paton, the Ukraine.

This work presents technologies of copper accelarating structure diffusion joints. The formation conditions of copper diffusion joint with minimal residual plastic strain are determined experimentally.

WPAE056 Geant4-Based Simulation Study of PEP-II Beam Backgrounds in the BaBar Detector at the SLAC B-Factory simulation, luminosity, scattering, background 3351
  • W.S. Lockman
    SCIPP, Santa Cruz, California
  • D. Aston, G.R. Bower, M. Cristinziani, H. Fieguth, D. H. Wright
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • N.R. Barlow, C.L. Edgar
    Manchester University, Manchester
  • N.L. Blount, D. Strom
    University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon
  • M. Bondioli
    INFN-Pisa, Pisa
  • G. Calderini
    UNIPI, Pisa
  • B. Campbell, S.H. Robertson
    CHEP, Montreal, Quebec
  • W. Kozanecki
    CEA/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette
  • B.A. Petersen
    Stanford University, Stanford, Califormia
  To improve the understanding of accelerator-induced backgrounds at the SLAC B-Factory and validate the proposed PEP-II luminosity upgrade, we simulate lost-particle backgrounds in the BaBar detector originating from beam-gas interactions and radiative-Bhabha scatters. To perform this study, we have extended the GEANT4-based BaBar detector simulation to include PEP-II beam-line components and magnetic fields up to 10m away from the interaction point. We first describe the simulation model and then compare predicted background levels with measurements from dedicated single-and colliding-beam experiments. Finally, we compare the simulated background levels in the current and the proposed luminosity-upgrade configurations.  
WPAE082 Design of a Precision Positioning System for the Undulators of the Linac Coherent Light Source undulator, alignment, quadrupole, laser 4099
  • E. Trakhtenberg, J.T. Collins, P.K. Den Hartog, M. White
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  A precision positioning system has been designed for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and a prototype system is being fabricated. The LCLS will use a beam based alignment technique to precisely align all of the segments of the 130-m long undulator line. The requirement for overlap between the electron beam and the x-ray beam, in order to develop and maintain lasing, demands that each of the quadrupoles be aligned within a tolerance of ± 2 μm and that the undulator axis be positioned within ± 10 μm vertically and horizontally. Five cam movers, each with an eccentricity of 1.5 mm, will allow adjustment of a cradle supporting the undulator, its vacuum chamber, a quadrupole, and a beam position monitor. An additional motion transverse to the beam axis allows removal of individual undulators from the beam path. Positioning feedback will be provided by a wire position monitor system and a hydrostatic leveling system.  
WPAP008 Simulation for a New Polarized Electron Injector (SPIN) for the S-DALINAC electron, gun, simulation, cathode 1117
  • B. Steiner, W.F.O. Müller, T. Weiland
    TEMF, Darmstadt
  • J. Enders, H.-D. Gräf, A. Richter, M. Roth
    TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt
  Funding: Work supported in part by DFG under contract SFB 634 and DESY, Hamburg.

The Superconducting DArmstädter LINear ACcelerator (S-DALINAC) is a 130 MeV recirculating electron accelerator serving several nuclear and radiation physics experiments. For future tasks, the 250 keV thermal electron source should be completed by a 100 keV polarized electron source. Therefore a new low energy injection concept for the S-DALINAC has to be designed. The main components of the injector are a polarized electron source, an alpha magnet, a Wien filter spin-rotator and a Mott polarimeter. In this paper we report over the first simulation and design results. For our simulations we used the TS2 and TS3 modules of the CST MAFIA (TM) programme which are PIC codes for two and three dimensions and the CST PARTICLE STUDIO (TM).

WPAP014 Development of Electron Gun of Carbon Nanotube Cathode cathode, electron, gun, acceleration 1392
  • Y. Hozumi
    GUAS/AS, Ibaraki
  • M. Ikeda, S. Ohsawa, T. Sugimura
    KEK, Ibaraki
  We are developing high brightness electron guns utilizing carbon nanotube (CNT) cathodes. Recently, we succeeded to achieved field emission currents to 0.2 A (3 A/cm2) from a triode type CNT cathode of 3 mm diameter. The emission tests were performed at DC100kV acceleration voltage in pulse operations of 50 Hz using 6 nsec pulses. The emission currents were very stable for long term periods of 3 weeks. Photo emission tests from CNT cathode by 266nm laser pulses is also due to be reported simultaneously.  
WPAP028 Modes of Electron Beam Generation in a Magnetron Diode with a Secondary-Emission Cathode cathode, gun, electron, target 2027
  • V. Zakutin, A. Dovbnya, N.G. Reshetnyak
    NSC/KIPT, Kharkov
  Experiments have shown that the electron current direction can be varied along the diode axis or perpendicular to the axis, depending on the longitudinal magnetic field amplitude and distribution. The diode had a copper cathode diameter 40 mm and 15 mm anode-cathode gap. Several modes of electron beam generation are realized, namely, open, closed, and intermediate. In the first case, at a cathode magnetic field of ~ 1200 Oe, that falls off approaching the diode output down, and at a cathode voltage of 50 kV, the diode generates a tubular electron beam of a current 50 A and the anode current was about 1 % of the beam current. In the second case, the electron current was going to the anode, the secondary-emission multiplication of electrons being retained. At a cathode voltage of ~ 45 kV, the anode current was ~ 5 A, and the beam current was practically absent. This was attained by decreasing the magnetic field to ~ 1.1…1.2 of the Hell field value and by increasing the magnetic field towards the diode output. In the intermediate mode with a cathode voltage of ~ 45 kV the direct beam current measured was ~ 5 A, and the anode current was ~ 7 A.  
WPAP039 Progress on Lead Photocathodes for Superconducting Injectors cathode, laser, photon, gun 2598
  • J. Smedley, T. Rao
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • P. Kneisel
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  • J.L. Langner, P. Strzyzewski
    The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Centre Swierk, Swierk/Otwock
  • R.S. Lefferts, A.R. Lipski
    SBUNSL, Stony Brook, New York
  • J.S. Sekutowicz
    DESY, Hamburg
  Funding: This work was supported by DOE contracts DE-AC02-98CH10886, DE-AC03-76SF00515 and DE-FG02-97ER82336.

We present the results of our investigation of bulk, electroplated and vacuum deposited lead as suitable photocathode materials for superconducting RF injectors. The quantum efficiency of each sample is presented as a function of the wavelength of the incident light, from 310 nm to 190 nm. Quantum efficiencies of 0.3% have been obtained. Production of a niobium cavity with a lead-plated cathode is underway.

WPAP045 Ion Back-Bombardment of GaAs Photocathodes Inside DC High Voltage Electron Guns laser, electron, gun, ion 2875
  • J.M. Grames, P. Adderley, J. Brittian, D. Charles, J. Clark, J. Hansknecht, M. Poelker, M.L. Stutzman, K.E.L. Surles-Law
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Funding: This work was supported by U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-ACO5-84-ER40150.

The primary limitation for sustained high quantum efficiency operation of GaAs photocathodes inside DC high voltage electron guns is ion back-bombardment of the photocathode. This process results from ionization of residual gas within the cathode/anode gap by the extracted electron beam, which is subsequently accelerated backwards to the photocathode. The damage mechanism is believed to be either destruction of the negative electron affinity condition at the surface of the photocathode or damage to the crystal structure by implantation of the bombarding ions. This work characterizes ion formation within the anode/cathode gap for gas species typical of UHV vacuum chambers (i.e., hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane). Calculations and simulations are performed to determine the ion trajectories and stopping distance within the photocathode material. The results of the simulations are compared with test results obtained using a 100 keV DC high voltage GaAs photoemission gun and beamline at currents up to 10 mA DC.

WPAP047 Preliminary Results from a Superconducting Photocathode Sample Cavity cathode, gun, linac, brightness 2956
  • P. Kneisel
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  • R.S. Lefferts, A.R. Lipski
    SBUNSL, Stony Brook, New York
  • J.S. Sekutowicz
    DESY, Hamburg
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. DOE Contract No DE-AC05-84ER40150.

Pure niobium has been proposed as a photocathode material and recently a successful test has been conducted with a niobium single cell cavity to extract photo-currents from the surface of this cavity. However, the quantum efficiency of niobium is ~2·10-4, whereas electrodeposited lead has a ~15 times higher quantum efficiency. We have designed and tested a photo-injector niobium cavity, which can be used to insert photo-cathodes made of different materials in the high electric field region of the cavity. Experiments have been conducted with niobium and lead, which show that neither the Q- values of the cavity nor the obtainable surface fields are significantly lowered. This paper reports about the results from these tests.

WPAP050 A High Average Current DC GaAs Photocathode Gun for ERLs and FELs gun, cathode, laser, electron 3117
  • C. Hernandez-Garcia, S.V. Benson, D.B. Bullard, H.F.D. Dylla, K. Jordan, C. M. Murray, G. Neil, M.D. Shinn, T. Siggins, R.L. Walker
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Funding: This work supported by The Office of Naval Research under contract to the Dept. of Energy, the Air Force Research Lab, and the Commonwealth of Virginia.

The Jefferson Lab (JLab) 10 kW IR Upgrade FEL DC GaAs photocathode gun is presently the highest average current electron source operational in the U.S., delivering a record 9.1 mA CW, 350 kV electron beam with 122 pC/bunch at 75 MHz rep rate. Pulsed operation has also been demonstrated with 8 mA per pulse (110 pC/bunch) in 16 ms-long pulses at 2 Hz rep rate. Routinely the gun delivers 5 mA CW and pulse current at 135 pC/bunch for FEL operations. The Upgrade DC photocathode gun is a direct evolution of the DC photocathode gun used in the previous JLab 1 kW IR Demo FEL. Improvements in the vacuum conditions, incorporation of two UHV motion mechanisms (a retractable cathode and a photocathode shield door) and a new way to add cesium to the GaAs photocathode surface have extended its lifetime to over 500 Coulombs delivered between re-cesiations (quantum efficiency replenishment). With each photocathode activation quantum efficiencies above 6% are routinely achieved. The photocathode activation and performance will be described in detail.

WPAP057 Three-Dimensional Theory and Simulation of an Ellipse-Shaped Charged-Particle Beam Gun simulation, emittance, electron, focusing 3372
  • R. Bhatt, T. Bemis, C. Chen
    MIT/PSFC, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  Funding: U.S. DOE: Grant No. DE-FG02-95ER40919, Grant No. DE-FG02-01ER54662, Air Force Office of Scientific Research: Grant No. F49620-03-1-0230, and the MIT Deshpande Center for Technological Innovation.

A three-dimensional (3D) theory of non-relativistic, laminar, space-charge-limited, ellipse-shaped, charged-particle beam formation has been developed recently (Bhatt and Chen, PR:ST-AB, submitted Dec. 2004), whereby charged particles (electrons or ions) are accelerated across a diode by a static voltage differential and focused transversely by Pierce-type external electrodes placed along analytically specified surfaces. The treatment is extended to consider the perturbative effects of anode hole lensing, thermal isolation of the emitter, finiteness and nonuniformities of beam-forming electrodes, and an initial thermal spread. Analytic and semi-analytic results are presented along with 3D simulations utilizing the 3D trajectory code, OMNITRAK. Considerations with regard to beam matching into a periodic magnetic focusing lattice are discussed.

WPAT001 HFSS Simulation of Vacuum Tube RF Power Amplifiers cyclotron, booster, simulation, insertion 767
  • V. Zviagintsev, I. Bylinskii
    TRIUMF, Vancouver
  Funding: TRIUMF receives funding via a contribution agreement through the National Research Council of Canada.

Development and upgrade of rf power amplifiers require comprehensive calculations to predict and optimize various parameters of the system before hardware modifications are applied. ANSOFT HFSS code provides a powerful tool for 3D EM simulation of the amplifier output resonator comprising a vacuum tube as a passive element. Two examples of this kind of simulation applied for upgrade of the TRIUMF Cyclotron rf system are presented in this paper.

WPAT002 High Power (35 kW and 190 kW) 352 Solid State Amplifiers for the SOLEIL Synchrotron power-supply, booster, insertion, synchrotron 811
  • P. Marchand, M.D. Diop, R.L. Lopes, J. Polian, F. Ribeiro, T. Ruan
    SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette
  In the SOLEIL Storage Ring, two cryomodules, each containing a pair of superconducting cavities will provide the maximum power of 600 kW, required at the nominal energy of 2.75 GeV with the full beam current of 500 mA and all the insertion devices. Each of the four cavities will be powered with a 190 kW solid state amplifier consisting in a combination of 315 W elementary modules (about 750 modules per amplifier). The amplifier modules, based on a technology developed in house, with MOSFET transistor, integrated circulator and individual power supply, are fabricated in the industry. In the booster, a 35 kW solid state amplifier (147 modules) will power a 5-cell copper cavity of the LEP type. The first operational results and the status of the RF power plants are reported in this paper. Although quite innovative for the required power range, the solid state technology proved to be very attractive with significant advantages as compared to vacuum tubes.  
WPAT004 Coupling Methods for Superconducting CH-Cavities coupling, linac, simulation 922
  • H. Liebermann, H. Podlech, U. Ratzinger, A.C. Sauer
    IAP, Frankfurt-am-Main
  Funding: GSI, BMBF contr. No. 06F134I, EU.

The cross-bar H-type (CH) cavity is a multi-gap drift tube structure based on the H-210 mode currently under development at IAP Frankfurt and in collaboration with GSI. Numerical simulations and rf model measurements showed that the CH-type cavity is an excellent candidate to realize Room Temperature and Superconducting multi-cell structures with a frequency range from about 150 MHz up to 800 MHz. For coupling into such a complex structure, we compare two coupling methods, one with capacitive and the other with inductive couplers. This paper will present detailed MicroWave Studio simulations and measurements for these different coupling methods for Room Temperature and Superconducting CH-Cavities. For coupling into a Superconducting CH-Cavity we prefer a capacitive coupler. We will also present an optimized Superconducting CH-Cavity for capacitive couplers.

WPAT009 Status of the RF System for the 6.5 GeV Synchrotron Light Source PF-AR synchrotron, coupling, synchrotron-radiation, radiation 1168
  • S. Sakanaka, K. Ebihara, S. Isagawa, M. Izawa, T. Kageyama, T. Kasuga, H. Nakanishi, M. Ono, H. Sakai, T. Takahashi, K. Umemori, S.I. Yoshimoto
    KEK, Ibaraki
  The Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR) is a 6.5-GeV synchrotron light source at KEK. An rf system comprises two 1.2-MW klystrons, six alternating-periodic-structure (APS) cavities, and other components. It supplies an rf voltage of about 15 MV with a beam current of 60 mA. The system has been working well, except for a trouble (frequent trips with beams) in one of the cavities. We found that the trips were triggered by an irradiation of synchrotron radiation to the cavity wall. In the summer of 2004, we reorganized the rf system, which allows us to install two insertion devices in a part of the rf sections. We replaced the troubled cavity at a time. We report both the operation status and the modification of the rf system.  
WPAT011 Application of TRL Calibration in Longitudinal Coupling Impedance Measurement Platform for BEPCII impedance, coupling, insertion, feedback 1225
  • G. Huang, W.-H. Huang, S. Zheng
    Tsinghua University, Beijing
  • D.M. Zhou
    IHEP Beijing, Beijing
  Funding: Supported by NSFC 10375035.

TRL calibration is one of the standard calibration methods for RF measurement. Applying the TRL calibration method into the longitudinal coupling impedance platform makes it possible to eliminate the error matrix of the matching section and the RF connector. By using TRL calibration in the platform, the reference pipe of each device under test no longer required. The formula of the calibration is discussed in this paper and the software based on it is introduced.

WPAT017 Commissioning of the New RF System with the HOM Damped RF Cavity storage-ring, impedance, damping, higher-order-mode 1555
  • G.Y. Kurkin, V.S. Arbuzov, A. Bushuev, N. Gavrilov, E.I. Gorniker, E. Kenjebulatov, M.A. Kholopov, A.A. Kondakov, Ya.G. Kruchkov, S.A. Krutikhin, I.V. Kuptsov, L.A. Mironenko, N. Mityanina, S.V. Motygin, V.N. Osipov, V. Petrov, A.M. Pilan, A.M. Popov, E. Rotov, I. Sedlyarov, A.G. Tribendis, V. Volkov
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk
  • S. Mikhailov, P.W. Wallace, P. Wang
    DU/FEL, Durham, North Carolina
  A new 178 MHz RF system has been commissioned at Duke Storage Ring. It consists of a 140 kW tetrode transmitter, a high order modes (HOM) damped RF cavity and the necessary frequency and voltage control electronics. The cavity walls are made of copper-on-stainless steel bimetal (8 mm Cu, 7 mm SS). The cavity has a larger beam pipe opening (700 mm in diameter) in the down-stream side, which allows the HOM propagating out of the cavity and being absorbed by the ceramic loads. The design details and the commissioning results are presented in this paper.  
WPAT027 Recent Results from the X-Band Pulsed Magnicon Amplifier electron, target, plasma, gun 1979
  • O.A. Nezhevenko, V.P. Yakovlev
    Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut
  • A.W. Fliflet, S.H. Gold
    NRL, Washington, DC
  • J.L. Hirshfield, M.A. LaPointe
    Yale University, Physics Department, New Haven, CT
  • A.K. Kinkead
  Funding: Research supported by the Department of Energy, Office of High Energy Physics, and the Office of Naval Research.

A frequency-doubling magnicon amplifier at 11.4 GHz has been designed and built as the prototype of an alternative microwave source for the Next Linear Collider project, and to test high power RF components and accelerating structures. The tube is designed to produce ~60 MW, ~1.2 microsecond pulses at 58% efficiency and 59 dB gain, using a 470 kV, 220 A, 2 mm-diameter beam. In the first tests the output power was limited to a level of 26 MW in a 200 nsec pulse. This limitation was caused by the oscillations in the tube collector. Experimental results of the magnicon tests with the new collector are presented in this paper

WPAT028 High Power Ferrolelectric Switches at Centimeter and Millimeter Wavelengths resonance, coupling, extraction, linear-collider 2056
  • V.P. Yakovlev, O.A. Nezhevenko
    Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut
  • J.L. Hirshfield
    Yale University, Physics Department, New Haven, CT
  Funding: Research supported by the Department of Energy, Division of High Energy Physics.

High-power ultra-fast, electrically-controlled switches based on ferroelectric elements for accelerator applications in the centimeter and millimeter wavelength ranges are discussed. Examples of fast switches and phase shifters for pulse compression and power distribution systems at X– and Ka- band are presented. It is shown that such proposed switch designs based on modern ferroelectric materials allow the generation of pulsed power of hundreds of MW’s in both the centimeter and millimeter wave ranges.

WPAT036 A 700 MHZ, 1 MW CW RF System for a FEL 100mA RF Photoinjector klystron, power-supply, cathode, coupling 2413
  • W. Roybal, D.C. Nguyen, W. Reass, D. Rees, P.J. Tallerico, P.A. Torrez
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
  Funding: U.S. Department of Energy.

This paper describes a 700 MHz, 1 Megawatt CW, high efficiency klystron RF system utilized for a Free Electron Laser (FEL) high-brightness electron photoinjector (PI). The E2V klystron is mod-anode tube that operates with a beam voltage of 95 kV. This tube, operating with a 65% efficiency, requires ~96 watts of input power to produce in excess of 1 MW of output power. This output drives the 3rd cell of a 2˝-cell, p-mode PI cavity through a pair of planar waveguide windows. Coupling is via a ridge-loaded tapered waveguide section and "dog-bone" iris. This paper will present the design of the RF, RF transport, coupling, and monitoring/protection systems that are required to support CW operations of the 100 mA cesiated, semi-porous SiC photoinjector.

WPAT039 Experience with the New Digital RF Control System at the CESR Storage Ring klystron, feedback, synchrotron, storage-ring 2592
  • M. Liepe, S.A. Belomestnykh, J. Dobbins, R.P.K. Kaplan, C.R. Strohman, B.K. Stuhl
    Cornell University, Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Ithaca, New York
  Funding: This work is supported by NSF.

A new digital control system has been developed, providing great flexibility, high computational power and low latency for a wide range of control and data acquisition applications. This system is now installed in the CESR storage ring and stabilizes the vector sum field of two of the superconducting CESR 500 MHz cavities and the output power from the driving klystron. The installed control system includes in-house developed digital and RF hardware, very fast feedback and feedforward control, a state machine for automatic start-up and trip recovery, cw and pulsed mode operation, fast quench detection, and cavity frequency control. Several months of continuous operation have proven high reliability of the system. The achieved field stability surpasses requirements.

WPAT044 Realization of an X-Band RF System for LCLS klystron, linac, linear-collider, collective-effects 2801
  • P.A. McIntosh, R. Akre, J. Brooks, P. Emma, E. Rago
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: Work supported by Department of Energy contract DE-AC03-76SF00515.

A single X-band (11.424 GHz) accelerating structure is to be incorporated in the LCLS Linac design to linearize the energy-time correlation (or gradient) across each bunch, features which originate in the preceding accelerating structures (L0 and L1). This harmonic RF system will operate near the negative RF crest to decelerate the beam, reducing these non-linear components of the correlation, providing a more efficient compression in the downstream bunch compressor chicanes (BC1 and BC2). These non-linear correlation components, if allowed to grow, would lead to Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) instabilities in the chicanes, effectively destroying the coherence of the photon radiation in the main LCLS undulator. The many years devoted at SLAC in the development of X-band RF components for the NLC/JLC linear collider project, has enabled the technical and financial realization of such an RF system for LCLS. This paper details the requirements for the X-band system and the proposed scheme planned for achieving those requirements.

WPAT047 Solid-State 2MW Klystron Power Control System klystron, cathode, controls, power-supply 2950
  • M.A. Kempkes, J.A. Casey, M.P.J. Gaudreau, T.H. Hawkey, I. Roth
    Diversified Technologies, Inc., Bedford
  Under an SBIR effort for the DOE, Diversified Technologies, Inc. designed, built, and installed a solid state power control system for the Advanced Light Source klystrons at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This system consists of two major elements – a 100 kV, 20 A CW solid state series switch, and a solid state voltage regulator for the mod-anode of the klystron. The series switch replaces the existing mercury ignitron crowbar, eliminating these environmentally hazardous components while providing enhanced arc protection and faster return to transmit. The mod-anode voltage regulator uses series IGBTs, operating in the linear regime, to provide highly rapid and accurate control of the mod-anode voltage, and therefore the output power from the klystron. Results from the installation and testing of this system at ANL will be presented.  
WPAT054 5 MW 805 MHz SNS RF System Experience klystron, SNS, shielding, linac 3280
  • K.A. Young, J.T. Bradley, T.W. Hardek, M.T. Lynch, D. Rees, W. Roybal, P.J. Tallerico, P.A. Torrez
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. DOE.

The RF system for the 805 MHz normal conducting linac of the Spallation Nuetron Source (SNS) accelerator was designed, procured and tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory(LANL) and then installed and commissioned at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The RF power for this room temperature coupled cavity linac (CCL) of SNS accelerator is generated by four pulsed 5 MW peak power klystrons operating with a pulse width of 1.25 mSec and a 60 Hz repetition frequency. The RF power from each klystron is divided and delivered to the CCL through two separate RF windows. The 5 MW RF system advanced the state of the art for simultaneous peak and average power. This paper summarizes the problems encountered, lessons learned and results of the high power testing at LANL of the 5 MW klystrons, 5 MW circulators, 5 MW loads, and 2.5 MW windows.*

*Tom Hardek is now at ORNL.

WPAT059 High Power RF Test Facility at the SNS SNS, klystron, linac, monitoring 3450
  • Y.W. Kang, D.E. Anderson, I.E. Campisi, M. Champion, M.T. Crofford, R.E. Fuja, P.A. Gurd, S. Hasan, K.-U. Kasemir, M.P. McCarthy, D. Stout, J.Y. Tang, A.V. Vassioutchenko, M. Wezensky
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  • G.K. Davis, M. A. Drury, T. Powers, M. Stirbet
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  RF Test Facility has been completed in the SNS project at ORNL to support test and conditioning operation of RF subsystems and components. The system consists of two transmitters for two klystrons powered by a common high voltage pulsed converter modulator that can provide power to two independent RF systems. The waveguides are configured with WR2100 and WR1150 sizes for presently used frequencies: 402.5 MHz and 805 MHz. Both 402.5 MHz and 805 MHz systems have circulator protected klystrons that can be powered by the modulator capable of delivering 11 MW peak and 1 MW average power. The facility has been equipped with computer control for various RF processing and complete dual frequency operation. More than forty 805 MHz fundamental power couplers for the SNS superconducting linac (SCL) cavitites have been RF conditioned in this facility. The facility provides more than 1000 ft2 floor area for various test setups. The facility also has a shielded cave area that can support high power tests of normal conducting and superconducting accelerating cavities and components.

SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge.

WPAT065 HLS RF System Improvement in NSRL Phase II Project storage-ring, controls, coupling, electron 3653
  • K. Jin, Y. An, L. Feng, G. Huang, G. Liu, G. Wang, X. Zeng
    USTC/NSRL, Hefei, Anhui
  Hefei Light Source (HLS) is mainly composed of an 800 MeV electron storage ring and a 200 MeV Linac functioning as its injector. The RF system has been improved successfully for HLS storage-ring in NSRL Phase II Project. In this paper, the improvement of generator and power transmission system, the development of a new RF cavity and the perfection of RF controls are described in detail. The results and some analyses are presented.  
WPAT070 500 MHz Coaxial Transition Between the ELETTRA Input Coupler and the Transmission Waveguide injection, resonance, storage-ring, insertion 3810
  • C. Pasotti, A. Fabris, M. Svandrlik
    ELETTRA, Basovizza, Trieste
  The investigations have shown that the 500 MHz ELETTRA input power coupler can safely sustain more than 150 KW. The critical component limiting the increase of the trasmitted RF power is the connection element between the input power coupler and the transmission line. An optimized design has been studied to overcome this limit. During the optimization process, the entire RF chain (input power coupler, connection element and transition to the standard waveguide WR1800) has been verified. The analysis has been carried out to check the performances of the whole lay-out in terms of efficiency of transmitted power and sensitivity to any signal coming from the cavity ( HOMs included). A prototype with an improved cooling system has been realized and tested.  
WPAT080 Calculation of Beam-Loaded Q in High-Power Klystrons gun, klystron, bunching, cathode 4060
  • J.F. DeFord, B. H. Held
    STAR, Inc., Mequon, Wisconsin
  • V. Ivanov, K. Ko
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: Work supported by DOE SBIR Grant DE-FG02-03ER83776.

Instabilities in the gun region of a high-power klystron can occur when there is positive feedback between a mode and an induced current on the quasi-steady state beam emitted by the gun cathode.* This instability is dependent on the gun voltage, is predicted on the basis of a negative beam-loaded Q. The established method for computing the beam-loaded Q of a cavity involves using a time-dependent electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) code to track beam particles through the quasi-static gun fields perturbed by the electromagnetic fields of a cavity eigenmode.** The energy imparted to the beam by the mode is obtained by integrating the Lorentz force along the particle tracks, and this quantity is simply related to the beam-loaded Q. We have developed an alternative approach that yields comparable accuracy but is computationally much simpler. The new method is based on a much simpler time-independent electrostatic PIC calculation, resulting in much faster solutions without loss of accuracy. We will present the theory and implementation of the new method, as well as benchmarks and results from analysis of the XP-4 klystron that show a potential instability near 3 GHz.

*B. Krietenstein, et al., "Spurious oscillations in high-power klystrons," PAC95, 1995. **U. Becker, et al., "Simulation of oscillations in high-power klystrons," EPAC, 1996.

WPAT082 An Improved Pneumatic Frequency Control for Superconducting Cavities feedback, pick-up, heavy-ion, ion 4090
  • G. Zinkann, E. Clifft, S.I. Sharamentov
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: U.S. Department of Energy.

The ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System) superconducting cavities use a pneumatic system to maintain the cavity eigenfrequency at the master oscillator frequency. The present pneumatic slow tuner control has a limitation in the tuning slew rates. In some cases, the frequency slew rate is as low as 30 Hz/sec. The total tuning range for ATLAS cavities varies from 60 KHz to as high as 450 KHz depending on the cavity type. With the present system, if a cavity is at the extreme end of its tuning range, it may take an unacceptable length of time to reach the master oscillator frequency. We have designed a new slow tuner control system that increases the frequency slew rates by at least a factor of ten to a factor of three hundred in the more extreme cases. This improved system is directly applicable for use on the RIA (Rare Isotope Accelerator) cavities. This paper discusses the design of the system and the results of a prototype test.

WPAT084 A NEW DESIGN FOR A SUPER-CONDUCTING CAVITY INPUT COUPLER coupling, electron, resonance, linac 4141
  • H. Matsumoto, S. Kazakov, K. Saito
    KEK, Ibaraki
  Funding: Toshiba Electron Tube & Devices Co. Ltd., Tochigi, Otawa, Japan.

An attractive structure using capacitive coupling has been found for the input coupler for the 45 MV/m versions of the International Linear Collider (ILC) project. The coupler supports an electrical field gradient of ~1 kV/m around the rf window ceramic with 500 kW through power, a VSWR of 1.1 and a frequency bandwidth of 460 MHz. No unwanted resonances were found in the rf window near the first and second harmonics of the operation frequency.

WPAT088 Performance of TESLA Cavities After Fabrication and Preparation in Industry pick-up, electron 4221
  • M. Pekeler, S. Bauer, P. vom Stein
    ACCEL, Bergisch Gladbach
  • W. Anders, J. Knobloch
    BESSY GmbH, Berlin
  • W.-D. Müller
    DESY, Hamburg
  In order to demonstrate cw operation of TESLA cavities in linear accelerators driving FEL applications, two TESLA cavities were manufactured and prepared by ACCEL for BESSY. After production, both cavities were prepared for vertical test at ACCEL's premises using state of the art chemical polishing and high pressure water rinsing techniques. The cavities were tested in DESY's vertical RF test installation. Accelerating gradients close to 25 MV/m were reached. One cavity was completed with a helium vessel modified for cw operation and prepared with chemical polishing, high pressure water rinsing, and assembled with the required High Power Coupler at ACCEL. The fully dressed cavity was then shipped under vacuum to BESSY and tested in the horizontal cryostat HoBiCaT. Horizontal RF test results will be presented and compared with the vertical test results.  
WPAT089 Test Bed for Superconducting Materials coupling, superconducting-RF, superconductivity, resonance 4227
  • C.D. Nantista, V.A. Dolgashev, R. Siemann, S.G. Tantawi, J. Weisend
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • I.E. Campisi
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC03-76SF00515.

Superconducting rf cavities are increasingly used in accelerators. Gradient is a parameter of particular importance for the ILC. Much progress in gradient has been made over the past decade, overcoming problems of multipacting, field emission, and breakdown triggered by surface impurities. However, the quenching limit of the surface magnetic field for niobium remains a hard limitation on cavity fields sustainable with this technology. Further exploration of materials and preparation may offer a path to surpassing the current limit. For this purpose, we have designed a resonant test cavity. One wall of the cavity is formed by a flat sample of superconducting material; the rest of the cavity is copper or niobium. The H field on the sample wall is 74% higher than on any other surface. Multipacting is avoided by use of a mode with no surface electric field. The cavity will be resonated through a coupling iris with high-power rf at superconducting temperature until the sample wall quenches, as detected by a change in the quality factor. This experiment will allow us to measure critical magnetic fields up to well above that of niobium with minimal cost and effort.

WPAT095 Low-Loss Ferroelectric for Accelerator Application coupling, resonance, linear-collider, collider 4305
  • A. Kanareykin
    Euclid TechLabs, LLC, Solon, Ohio
  • A. Dedyk, S.F. Karmanenko
    Eltech University, St. Petersburg
  • E. Nenasheva
    Ceramics Ltd., St. Petersburg
  • V.P. Yakovlev
    Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut
  Funding: U.S. Department of Energy.

Ferroelectric ceramics have an electric field-dependent dielectric permittivity that can be altered by applying a bias voltage. Ferroelectrics have unique intrinsic properties that makes them attractive for high-energy accelerator applications: very small response time of ~ 10-11 sec, considerably high breakdown limit of more than 100 kV/cm, good vacuum properties. Because of these features, bulk ferroelectrics may be used as active elements of tunable accelerator structures,* or in fast, electrically - controlled switches and phase shifters in pulse compressors or power distribution circuits of future linear colliders.** One of the most critical requirements for ferroelectric ceramic in these applications is the dielectric loss factor. In this paper, the new bulk ferroelectric ceramic is presented. The new composition shows a loss tangent of 4× 10-3 at 35 GHz. The ceramics have high tunability factor: the bias voltage of 50 kV/cm was enough to reduce the permittivity from 500 to 400. The material chemical compound, features of the technology process, and mechanical and electrical properties are discussed. The ways of BST ferrolectric parameters further improvement are discussed as well.

*A. Kanareykin, W. Gai, J. Power, E. Sheinman, and A. Altmark, AIP Conf. Proc. 647, Melville, N.Y., 2002, p. 565. **V.P. Yakovlev, O.A. Nezhevenko, J.L. Hirshfield, and A.D. Kanareykin, AIP Conf. Proc. 691, Melville, N.Y., 2003, p.187.

WOAB001 The Australian Synchrotron Project - Update synchrotron, storage-ring, injection, site 102
  • A. Jackson
    ASP, Clayton, Victoria
  The Australian Synchrotron – a synchrotron light facility based on a 3-GeV electron storage ring – is under construction at a site in the Metropolitan District of Melbourne. Building preparation started on a “green-field” site in September 2003 and staff moved in to their new offices in February 2005. Installation of the technical equipment started in April 2005 with all accelerator contracts expected to be completed before April 2006. Storage Ring commissioning with beam will start in June 2006, and project completion is scheduled for March 2007. In this paper we present an overview of the facility and discuss progress to date in meeting this very aggressive schedule.  
WOAB007 SESAME in Jordan dipole, sextupole, synchrotron, injection 586
  • G. Vignola, A. Amro, M. Attal, F. Makahleh, M.M. Shehab, S. Varnasseri
    SESAME, Amman
  An overview of the status of SESAME is presented. SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Application in the Middle East) is an Independent Intergovernmental Organization developed and officially established under the auspices of UNESCO. It involves at the present the following Member States: Bahrain, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey and United Arab Emirates. Moreover the following States are Observer of SESAME Council: France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Russian Federation, Sweden, UK and United States of America. SESAME will become a major international research center in the Middle East, located in Allan, Jordan. The machine design is based on a 2.5 GeV 3rd generation Light Source with an emittance of 26 nm.rad and 11 straights for insertion devices. The conceptual design of the accelerator complex has been frozen and the engineering design is started. The Phase I scientific program for SESAME has also been finalized and it foresees 6 beamlines. The construction of SESAME building is in progress and the beneficial occupancy is expected by the first half of 2006. The completion of the accelerators complex construction is scheduled for the end of 2009.  
WOAB009 Design, Development, Construction and Installation of a Ceramic Chamber for a Pulsed Kicker at the LNLS Storage Ring kicker, synchrotron, booster, storage-ring 689
  • M.J. Ferreira, O.R. Bagnato, R.O. Ferraz, F. R. Francisco, A. L. Gobbi, R.M. Seraphim, M.B. Silva
    LNLS, Campinas
  Funding: MCT - ABTLuS/LNLS.

Following the upgrade of the LNLS injector system with the addition of a 500 MeV booster synchrotron,the storage ring in-vacuum ferrite injection kicker magnets started to show overheating due the interaction with high frequency electromagnetic fields induced by the electron beam. In this paper, we describe the design of a new ceramic chamber for the kickers which minimize this effect by decreasing the coupling impedance of the kickers and their interaction with the electron beam.

WOAD001 Super-B Factories luminosity, background, factory, lattice 64
  • H. Koiso
    KEK, Ibaraki
  Energy-asymmetric electron-positron B factories, KEKB and PEP-II, have been operated at the luminosity frontiers and have delivered the integrated luminosities of a few hundreds of /fb to experiments. For further progress in particle physics, a luminosity of higher than 100/nb/s is strongly required, which means higher beam currents, smaller beta functions at the interaction point, larger beam-beam parameters, shorter bunch lengths, etc. This paper will review major upgrade plans of both machines toward SuperKEKB and Super PEP-II.  
WOAD005 BEPCII Interaction Region Design and Construction Status quadrupole, interaction-region, superconducting-magnet, septum 478
  • Y. Wu, F.S. Chen, X.W. Dai, J.B. Pang, Q.L. Peng, Y. Yang, Z. Yin, C.H. Yu, J.F. Zhang
    IHEP Beijing, Beijing
  • M. Wang
    CAEP/IFP, Mainyang, Sichuan
  BEPC (Beijing Electron Positron Collider) is now upgrading to a double-ring collider with a new and compact interaction region. The multi-purpose superconducting magnets and conventional dual aperture quadrupole magnets are used as final focusing quadrupole in the interaction region .The two beams collide at the interaction point with a cross angle of ±11 mrad and further beams separation is enhanced with the help of a septum bending magnet which locates just beyond the vertically focusing quadrupole and acts on the outgoing beam lines only. This paper will describe the IR design and its construction status.  
WOPB002 Symmetries and Einstein background, coupling, focusing, survey 217
  • M. Kobayashi
    KEK, Ibaraki
  After brief survey of influence of Einstein on current particle physics, fundamental symmetry between particles and antipaticles will be discussed. Existence of antiparticles is an important outcome of special relativity and quantum mechanics and disappearance of antiparticles from the present universe is one of the mysteries in Big Bang cosmology based on the Einstein equation. Remarkable progress has been made recently in the studies on the violation of symmetry between particles and antiparticles with the use of a new type of accelerator. Some of their achievements will be reported.  
ROAC001 Testing of the SNS Superconducting Cavities and Cryomodules SNS, linac, Spallation-Neutron-Source, radiation 34
  • I.E. Campisi
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  Funding: SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge

The superconducting linac for the Spallation Neutron Source is in the process of being commissioned. Eighty-one cavities resonating at 805 MHz are installed in the SNS tunnel in 11 medium beta (.61) cryomodules each containing 3 cavities and 12 high beta (.81) cryomodules each with 4 cavities. The niobium cavities and cryomodules were designed and assembled at Jefferson Lab and installed in the SNS tunnel at Oak Ridge and are operating at 2.1 K. A preliminary test of one medium beta cryomodule was performed at 4.2 K in September 2004. All functional parameters of the cryomodule were proven to meet specifications at that temperature. The Central Helium Liquefier is being commissioned for 2.1 K operation and all cavities will be tested by late Spring 2005. The testing will include all of the functional parameters necessary for beam operation, to be carried out in summer 2005. The focus of the testing is to characterize the cavities’ maximum gradients and that sustained simultaneous operation can be achieved for all the cavities in preparation of beam commissioning. The results of cryomodule and cavity testing in the superconducting linac will be presented.

ROAC004 High Gradient Performance of NLC/GLC X-Band Accelerating Structures linear-collider, collider, linac, target 372
  • S. Doebert, C. Adolphsen, G.B. Bowden, D.L. Burke, J. Chan, V.A. Dolgashev, J.C. Frisch, R.K. Jobe, R.M. Jones, R.E. Kirby, J.R. Lewandowski, Z. Li, D.J. McCormick, R.H. Miller, C.D. Nantista, J. Nelson, C. Pearson, M.C. Ross, D.C. Schultz, T.J. Smith, S.G. Tantawi, J.W. Wang
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • T.T. Arkan, C. Boffo, H. Carter, I.G. Gonin, T.K. Khabiboulline, S.C. Mishra, G. Romanov, N. Solyak
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  • Y. Funahashi, H. Hayano, N. Higashi, Y. Higashi, T. Higo, H. Kawamata, T. Kume, Y. Morozumi, K. Takata, T. T. Takatomi, N. Toge, K. Ueno, Y. Watanabe
    KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki
  Funding: Work Supported by DOE Contract DE-AC02-76F00515.

During the past five years, there has been an concerted effort at FNAL, KEK and SLAC to develop accelerator structures that meet the high gradient performance requirements for the Next Linear Collider (NLC) and Global Linear Collider (GLC) initiatives. The structure that resulted is a 60-cm-long, traveling-wave design with low group velocity (< 4% c) and a 150 degree phase advance per cell. It has an average iris size that produces an acceptable short-range wakefield in the linacs, and dipole mode damping and detuning that adequately suppresses the long-range wakefield. More than eight such structures have operated over 1000 hours at a 60 Hz pulse rate at the design gradient (65 MV/m) and pulse length (400 ns), and have reached breakdown rate levels below the limit for the linear collider. Moreover, the structures are robust in that the breakdown rates continue to decrease over time, and if the structures are briefly exposed to air, the rates recover to their low values within a few days. This paper presents a final summary of the results from this program, which effectively ended last August with the selection of ‘cold’ technology for a next generation linear collider.

ROAC007 RF Breakdown in Normal Conducting Single-cell Structures electron, simulation, ion, linear-collider 595
  • V.A. Dolgashev, C.D. Nantista, S.G. Tantawi
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • Y. Higashi, T. Higo
    KEK, Ibaraki
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

Operating accelerating gradient in normal conducting accelerating structures is often limited by rf breakdown. The limit depends on multiple parameters, including input rf power, rf circuit, cavity shape and material. Experimental and theoretical study of the effects of these parameters on the breakdown limit in full scale structures is difficult and costly. We use 11.4 GHz single-cell traveling wave and standing wave accelerating structures for experiments and modeling of rf breakdown behavior. These test structures are designed so that the electromagnetic fields in one cell mimic the fields in prototype multicell structures for the X-band linear collider. Fields elsewhere in the test structures are significantly lower than that of the single cell. The setup uses matched mode converters that launch the circular TM01 mode into short test structures. The test structures are connected to the mode launchers with vacuum rf flanges. This setup allows economic testing of different cell geometries, cell materials and preparation techniques with short turn-around time. Simple 2D geometry of the test structures simplifies modeling of the breakdown currents and their thermal effects.

ROAC008 Atom Probe Tomography Studies of RF Materials ion, superconducting-RF, target, instrumentation 612
  • J. Norem
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  • P. Bauer
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  • J. Sebastian, D.N. Seidman
    NU, Evanston
  Funding: DOE

We are constructing a facility which combines an atom probe field ion microscope with a multi-element, in-situ deposition and surface modification capability. This system is dedicated to rf studies and the initial goal will be to understand the properties of evaporative coatings: field emission, bonding interdiffusion etc, to suppress breakdown and dark currents in normal cavities. We also hope to use this system to look more generally at interactions of surface structure and high rf fields. We will present preliminary data on structures relevant to normal and superconducting rf systems.

ROAC009 World Record Accelerating Gradient Achieved in a Superconducting Niobium RF Cavity superconductivity, electron, coupling 653
  • R.L. Geng, A.K. Seaman, V.D. Shemelin
    Cornell University, Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Ithaca, New York
  • H. Padamsee
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
  Funding: Work supported by NSF.

On November 16, 2004, an accelerating gradient of 46 MV/m was achieved (CW) in a superconducting niobium cavity with an unloaded quality factor (Q0) over 1·1010 at a temperature of 1.9 K. This represents a world record gradient in a niobium RF resonator. At a reduced temperature of 1.5-1.6 K, an enhanced Q0 was measured, ranging from 7·1010 at 5 MV/m to 2·1010 at 45 MV/m. The 1.3 GHz single-cell cavity has a reduced ratio of Hpk/Eacc, ensured by a reentrant geometry. The maximum peak surface electric and magnetic field exceeded 100 MV/m and 1750 Oe respectively. A soft multipacting barrier (predicted by calculations) was observed near 25 MV/m gradient and was easily processed through. Field emission in the cavity was negligibly small, and the highest field was limited by thermal breakdown. The cavity was built, processed, and tested with LEPP facilities at Cornell University. New techniques included half-cell heat treatment with yttrium for post-purification to RRR = 500, and vertical electropolishing the finished cavity.

ROAC010 Development of Ultra-Fast Silicon Switches for Active X-Band High Power RF Compression Systems simulation, power-supply, insertion, extraction 701
  • J. Guo, S.G. Tantawi
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: DOE

In this paper, we present the recent results of our research on the high power ultra-fast silicon RF switches. This switch is composed of a group of PIN diodes on a high purity SOI (silicon on oxide) wafer. The wafer is inserted into a cylindrical waveguide under T·1001 mode, performing switching by injecting carriers into the bulk silicon. Our current design is using a CMOS compatible process and the fabrication is accomplished at SNF (Stanford Nanofabrication Facility). This design is able to achieve sub-100ns switching time, while the switching speed can be improved further with 3-D device structure and faster circuit. Power handling capacity of the switch is at the level of 10MW. The switch was designed for active X-band RF pulse compression systems - especially for NLC, but it is also possible to be modified for other applications and other frequencies such as L-band.

RPAE031 Progress Report on the Construction of SOLEIL quadrupole, sextupole, power-supply, dipole 2203
  • M.-P. Level, J.C. Besson, P. Brunelle, R. Chaput, A. Dael, J.-C. Denard, J.-M. Filhol, J.M. Godefroy, C. Herbeaux, V. Le Roux, P. Marchand, A. Nadji, L.S.N. Nadolski, R. Nagaoka, M.-A. Tordeux
    SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette
  Funding: SOLEIL

This paper reports the progress achieved in the construction of the accelerators of SOLEIL. Started in January 2002, the construction comes near to its end and the installation of the equipment on the site has begun from September 2004 and shall be completed within one year. The progress on the LINAC and Booster are reported separately, therefore this paper will focus more particularly on the Storage Ring: Dedicated measuring benches have been built to perform the magnetic measurements on all the magnets and the results of measurements have been analysed in term of particle dynamics behaviour in order to prepare the operating point for the commissioning. The status of innovative developments engaged from the beginning as super-conducting RF cavities, NEG coated vacuum chambers and BPMs digital electronics will be described. The construction of the first 6 insertion devices is also well advanced and will be reported. Finally, the machine impedance budget was further evaluated with consequently, still some modifications to the design of some components.

RPAE039 Operation of the ANKA Synchrotron Light Source with Superconductive Undulators undulator, synchrotron, synchrotron-radiation, radiation 2559
  • R. Rossmanith, MH. Hagelstein, B.K. Kostka, A.-S. Müller, D. Wollmann
    FZK, Karlsruhe
  • T. Baumbach, A. Bernhard
    FZ Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe
  • E. Steffens
    Erlangen University, Erlangen
  • M. Weisser
    University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Physikalisches Institut II, Erlangen
  The synchrotron light source ANKA (2.5 GeV, 200 mA) is a versatile multi-purpose storage ring with beam lines for coherent IR and THz radiation (IR-laser), LIGA applications and high brilliance X-rays. It is now plannned to install in addition several superconductive undulators for a wide range of applications: fast tunable X-rays for material research, imaging applications and an undulator with variable polarization direction for a dichroism beamline. This development of ANKA is the result of successful research on superconductive undulators which surpass the performance of permanent undulators by far (collaboration between ANKA, the University of Karlsruhe and the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg). The basic layout of the undulators and the required changes to a storage ring to accommodate the superconductive undulators is described in this paper.  
RPAE044 Operation and Recent Developments of the Photon Factory Advanced Ring injection, single-bunch, emittance, betatron 2845
  • T. Miyajima, T. Abe, W.X. Cheng, K. Ebihara, K. Haga, K. Harada, Y. Hori, T. Ieiri, S. Isagawa, T. Kageyama, T. Kasuga, T. Katoh, H. Kawata, M. Kikuchi, Y. Kobayashi, K. Kudo, T. Mitsuhashi, S. Nagahashi, T.T. Nakamura, H. Nakanishi, T. Nogami, T. Obina, Y. Ohsawa, M. Ono, T. Ozaki, H. Sakai, Y. Sakamoto, S. Sakanaka, M. Sato, M. Satoh, T. Shioya, M. Suetake, R. Sugahara, M. Tadano, T. Takahashi, S. Takasaki, Y. Tanimoto, M. Tejima, K. Tsuchiya, T. Uchiyama, A. Ueda, K. Umemori, N. Yamamoto, S. Yamamoto, S.I. Yoshimoto
    KEK, Ibaraki
  The Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR) is a synchrotron light source dedicated to X-ray research. The PF-AR is usually operated at a beam energy of 6.5 GeV, but a 5.0 GeV mode is also available for medical application. In 6.5 GeV mode the typical lifetime of 15 hrs and the beam current of 60 mA with a single-bunch have been archived. Almost full-time single-bunch operation for pulse X-ray characterize the PF-AR. However, single-bunch high-current caused several problems to be solved, including the temperature rise of the some of the vacuum component, a pressure increase in the ring, and a sudden drop in lifetime. In order to avoid these issues the developments of new methods have been continued. In this paper, the status and the recent developments of the PF-AR will be presented. It concerns: the successful operation with two-bunch high-current in 5.0 GeV mode; varying the vertical beam size for the medical application; modulating the RF acceleration phase in order to elongate the length of bunch; stabilizing temperature in the ring tunnel; the study for medium emittance operation with 160 nmrad; moving the RF cavities in order to install a new insertion device; an innovative injection scheme using a pulsed quadrupole magnet.  
RPAE054 Beam Stability at the Advanced Photon Source photon, insertion, insertion-device, instrumentation 3268
  • G. Decker, O. Singh
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38.

The Advanced Photon Source has been in operation since 1996. Since that time, extensive incremental improvements to orbit stabilization systems have been made. This includes the addition of 80 channels of narrowband rf beam position monitors (bpm's), 40 channels of bending magnet photon bpm's, and most recently the inclusion of 36 insertion device photon bpm's into the orbit correction response matrix. In addition, considerable improvements have been made in the area of power supply regulation, both for the main multipole magnets and the steering corrector magnets. The present status of overall performance will be discussed, including long term pointing stability, reproducibility, and AC beam motion.

RPAE060 Simulation and Automation of the EEBI Test at ALS target, simulation, monitoring, synchrotron 3485
  • H. Nishimura, W.E. Byrne
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098.

The Errant Electron Beam Interlock (EEBI) is a system that protects the vacuum chamber of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) from synchrotron light damage should the orbit, through a superconducting bend magnet (superbend), become distorted. The EEBI system monitors the vertical beam position on two BPMs, one upstream and the other downstream, of the superbend and dumps the stored beam if the orbit exceeds preset limits in either offset or angle. Discussed are the modeling studies carried out to determine how to create a large vertical bump, both for performing the test and implementing the automated test software.

RPAE074 Recommissioning of Duke Storage Ring with a HOM-Damped RF Cavity and a New Straight Section Lattice for FELs wiggler, storage-ring, lattice, injection 3934
  • Y.K. Wu, M.D. Busch, M. Emamian, J.F. Faircloth, J. Gustavsson, S.M. Hartman, C. Howell, M. Johnson, J. Li, S. Mikhailov, O. Oakeley, J. Patterson, M. Pentico, V. Popov, V. Rathbone, G. Swift, P.W. Wallace, P. Wang
    DU/FEL, Durham, North Carolina
  Funding: This work is supported by the U.S. AFOSR MFEL grant F49620-001-0370 and by U.S. DoE grant DE-FG02-01ER41175.

The Duke FEL lab operates a unique UV/VUV storage ring FEL and an FEL driven, nearly monochromatic, highly polarized, high intensity Compton gamma-ray source. The Duke storage ring light source is undergoing several phases of upgrade in order to significantly improve light source capabilities and performance. The 2004 phase included an upgrade of the RF system with a high-order mode damped RF cavity and a new 34 meter long straight section lattice to host new FEL wigglers in the next phase. This upgrade was completed in August 2004 and storage ring and light source commissioning were completed in November 2004. This paper will provide an overview of this upgrade project and report our commissioning experience of the storage ring and light sources.

RPAE078 Commissioning of SAGA Light Source linac, electron, injection, septum 4021
  • T. Tomimasu, Y. Iwasaki, S. Koda, Y. Takabayashi, K. Yoshida
    Saga Synchrotron Light Source, Industry Promotion Division, Saga City
  • H. Ohgaki
    Kyoto IAE, Kyoto
  • H. Toyokawa, M.Y. Yasumoto
    AIST, Ibaraki
  The SAGA Light Source (SAGA-LS) consists of a 250-MeV electron linac injector and an eight-hold symmetry 1.4-GeV storage ring with eight double-bend (DB) cell and eight 2.93-m long straight sections. The DB cell structure with a distributed dispersion system was chosen to produce a compact ring of 75.6-m long circumference. The machine construction begun September 29, 2003. The ring magnets of steel laminated structure, vacuum chambers made of aluminum alloy, pumping systems and four temperature controlled cooling water systems for the linac accelerating wave guides etc. were installed in March, 2004. The injector, a 500-MHz ring rf damped cavity, rf klystrons, beam transport systems for injection and their controlled systems were installed in July, 2004. The commissioning begun August 25, 2004. A 250-MeV beam was accelerated on September 29. The beam size is 1-mm in diameter and the energy spread is 0.8 % (FWHM). The first revolution of 250-MeV beam around the ring took place October 22. Beam was stored on November 12. The commissioning continues for beam storage and ramping to 1.4-GeV. We report a brief description of SAGA light source and early commissioning activities.  
RPAE087 Progress of the Synchrotron Light Source ALBA lattice, storage-ring, synchrotron, quadrupole 4203
  • D. Einfeld, E. Al-Dmour, J. Campmany, M. Muñoz, M. Pont, F. Pérez
    CELLS, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès)
  ALBA will be a third generation synchrotron light source built in Spain near Barcelona. Commissioning of the storage ring is foreseen to start at the end of 2008. The design phase of ALBA is almost completed and the first components are ready to be ordered. A 100 MeV LINAC will inject electrons into a nominal energy booster synchrotron of similar circumference as the storage ring, so that both accelerators will share the same tunnel. The storage ring, working at 3 GeV with a circumference of 268.8 m, has been designed for a maximum current of 400 mA. The lattice is based on an extended DBA structure and has a nominal emittance of 4 nm.rad.The machine has a four fold symmetry with 4 long straight sections (8 m), 12 medium (4.2 m) and 8 short (2.6 m). This report concentrates on recent design developments, component choices and current status. Another paper at this conference deals with accelerator physics issues.  
RPAP002 A CW RFQ Accelerator for Deuterons rfq, simulation, alignment, injection 794
  • P. Fischer, A. Schempp
    IAP, Frankfurt-am-Main
  • J. Haeuser
    NTG Neue Technologien GmbH & Co KG, Gelnhausen
  Funding: BMBF

A four-rod RFQ accelerator is being built to accelerate deuterons from 20 keV to 3 MeV. At an operating frequency of 176 MHz the length is 3.8 m and the power consumption 250 kW, the beam current 5 mA. A special feature is the CW-mode operation. The status of the project and properties of the RFQ will be discussed.

RPAP017 Industrial Electron Accelerators Type ILU electron, extraction, cathode, shielding 1572
  • V. Auslender, A.A. Bryazgin, V.G. Cheskidov, B.L. Faktorovich, V. Gorbunov, I.V. Gornakov, V.E. Nekhaev, A.D. Panfilov, A.V. Sidorov, V.O. Tkachenko, A.F.A. Tuvik, L.A. Voronin
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk
  The report describes the electron accelerators of ILU series covering the energy range from 0.5 to 5 MeV with beam power up to 50 kW. The pulse linear accelerators type ILU are developed since 1970 in Budker institute of Nuclear Physics and are supplied to the industry. The ILU machines are purposed for wide application in various technological processes and designed for long continuous and round-the-clock work in industrial conditions. A principle of acceleration of electrons in the gap of HF resonator is used in the ILU machines. The HF resonator has toroidal form. The electron gun is placed in one of the protruding electrodes forming the accelerating gap of the resonator. The resonator is fed from HF autogenerator realized on the industrial triode, the feedback signal is given from the resonator. The absence of outer beam injection and usage of self-excited HF generator simplify the design of accelerator and ensure its reliable operation.  
RPAP025 A 7MeV S-Band 2998MHz Variable Pulse Length Linear Accelerator System gun, electron, linac, power-supply 1895
  • M. Hernandez, H. Deruyter, D. Skowbo, R.R. Smith
    Accuray, Inc, Mountain View, California
  • A.V. Mishin, A.J. Saverskiy
    AS&E, Billerica, Massachusetts
  American Science and Engineering High Energy Systems Division (AS&E HESD) has designed and commissioned a variable pulse length 7 MeV electron accelerator system. The system is capable of delivering a 7 MeV electron beam with a pulse length of 10 nS FWHM and a peak current of 1 ampere. The system can also produce electron pulses with lengths of 20, 50, 100, 200, 400 nS and 3 uS FWHM with corresponding lower peak currents. The accelerator system consists of a gridded electron gun, focusing coil, an electrostatic deflector system, Helmholtz coils, a standing wave side coupled S-band linac, a 2.6 MW peak power magnetron, an RF circulator, a fast toroid, vacuum system and a PLC/PC control system. The system has been operated at repetition rates up to 250pps. The design, simulations and experimental results from the accelerator system are presented in this paper.  
RPAT031 Beam Profile Measurement with Flying Wires at the Fermilab Recycler Ring emittance, antiproton, lattice, scattering 2182
  • M. Hu, R. H. Carcagno, J. Krider, E. Lorman, A. Marchionni, Y.M.P. Pischalnikov, S. Pordes, D. Slimmer, J. Wilson, J.R. Zagel
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  The Fermilab Recycler Ring is a high vacuum fixed energy antiproton storage ring with stochastic and electron cooling systems. Flying wires were installed at the Fermilab Recycler Ring for transverse beam profile measurement. The following note describes the system configuration, calibration and resolution of the flying wire system, as well as analysis of the transverse beam profile in the presence of both cooling systems.  
RPAT032 An Ionization Profile Monitor for the Tevatron electron, ion, injection, collider 2227
  • A. Jansson, M. Bowden, K. Bowie, A. Bross, R. Dysert, T. Fitzpatrick, R. Kwarciany, C. Lundberg, H. Nguyen, C.H. Rivetta, D. Slimmer, L. Valerio, J.R. Zagel
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

Primarily to study emittance blowup during injection and ramping, an ionization profile monitor has been developed for the Tevatron. It is based on a prototype installed in the Main Injector, although with extensive modifications. In particular, the electromagnetic shielding has been improved, the signal path has been cleaned up, and provisions have been made for an internal electron source. Due to the good Tevatron vacuum, a local pressure bump is introduced to increase the primary signal, which is then amplified by a microchannel plate and detected on anode strips. For the DAQ, a custom ASIC developed for the CMS experiment is used. It is a combined charge integrator and digitizer, with a sensitivity of a few fC, and a time-resolution that allows single bunch measurement. Digitization is done in the tunnel to reduce noise. Preparations for detector installation were made during the long 2004 shutdown, with the installation of magnets, vacuum chambers, vacuum pumps and cabling. The actual detector will be installed sometime during the spring fo 2005. This paper describes the design of the detector and associated electronics and presents various bench test results.

RPAT039 Feasibility Study of Using an Electron Beam for Profile Measurements in the SNS Accumulator Ring electron, proton, SNS, simulation 2586
  • A.V. Aleksandrov, S. Assadi, S.M. Cousineau, V.V. Danilov, S. Henderson, M.A. Plum
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  • P.V. Logatchev, A.A. Starostenko
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk
  Funding: SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy.

The design goal for the SNS ring is to accumulate 2·1014 protons per 1ms pulse at a 60Hz repetition rate. Achieving the design beam intensity with acceptable losses is a challenging task, which could be tackled more easily if reliable measurements of the beam profile in the ring are available. The high power density of the beam precludes the use of conventional wire scanners or harps and therefore non-interceptive types of profiles measurements are required. The electron beam probe method was suggested for measuring profiles in high power beams. In this method, deflection of a low energy electron beam by the collective field of the high intensity beam is measured. The charge density in the high intensity beam can be restored under certain conditions or estimated by various mathematical techniques. We studied the feasibility of using the electron beam probe for the SNS accumulator ring using computer simulations of the diagnostic setup. A realistic electron gun model and realistic proton beam distributions were used in the simulations. Several profile calculation techniques were explored and the results are reported in this paper.

RPAT062 Design and Operation of a Radiative Bhabha Luminosity Monitor for CESR-c luminosity, photon, monitoring, positron 3564
  • M.A. Palmer, D. L. Rubin, J.C. Smith
    Cornell University, Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Ithaca, New York
  • M. Cravey, J. Napalitano
    RPI, Troy, New York
  • V. Crede
    Cornell University, Department of Physics, Ithaca, New York
  • K.L. Dooley
    Vassar, Poughkeepsie, New York
  • H. Vogel
    CMU, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
  Funding: Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

The CLEO-c experiment at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) is presently embarking on a multi-year exploration of charm and QCD physics in the 3-5 GeV center-of-mass energy range. In order to facilitate rapid optimization of machine parameters over this energy range, a luminosity monitor based on the measurement of radiative-bhabha photons coming from the CLEO-c interaction point (IP) has been designed and installed in the CESR ring. Key design criteria of the device include: better than 1% statistical measurements of the luminosity with a 1 Hz update rate over the full range of CESR-c operating conditions; bunch-by-bunch measurement capability; a large horizontal aperture to enable measurements under conditions ranging from single-bunch head-on collisions to multi-bunch collisions with a horizontal crossing angle of up to 4~mrad; and, a segmented readout to provide direct information on beam characteristics at the IP. We review the design and performance of this device and discuss its application to machine tuning and performance studies.

RPAT064 Beam-Based Calibration of the Electron Energy in the Fermilab Electron Cooler electron, antiproton, dipole, kicker 3638
  • S. Seletsky
    Rochester University, Rochester, New York
  • A.V. Shemyakin
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Electron cooling of 8.9 GeV antiprotons in the Fermilab’s Recycler ring requires precise matching of electron and antiproton velocities. While the final match can be done by optimization of the cooling process, for the very first cooling one should rely on the knowledge of absolute values of electron and antiproton energies. The upper limit for the energy uncertainty of both beams is determined by the Recycler’s momentum aperture and is equal to 0.3%. The paper discusses a method of the electron energy calibration that is based on the measurement of the electron’s Larmor wavelength in the field of the cooling section solenoid. The method was tested in an 18 m long cooling section prototype with 3.5 MeV electrons. An accuracy of 0.3% was demonstrated.  
RPAT065 A Wire Scanner Design for Electron Beam Profile Measurement in the Linac Coherent Light Source Undulator electron, undulator, linac, impedance 3667
  • J.L. Bailey, T.W. Buffington, B.X. Yang
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: Work supported by U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38.

The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), currently under design, requires beam diagnostic instruments between the magnets in the beam undulator section. Ten wire scanners are planned as one of the primary instruments to characterize electron beam properties. The development of these wire scanners presents several design challenges due to the need for high accuracy and resolution of the wire motion (3 microns tolerance, typical) and the high intensity of the beam (3400 A over an area of 30 micron rms radius). In this paper, we present the technical specification and design criteria for the scanners. We will also present the mechanical design of the UHV-compatible drive and its engineering analysis. Lastly, we present the wire card design and discuss associated thermal and mechanical issues originating from the highly intense x-ray and electron beams.

RPAT070 Mechanical and Thermal Design of the CEBAF Hall A Beam Calorimeter radiation, electron, simulation, target 3819
  • M.E. Bevins, A.R. Day, P. Degtiarenko, L.A. Dillon-Townes, A. Freyberger, R. Gilman, A. Saha, S. Slachtouski
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Funding: DOE.

A calorimeter has been proposed to provide 0.5% - 1.0% absolute measurements of beam current in the Hall A end station of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) CEBAF machine. Silver and copper calorimeters built in the 1960’s achieved precisions of about 1%. Modern powder metallurgy processes have produced high density, high thermal conductivity tungsten-copper composite materials that will minimize beam loss while maintaining a rapid thermal response time. Heat leaks will be minimized by mounting the mass in vacuum on glass ceramic mounts. A conduction cooling scheme utilizes an advanced carbon fiber compliant thermal interface material. Transient finite difference and finite element models were developed to estimate heat leaks and thermal response times.

RPAT078 Bunch Length Measurements Using Coherent Radiation radiation, electron, plasma, acceleration 4027
  • R. Ischebeck, C.D. Barnes, I. Blumenfeld, F.-J. Decker, M.J. Hogan, R.H. Iverson, P. Krejcik, R. Siemann, D.R. Walz
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • C.E. Clayton, C. Huang, D.K. Johnson, W. Lu, K.A. Marsh
    UCLA, Los Angeles, California
  • S. Deng, E. Oz
    USC, Los Angeles, California
  • N.A. Kirby
    Stanford University, Stanford, Califormia
  Funding: Work supported by Department of Energy contracts DE-AC02-76SF00515 (SLAC), DE-FG03-92ER40745, DE-FG03-98DP00211, DE-FG03-92ER40727, DE-AC-0376SF0098, and National Science Foundation grants No. ECS-9632735, DMS-9722121 and PHY-0078715.

The accelerating field that can be obtained in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator depends on the current of the electron beam that excites the wake. In the E-167 experiment, a peak current above 10kA will be delivered at a particle energy of 28GeV. The bunch has a length of a few ten micrometers and several methods are used to measure its longitudinal profile. Among these, autocorrelation of coherent transition radiation (CTR) is employed. The beam passes a thin metallic foil, where it emits transition radiation. For wavelengths greater than the bunch length, this transition radiation is emitted coherently. This amplifies the long-wavelength part of the spectrum. A scanning Michelson interferometer is used to autocorrelate the CTR. However, this method requires the contribution of many bunches to build an autocorrelation trace. The measurement is influenced by the transmission characteristics of the vacuum window and beam splitter. We present here an analysis of materials, as well as possible layouts for a single shot CTR autocorrelator.

ROAB001 DARHT-II Long-Pulse Beam-Dynamics Experiments induction, electron, ion, background 19
  • C. Ekdahl, E.O. Abeyta, R. Bartsch, L. Caudill, K.-C.D. Chan, D. Dalmas, S. Eversole, R.J. Gallegos, J. Harrison, M. Holzscheiter, E. Jacquez, J. Johnson, B.T. McCuistian, N. Montoya, S. Nath, K. Nielsen, D. Oro, L. Rodriguez, P. Rodriguez, L.J. Rowton, M. Sanchez, R. Scarpetti, M. Schauer, D. Simmons, H.V. Smith, J. Studebaker, G. Sullivan, C. Swinney, R. Temple
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
  • H. Bender, W. Broste, C. Carlson, G. Durtschi, D. Frayer, D. Johnson, K. Jones, A. Meidinger, K.J. Moy, R. Sturgess, A. Tipton, C.-Y. Tom
    Bechtel Nevada, Los Alamos, New Mexico
  • R.J. Briggs
    SAIC, Alamo, California
  • Y.-J. Chen, T.L. Houck
    LLNL, Livermore, California
  • S. Eylon, W.M. Fawley, E. Henestroza, S. Yu
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  • T.P. Hughes, C. Mostrom, Y. Tang
    ATK-MR, Albuquerque, New Mexico
  • M.E. Schulze
    GA, San Diego, California
  Funding: This work was supported by the U.S. National Nuclear Security Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy under contract W-7405-ENG-36.

When completed, the DARHT-II linear induction accelerator (LIA) will produce a 2-kA, 18-MeV electron beam with more than 1500-ns current/energy "flat-top." In initial tests DARHT-II has already accelerated beams with current pulse lengths from 500-ns to 1200-ns full-width at half maximum (FWHM) with more than1.2-kA, 12.5-MeV peak current and energy. Experiments are now underway with a ~2000-ns pulse length, but reduced current and energy. These pulse lengths are all significantly longer than any other multi-MeV LIA, and they define a novel regime for high-current beam dynamics, especially with regard to beam stability. Although the initial tests demonstrated absence of BBU, the pulse lengths were too short to test the predicted protection against ion-hose instability. The present experiments are designed to resolve these and other beam-dynamics issues with a ~2000-ns pulse length beam.

ROAB005 Helical Pulseline Structures for Ion Acceleration ion, acceleration, coupling, induction 440
  • R.J. Briggs
    SAIC, Alamo, California
  • L. R. Reginato, W. Waldron
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  Funding: This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Contract DE-AC03-76SF00098.

The basic concept of the "Pulseline Ion Accelerator" involves launching a ramped high voltage pulse on a broad band traveling wave (slow-wave) structure. An applied voltage pulse at the input end with a segment rising linearly in time becomes a linear voltage ramp in space that propagates down the line, corresponding to a (moving) region of constant axial accelerating electric field. The ions can "surf" on this traveling wave, experiencing a total energy gain that can greatly exceed the peak of the applied voltage. The applied voltage waveform can also be shaped to longitudinally confine the beam against its own space charge forces, and (in the final stage) to impart an inward compression to the beam for neutralized drift compression in heavy ion HEDP applications. In the first stages of a heavy ion accelerator, the pulseline velocity needs to be the order of 1% of the speed of light and the line must be sufficiently non-dispersive for the broad band voltage pulse propagating down the line to have minimal distortion. Experimental characterization of the dispersion and pulse propagation at low voltage on several helix models will be presented, and compared with theoretical predictions.*

*Caporaso, et al, "Dispersion Analysis of the Pulseline Accelerator," this conference.

ROAB006 Pulsed Power Drivers and Diodes for X-Ray Radiography pulsed-power, electron, impedance, plasma 510
  • K.J. Thomas
    AWE, Reading
  Flash radiography has been used as a diagnostic for explosively driven hydrodynamics experiments for several decades following the pioneering work of J C Martin and his group at AWE. Relatively simple pulsed power drivers operating between 1 and 10 MV coupled to experimentally optimised electron beam diodes have achieved great success in a number of different classes of these experiments. The next generation of radiographic facilities will aim to improve even further the radiographic performance achievable by developing both the electron beam diodes used and the accelerators that drive them. The application of the rod-pinch diode to an Inductive Voltage Adder at 2 MV in the US has already advanced the quality of radiography available for relatively thin objects. For the thickest objects accelerators operating at up to 15 MV and diodes capable of focusing electron beams to intensities of ~ 1 MA/cm2 for tens of nanoseconds will be required in the future. Since the various candidate diode configurations operate in both high and low impedance regimes there is a further challenge to design and engineer an accelerator capable of driving whichever one, or more, are eventually used.  
ROAB008 Solid-State Modulators for RF and Fast Kickers kicker, impedance, induction, power-supply 637
  • E.G. Cook, G.L. Akana, E. J. Gower, S.A. Hawkins, B. C. Hickman
    LLNL, Livermore, California
  • C. A. Brooksby
    Bechtel Nevada, Los Alamos, New Mexico
  • R. Cassel, J. E. De Lamare, M.N. Nguyen, G.C. Pappas
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

As the capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.

ROAB010 Development of a Compact Radiography Accelerator Using Dielectric Wall Accelerator Technology laser, cathode, pulsed-power, acceleration 716
  • S. Sampayan, G.J. Caporaso, Y.-J. Chen, S.A. Hawkins, L. Holmes, J.F. McCarrick, S.D. Nelson, C. Nunnally, B.R. Poole, A. Rhodes, M. Sanders, S. Sullivan, L. Wang, J.A. Watson
    LLNL, Livermore, California
  Funding: This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

We are developing of a compact accelerator system primarily intended for pulsed radiography. Design characteristics are an 8 MeV endpoint energy, 2 kA beam current and a cell gradient of approximately 3 MV/m. Overall length of the device is below 3 m. Such compact designs have been made possible with the development of high specific energy dielectrics (> 10 J/cc), specialized transmission line designs and multi-gap laser-triggered low jitter (<1 ns) gas switches. In this geometry, the pulse forming lines, switches and insulator/beam pipe are fully integrated within each cell to form a compact stand-alone stackable unit. We detail our research and modeling to date, recent high voltage test results, and the integration concept of the cells into a radiographic system.

ROAD001 Recent Progress in Power Refrigeration Below 2 K for Superconducting Accelerators collider, SNS, hadron, superconductivity 9
  • S.D. Claudet
    CERN, Geneva
  As a result of technico-economical optimization and quest for increased performance, 2 K cryogenics is now present in large accelerator projects using superconducting magnets or acceleration cavities. Consequently, large cryogenic systems producing refrigeration capacity below 2 K in the kW range and with high efficiency over a large dynamic range are needed. After CEBAF and SNS, this is now the case for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project at CERN for which eight 2.4 kW @ 1.8 K refrigeration units are needed to cool each a 3.3 km long sector of high-field magnets. Combining cold hydrodynamic compressors in series with warm volumetric compressors, complete pre-series units as well as sets of series cold compressors have been intensively tested and validated from two different industrial suppliers. After recalling the possible 2 K refrigeration cycles and their comparative merits, this paper describes the specific features of the LHC system and presents the achieved performance with emphasis on the progress in terms of efficiency, operational compliance, reliability and maintenance. Perspectives of application to a future International Linear Collider based on cold RF technology are then briefly evoked.  
ROAD002 Remote Handling in High-Power Proton Facilities target, SNS, proton, shielding 174
  • G.R. Murdoch
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  Design for remote handling of highly activated accelerator components is becoming more prevalent as proton facilities are designed and constructed to provide ever-increasing beam powers. During operation of these facilities it is expected that many components will become activated, consequently mechanical engineering design work must address this issue if components are to be maintained by traditional hands-on methods. These design issues are not new and operating proton facilities around the world have gone through the same process to varying degrees. In this paper we discuss the design and design philosophy of remote handling of active accelerator components, using as examples designs which have been proven at operating facilities, as well as new approaches which are being incorporated into accelerator facilities under construction, such as the Spallation Neutron Source and J-PARC.

SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge.

ROAD005 Status of NEG Coating at ESRF insertion, insertion-device, quadrupole, storage-ring 422
  • M. Hahn
    ESRF, Grenoble
  • R. Kersevan
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  The ESRF non-evaporable getter (NEG) coating facility is in operation since two years now. A large part of the insertion device straight sections of the electron storage ring has been equipped with in-house coated 5m long aluminum vacuum chambers with an inner vertical aperture of 8 mm. Operational experience with different coating parameters leading to different film thicknesses will be given and compared to bremsstrahlung data. The paper deals also with improvements of the coating production and chamber preparation, and describes some aspects of NEG coating data acquisition, visualization, and remote control. The R&D program leading to a more powerful DC solenoidal coating tool to further improve the NEG coating production throughput and quality aspects is also discussed.  
ROPB001 Suppressing Electron Cloud in Future Linear Colliders electron, simulation, damping, collider 24
  • M.T.F. Pivi, R.E. Kirby, T.O. Raubenheimer
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • F. Le Pimpec
    PSI, Villigen
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. DOE under contract DE-AC02- 76SF00515.

Any accelerator circulating positively charged beams can suffer from a build-up of an electron cloud in the beam pipe. The cloud develops through ionization of residual gases, synchrotron radiation and secondary electron emission and, when severe, can cause instability, emittance blow-up or loss of the circulating beam. The electron cloud is potentially a limiting effect for both the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the International Linear Collider (ILC). For the ILC positron damping ring, the development of the electron cloud must be suppressed. This paper presents the various effects of the electron cloud and evaluates their significance. It also discusses the state-of-the-art of the ongoing international R&D program to study potential remedies to reduce the secondary electron yield to acceptably low levels.

ROPB005 Recent Experiment Results on Fast Ion Instability at 2.5 GeV PLS ion, simulation, storage-ring, damping 466
  • E.-S. Kim, Y.J. Han, J.Y. Huang, I.S. Ko, P.C.D. Park, S.J. Park
    PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk
  • H. Hukuma, H. Ikeda
    KEK, Ibaraki
  We present recent experiment results on the fast ion instability that were performed at the PLS storage ring. With higher vacuum pressures of three orders of magnitude than nominal one by He gas injection into the ring, increases of a factor of around three in the vertical beam size were observed by interferometer system. From the various measurement results, we estimated growth times for the instability as a funcion of vacuum pressure and beam current. We also compared the results with those of the computer simulations and analytical calculations.  
RPPE002 Installation and Radiation Maintenance Scenario for J-PARC 50 GeV Synchrotron radiation, beam-losses, shielding, extraction 835
  • M. Yoshioka, H. Kobayashi, T. Oogoe, Y. Takeuchi, Y. Watanabe
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • Y. Kuniyasu
    MELCO SC, Tsukuba
  • H. Oki, Y. Takiyama
  Funding: Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Technology, Japan

J-PARC comprises a 400 MeV linac (181 MeV at the first stage), a 3 GeV rapid-cycling synchrotron and a 50 GeV synchrotron (Main Ring), which will provide high power proton beam to the material and life science facility, the neutrino facility and the nuclear and particle physics experimental hall. The installation of the accelerator components for the Main Ring will be started on mid. 2005 and the beam commissioning is scheduled in end of 2007. This paper describes the installation scenario of the accelerator components into the main ring tunnel and the development of radiation maintenance scenario for the beam injection and ejection systems.

RPPE008 Water Induced Vibration in the NSRRC quadrupole, damping, storage-ring, coupling 1102
  • D.-J. Wang, H.C. Ho, Z.-D. Tsai, J. Wang
    NSRRC, Hsinchu
  Water flow related vibrations were found on the spectrum of electron beam position monitor in the NSRRC. They were associated with the vibrations of quadrupole magnets. One major vibration source was from a pump in the cooling water system. Most amount of vibration coupled through water pipe and water flow and propagated to the magnets. A small water flow station was set up to study the effect about coupling, propagating and excitation. Some damping schemes tested in the ring to improve the vibration are also included..  
RPPE010 Beam Transport Devices for the 10kW Free Electron Laser at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility laser, electron, beam-transport, photon 1210
  • L.A. Dillon-Townes, C.P. Behre, M.E. Bevins, G.H. Biallas, D. Douglas, C.W. Gould, J.G. Gubeli, D.H. Kashy, R. Lassiter, L. Munk, G. Neil, M.D. Shinn, S. Slachtouski, D. Waldman
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Funding: Department of Energy

The beam transport vacuum components for the 10 kW Free Electron Laser (FEL) at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) were designed to address 10 MeV electron beam characteristics and maintain an accelerator transport vacuum of 10-9 torr. The components discussed include a novel zero length beam clipper, novel shielded bellows, one decade differential pumping stations with a 7.62 cm (3.0”) aperture, and a 50 kW beam dump. Incorporation of these accelerator transport components assist in establishing the environment needed for the electron beam to produce the optical light required to lase at 10 kW.

RPPE029 Rotating Aperture Deuterium Gas Cell Development for High Brightness Neutron Production linac, beam-transport, optics, target 2074
  • B. Rusnak, M. Hall, S. Shen
    LLNL, Livermore, California
  Funding: This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

A project is underway at LLNL to design and build a system for fast neutron imaging. The approach being pursued will use a 7 MeV deuterium linac for producing high-energy neutrons via a D(d,n)3He reaction. To achieve a high-brightness neutron source, a windowless rotating aperture gas cell approach is being employed. Using a series of close-tolerance rotor and stator plates, a differential pumping assembly has been designed and built that contains up to 3 atmospheres of deuterium gas in a 40 mm long gas cell. Rarefaction of the gas due to beam-induced heating will be addressed by rapidly moving the gas across the beam channel in a crossflow tube. The design and fabrication process has been guided by extensive 3D modeling of the hydrodynamic gas flow and structural dynamics of the assembly. Summaries of the modeling results, the fabrication and assembly process for the rotating aperture system, and initial measurements of gas leakage shall be presented.

RPPE032 Measurement of the Secondary Emission Yield of a Thin Diamond Window in Transmission Mode electron, gun, cathode, linac 2251
  • X.Y. Chang, I. Ben-Zvi, A. Burrill, S. Hulbert, P.D.J. Johnson, J. Kewisch, T. Rao, Z. Segalov, J. Smedley, Y. Zhao
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  The secondary emission enhanced photoinjector (SEEP) is a promising new approach to the generation of high-current, high-brightness electron beams. A low current primary electron beam with energy of a few thousand electron-volts strikes a specially prepared diamond window which emits secondary electrons with a current two orders of magnitude higher. The secondary electrons are created at the back side of the diamond and drift through the window under the influence of a strong electrical field. A hydrogen termination at the exit surface of the window creates a negative electron affinity (NEA) which allows the electrons to leave the diamond. An experiment was performed to measure the secondary electron yield and other properties. The results are discussed in this paper.  
RPPE033 Engineering the SNS RTBT/Target Interface for Remote Handling SNS, shielding, target, proton 2278
  • M. Holding, C.M. Hammons, B.R. Lang, G.R. Murdoch, K.G. Potter, R.T. Roseberry
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  The SNS facility is designed for a 1.4MW 1.0GeV proton beam and the interface region of this beam with the Hg spallation target will be highly activated. This installation is located about fifteen feet below the access floor and the activity levels in the RTBT/Target interface are sufficiently high to warrant the application of Remote Handling techniques. The installed components are manufactured from radiation hard materials with serviceability beyond the lifetime of the machine, and all connections and mechanisms have been simplified to allow remote handling. The application of pneumatics to facilitate the assembly of major components and to the operation of moveable diagnostics has produced some unique design solutions.  
RPPE034 Measurements of the Energy Deposition Profile for 238U Ions with Energy 500 and 950 MEV/U in Stainless Steel and Copper Targets ion, target, heavy-ion, energy-calibration 2318
  • E. Mustafin, I. Hofmann, D. Schardt, K. Weyrich
    GSI, Darmstadt
  • A. Fertman, A. Golubev, A. Kantsyrev, V. Luckjashin
    ITEP, Moscow
  • A. Gnutov, A. Kunin, Y. Panova, V. Vatulin
    VNIIEF, Sarov (Nizhnii Gorod)
  • L.N. Latysheva, N. Sobolevskiy
    RAS/INR, Moscow
  Funding: Supported by the grant of the GSI-INTAS #03-54-3588.

Sub-millimeter wall thickness is foreseen for the vacuum tubes in the magnets of the superconducting dipoles of the SIS100 and SIS300 of the FAIR Project. The Bragg peak of the energy deposition by the U ions in these walls may lie dangerously close to the superconducting cables. Thus the precise knowledge of the dE/dx profile is essential for estimating the heat load by the lost ions in the vicinity of the superconducting wires. Here we present the results of the measurement of the U ion beam energy deposition profile in Cu and stainless steel targets and compare the measured data with the Monte-Carlo simulation using the SHIELD code.

RPPE036 Pressure Field Distribution in a Conical Tube with Transient and Outgassing Gas Sources radiation, electron, storage-ring 2422
  • F.T. Degasperi
    FATEC-SP, Sao Paulo, SP
  • M.N. Martins, J. Takahashi
    USP/LAL, Bairro Butantan
  • L.L. Verardi
    IBILCE - UNESP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP
  Funding: Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo - FAPESP Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico - CNPq

This work presents numerical results for the pressure field distribution along the axis of conical tube with outgassing plus a transient degassing. Several areas of applied physics deal with problems in high-vacuum and ultra high-vacuum technology that present tubular form. In many cases one finds conical tubes, which are frequently present in particle accelerators, colliders, storage rings and several electron devices. This work presents and describes in detail the pressure field in a conical tube with a transient gas source, for instance, when particles from the beam hit the walls, plus the steady state outgassing. Mathematical and physical formulations are detailed, and the boundary conditions are discussed. These concepts and approach are applied to usual realistic cases, with typical laboratory dimensions.

RPPE037 The Vacuum System for PETRA III radiation, dipole, synchrotron, undulator 2473
  • M. Seidel, R. Bospflug, J. Boster, W. Giesske, U. Naujoks, M. Schwartz
    DESY, Hamburg
  It is planned to rebuild the storage ringe PETRA II, presently used as pre-accelerator of HERA, into a high performance synchrotron light source. By making use of the large circumference and the installation of damping wigglers it will be possible to achieve exceptionally small emittances in the new storage ring. The requirements for the vacuum system are more advanced in the new storage ring as well. Besides the goal to achieve low pressures and fast conditioning times a major key for the new ring is a very high orbit stability which implies high thermal stability of BPM's and other vacuum components. We describe the basic concepts for chamber layout, pumping schemes, synchrotron radiation absorption and mechanical stability for the standard arcs and the experimental octant. Furthermore the expected performance will be discussed.  
RPPE039 Alumina Ceramics Vacuum Duct for the 3GeV-RCS of the J-PARC impedance, dipole, electron, quadrupole 2604
  • M. Kinsho
    Japan Atomic Energy Institute, Linac Laboratory, Tokai-Mura
  • Z. Kabeya
    MHI, Nagoya
  • N. Ogiwara
    JAERI/J-PARC, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken
  • Y. Saito
    KEK, Ibaraki
  It was success to develop alumina ceramics vacuum ducts for the 3GeV-RCS of J-PARC at JAERI. There are two types of alumina ceramics vacuum ducts needed, one being 1.5m-long duct with a circular cross section for use in the quadrupole magnet, the other being 3.5m-long and bending 15 degrees, with a race-track cross section for use in the dipole magnet. These ducts could be manufactured by joining several duct segments of 0.5-0.8 m in length by brazing. The alumina ceramics ducts have copper stripes on the outside surface of the ducts to reduce the duct impedance. One of the ends of each stripe is connected to a titanium flange by way of a capacitor so to interrupt an eddy current circuit. The copper stripes are produced by an electroforming method in which a stripe pattern formed by Mo-Mn metallization is first sintered on the exterior surface and then overlaid by PR-electroformed copper (Periodic current Reversal electroforming method). In order to reduce emission of secondary electrons when protons or electrons strike the surface, TiN film is coated on the inside surface of the ducts.  
RPPE040 Development of Copper Coated Chamber for Third Generation Light Sources impedance, insertion, insertion-device, feedback 2633
  • H. Sakai, I. Ito, H. Kudo, N. Nakamura, S. Shibuya, K. Shinoe, H. Takaki
    ISSP/SRL, Chiba
  • K. Kobayashi
    KEK, Ibaraki
  For the 3rd generation light sources, it is essential to reduce the beam instability in order to produce the highly bright synchrotron light much stably. Especially, to avoid the coupled bunch instability, the resistive wall impedance must be reduced. The copper-coating inner surface of the chamber(especially in insertion device section)is much effective method for the reduction of the resistive wall impedance, whose method was already proposed by our group (N.Nakamura et.al., EPAC 1998 p984). We have already produced the copper coated chamber. In this paper, we describe the measurement of the outgassing from the copper coated chamber to evaluate if this chamber is valid on the ultra-low high vacuum condition.  
RPPE041 Design and Construction of the CERN LEIR Injection Septa septum, injection, cathode, ion 2690
  • J. Borburgh, B. Balhan, P. Bobbio, E. Carlier, M. Hourican, T. Masson, T.N. Mueller, A. Prost
    CERN, Geneva
  • M. Crescenti
    TERA, Novara
  The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) transforms long pulses from Linac 3 into high brilliance ion bunches for LHC by means of multi-turn injection, electron cooling and accumulation. The LEIR injection comprises a magnetic DC septum followed by an inclined electrostatic septum. The electrostatic septum has been newly designed and built. The magnetic septum is mainly recovered from the former LEAR machine, but required a new vacuum chamber. Dynamic vacua in the 10-12 mbar range are required, which are hard to achieve due to the high desorption rate of ions lost on the surface. A new interlock and displacement control system has also been developed. The major technical challenges to meet the magnetic, electrical and vacuum requirements will be discussed.  
RPPE042 Aperture and Field Constraints for the Vacuum System in the LHC Injection Septa injection, alignment, septum, shielding 2732
  • M. Gyr, B. Henrist, J.M. Jimenez, J.-M. Lacroix, S. Sgobba
    CERN, Geneva
  Each beam arriving from the SPS has to pass through five injection septum magnets before being kicked onto the LHC orbit. The injection layout implies that the vacuum chambers for the two circulating beams pass through the septum magnet yokes at a flange distance from the chamber of the beam to be injected. Specially designed vacuum chambers and interconnections provide the required straightness and alignment precision, thus optimising the aperture for both the circulating and injected beams, without affecting the quality of the magnetic dipole field seen by the injected beam. The circulating beams are shielded against the magnetic stray field by using μ-metal chambers with a thickness of 0.9 mm to avoid saturation of the μ-metal (0.8 T), coated with copper (0.4 mm) for impedance reasons and NEG for pumping and electron cloud purposes. A sufficiently large gap between the iron yoke and the μ-metal chamber allows an in-situ bake-out at 200°C, based on a polyimide/stainless steel/polyimide sandwich structure with an overall thickness of 0.2 mm. The constraints will be described and the resulting vacuum system design, the apertures and the residual stray field will be presented.  
RPPE043 Ultrathin Polyimide-Stainless Steel Heater for Vacuum System Bake-Out radiation, insertion, synchrotron, simulation 2744
  • C. Rathjen, S. Blanchard, B. Henrist, K. Koelemeijer, B. Libera, P. Lutkiewicz
    CERN, Geneva
  Space constraints in several normal conducting magnets of the LHC required the development of a dedicated permanent heater for vacuum chamber bake-out. The new heater consists of stainless steel bands inside layers of polyimide. The overall heater thickness is about 0.3 mm. The low magnetic permeability is suitable for applications in magnetic fields. The material combination allows for temperatures high enough to activate a NEG coating. Fabrication is performed in consecutive steps of tape wrapping. Automation makes high volume production at low costs possible. About 800 m of warm vacuum system of the long straight sections of the LHC will be equipped with the new heater. This paper covers experience gained at CERN from studies up to industrialization.  
RPPE044 Vacuum Modifications for the Installation of a New CESR-c Fast Luminosity Monitor dipole, luminosity, photon, synchrotron 2836
  • Y. Li, Y. He, M.A. Palmer
    Cornell University, Department of Physics, Ithaca, New York
  Funding: Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

In order to improve luminosity tuning and maintenance for the CLEO-c high energy physics (HEP) program at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR), a luminosity monitor using photons from radiative Bhabha events has been installed in the CESR ring. Over 10 meters of CESR vacuum chambers near the interaction region were modified to accommodate this new device. The vacuum modifications were designed to meet two criteria. First, the new vacuum chambers had to provide sufficient horizontal and vertical aperture for photons originating from the IP over a wide range of colliding beam conditions. Secondly, the new vacuum chambers required adequate safety margins for operation at beam energies up to 5.3 GeV for Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source running. In order to be certain that the vacuum modifications would not give rise to any localized pressure bumps, a detailed calculation of the expected vacuum pressure distribution due to synchrotron radiation flux was carried out. Careful design and planning enabled a successful installation and resumption of CESR operations in record time.

RPPE045 Vacuum Pumping Performance Comparison of Non-Evaporable Getter Thin Films Deposited Using Argon and Krypton as Sputtering Gases cathode, laser, target, linac 2860
  • X. Liu, Y. He, Y. Li
    Cornell University, Department of Physics, Ithaca, New York
  • M.R. Adams
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
  Funding: Work Supported by the National Science Foundation.

Owing to the outstanding vacuum performance and the low secondary electron yield, non-evaporable getter (NEG) thin film deposited onto interior walls has gained widespread acceptance and has been incorporated into many accelerator vacuum system designs. The titanium-zirconium-vanadium (T-Zr-V) NEG thin films were deposited onto the interior wall of stainless steel pipes via DC magnetron sputtering method using either argon or krypton gas as sputtering gas. Vacuum pumping evaluation tests were carried out to compare vacuum pumping performances of the Ti-Zr-V NEG thin films deposited using argon or krypton. The results showed much higher initial pumping speed for the Kr-sputtered NEG film than the Ar-sputtered film, though both films have similar activation behavior. The compositions and textures of both thin films were measured to correlate to the pumping performances.

RPPE046 A Summary and Status of the SNS Ring Vacuum Systems injection, quadrupole, dipole, target 2929
  • M. Mapes, H.-C. Hseuh, J. Rank, L. Smart, R.J. Todd, D. Weiss
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • M.P. Hechler, P. Ladd
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  Funding: SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge.

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ring is designed to accumulate high intensity protons. The SNS ring vacuum system consists of the High Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) line, Accumulator Ring and the Ring to Target Beam Transport (RTBT) line. The Accumulator ring has a circumference of 248m with 4 arcs and 4 straight sections, while the RTBT and HEBT have a total length of 350m of beam transport line. Ultrahigh vacuum of 10-9 Torr is required in the accumulator ring to minimize beam-residual gas ionization. To reduce the secondary electron yield (SEY) and the associated electron cloud instability, the ring vacuum chambers are coated with Titanium-Nitride (TiN). This paper describes the design, fabrication, assembly and vacuum processing of the ring and beam transport vacuum systems as well as the associated instrumentation and controls.

RPPE047 Upgrade of RHIC Vacuum Systems for High Luminosity Operation ion, electron, injection, luminosity 2977
  • H.-C. Hseuh, M. Mapes, L. Smart, R.J. Todd, D. Weiss
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work performed under Contract Number DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy.

With increasing ion beam intensity during recent RHIC operations, pressure rises of several decades were observed at most room temperature sections and at a few cold sections. The pressure rises are associated with electron multi-pacting, electron stimulated desorption and beam ion induced desorption and have been one of the major intensity and luminosity limiting factors for RHIC. Improvement of the warm sections has been carried out in the last few years. Extensive in-situ bakes, additional UHV pumping, anti-grazing ridges and beam tube solenoids have been implemented. Several hundred meters of NEG coated beam pipes have been installed and activated. Vacuum monitoring and interlock were enhanced to reduce premature beam aborts. Preliminary measures, such as pumping before cool down to reduce monolayer condensates, were also taken to suppress the pressure rises in the cold sections. The effectiveness of these measures in reducing the pressure rises during machine studies and during physics runs are discussed and summarized.

RPPE048 Physical and Electromagnetic Properties of Customized Coatings for SNS Injection Ceramic Chambers and Extraction Ferrite Kickers kicker, SNS, cathode, extraction 3028
  • H.-C. Hseuh, M. Blaskiewicz, P. He, Y.Y. Lee, C. Pai, D. Raparia, R.J. Todd, L. Wang, J. Wei, D. Weiss
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • S. Henderson
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  Funding: SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge.

The inner surfaces of the 248 m SNS accumulator ring vacuum chambers are coated with ~100 nm of titanium nitride (TiN) to reduce the secondary electron yield (SEY) of the chamber walls. All the ring inner surfaces are made of stainless or inconel, except those of the injection and extraction kickers. Ceramic vacuum chambers are used for the 8 injection kickers to avoid shielding of a fast-changing kicker field and to reduce eddy current heating. The internal diameter was coated with Cu to reduce the beam coupling impedance and provide passage for beam image current, and a TiN overlayer to reduce SEY. The ferrite surfaces of the 14 extraction kicker modules were coated with TiN to reduce SEY. Customized masks were used to produce coating strips of 1 cm x 5 cm with 1 to 1.5 mm separation among the strips. The masks maximized the coated area to more than 80%, while minimizing the eddy current effect to the kicker rise time. The coating method, as well as the physical and electromagnetic properties of the coatings for both types of kickers will be summarized, with emphasis on the effect to the beam and the electron cloud buildup.

†Corresponding author email: hseuh@bnl.gov.

RPPE050 Development of NEG Coating for RHIC Experimental Beamtubes cathode, electron, ion, luminosity 3120
  • D. Weiss, P. He, H.-C. Hseuh, R.J. Todd
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work performed under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy.

As RHIC beam intensity increases beyond original scope, pressure rises in some regions have been observed. The luminosity limiting pressure rises are associated with electron multi-pacting, electron stimulated desorption and beam induced desorption. Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) coated beampipes have been proven effective to suppress pressure rise in synchrotron radiation facilities. Standard beampipes have been NEG coated by a vendor and added to many RHIC UHV regions. BNL is developing a cylindrical magnetron sputtering system to NEG coat special beryllium beampipes installed in RHIC experimental regions. It features a hollow, liquid cooled cathode producing power density of 500W/m and deposition rate of 5000 Angstrom/hr on 7.5cm OD beampipe. The cathode, a titanium tube partially covered with zirconium and vanadium ribbons, is oriented for horizontal coating of 4m long chambers. Ribbons and magnets are arranged to provide uniform sputtering distribution and deposited NEG composition. Vacuum performance of NEG coated pipes was measured. Coating analysis includes energy dispersive spectroscopy, auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. System design, development, and analysis results are presented.

RPPE051 NEG Pumping Strip Inside Tevatron B2 Magnets ion, power-supply, storage-ring 3144
  • A.Z. Chen, T. G. Anderson, B.M. Hanna
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: DOE

NEG pumping strips were installed inside four Tevatron B2 Magnets in order to improve the vacuum environment in B2 magnets that have embedded unbakable vacuum chamber. The prelimary results shown the total presure in that region was significant reduced. Complelte testing and opertation results will be available soon.

RPPE052 Application of Comb-Type RF-Shield to Bellows Chambers and Gate Valves positron, impedance, injection, electron 3203
  • Y. Suetsugu, K.-I. Kanazawa, N. Ohuchi, K. Shibata, M. Shirai
    KEK, Ibaraki
  A comb-type RF-shield, which was recently proposed for high current accelerators, was experimentally applied to bellows chambers and gate valves. The comb-type RF-shield has a structure of nested comb teeth, and has higher thermal strength and lower impedance than usual finger-type RF shields. The shield is suitable for future high intensity accelerators, such as particle factories aiming a luminosity of 1·1035 - 36 /cm2 /s. Seven bellows chambers with a circular or a racetrack cross section had been installed in the KEKB (KEK B-factory) positron ring since 2003 in series. Some bellows chambers are forced to bend up to 20 mrad during the beam operation. No significant problem had been found with a stored beam current up to 1.6 A (1.25 mA/bunch). On the other hand, a circular-type gate valve with the comb-type RF shield will be installed in the ring in January, 2005. Structures, properties and results of the beam test of the bellows chamber and the gate valve are discussed.  
RPPE053 R&D Status of Vacuum Components for the Upgrade of KEKB electron, positron, impedance, photon 3256
  • Y. Suetsugu, H. Hisamatsu, K.-I. Kanazawa, N. Ohuchi, K. Shibata, M. Shirai
    KEK, Ibaraki
  An upgrade plan of the KEK B-factory (KEKB), Super KEKB, aiming a luminosity over 1·1035 /cm2 /s has been discussed in KEK. To achieve the high luminosity, the stored beam currents are 4.2 - 9.4 A and the bunch length is 3 mm. In designing the vacuum system of the Super KEKB, therefore, the main issues are how to manage the resultant highly intense synchrotron radiation (SR) power, and how to reduce the beam impedance. The R&Ds for basic vacuum components, such as a beam duct, a bellows chamber, a connection flange, a collimator, a high-capacity pump and so on, are now undergoing to deal with the problems. For examples, a copper beam duct with an antechamber was manufactured to reduce the power density of SR, and to suppress the electrons around the beam for the positron ring. The test chamber was installed in the positron ring of KEKB and tested with a beam. Bellows chambers with a newly developed RF-shield were also installed in the ring and the property was investigated. A special connection flange with little step or gap inside was developed and examined in a test bench. The designs of these components and the results of tests are presented and discussed.  
RPPE056 Status of the NSRL Storage Ring UHV System After Project-II storage-ring, radiation, synchrotron, synchrotron-radiation 3334
  • Y. Wang, L. Fan, C. Y. Guan, D. M. Jiang, J. P. Wang, W. Wei, F. Y. Zhao
    USTC/NSRL, Hefei, Anhui
  The NSRL project-II has been finished in December 2004. The UHV system of storage ring has undergone improvement and now provide long beam lifetime and stable operations, the average pressure of ring is better than 2 × 10-8 Pascal without beam and 1 × 10-7 Pascal with beam, The typical beam lifetime is 12 hours at 300 mA and 800 MeV without wiggler and 8 hours at 300 mA and 800 MeV with wiggler on. The improvements and status of NSRL storage ring are described in this paper.  
RPPE060 Overview of SNS Cryomodule Performance SNS, linac, resonance, klystron 3496
  • M. A. Drury, E. Daly, G.K. Davis, J.R. Delayen, C. Grenoble, W.R. Hicks, K. King, T. Plawski, T. Powers, J.P. Preble, H. Wang, M. Wiseman
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Funding: Supported by U.S. DOE Contract Nos. DE-AC05-84ER40150.

Thomas Jefferson National Accelerating Facility (Jefferson Lab) has completed production of 24 Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cryomodules for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconducting linac. This includes one medium-beta (0.61) prototype, eleven medium-beta and twelve high-beta (0.81) production cryomodules. Ten medium-beta cryomodules as well as two high beta cryomodules have undergone complete operational performance testing in the Cryomodule Test Facility at Jefferson Lab. The set of tests includes measurements of maximum gradient, unloaded Q (Q0), microphonics, and response to Lorentz forces. The Qext’s of the various couplers are measured and the behavior of the higher order mode couplers is examined. The mechanical and piezo tuners are also characterized. The results of these performance tests will be discussed in this paper.

RPPE061 SRF Accelerator Technology Transfer Experience from the Achievement of the SNS Cryomodule Production Run SNS, superconducting-RF, linear-collider, collider 3517
  • J. Hogan, T.C. Cannella, E. Daly, M. A. Drury, J.F. Fischer, T. Hiatt, P. Kneisel, J. Mammosser, J.P. Preble, T.E. Whitlatch, K. Wilson, M. Wiseman
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  This paper will discuss the technology transfer aspect of superconducting RF expertise, as it pertains to cryomodule production, beginning with the original design requirements through testing and concluding with product delivery to the end user. The success of future industrialization, of accelerator systems, is dependent upon a focused effort on accelerator technology transfer. Over the past twenty years the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) has worked with industry to successfully design, manufacture, test and commission more superconducting RF cryomodules than any other entity in the United States. The most recent accomplishment of Jefferson Lab has been the successful production of twenty-four cryomodules designed for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Jefferson Lab was chosen, by the United States Department of Energy, to provide the superconducting portion of the SNS linac due to its reputation as a primary resource for SRF expertise. The successful partnering with, and development of, industrial resources to support the fabrication of the superconducting RF cryomodules for SNS by Jefferson Lab will be the focus of this paper.  
RPPE063 Concepts for the JLab Ampere-Class CW Cryomodule damping, SNS, dipole, linac 3588
  • R.A. Rimmer, E. Daly, J. Henry, W.R. Hicks, J.P. Preble, M. Stirbet, H. Wang, K. Wilson, G. Wu
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Funding: This manuscript has been authored by SURA, Inc. under Contract No. DE-AC05-84ER-40150 with the U.S. Department of Energy, and by The Office of Naval Research under contract to the Dept. of Energy.

We describe the concepts and developments underway at JLab as part of the program to develop a new CW cryomodule capable of transporting ampere-level beam currents in a compact FEL. Requirements include real-estate gradient of at least 10 MV/m and very strong HOM damping to push BBU thresholds up by two or more orders of magnitude compared to existing designs. Cavity shape, HOM damping, power couplers, tuners etc. are being designed and optimized for this application. Cavity considerations include a large iris for beam halo, low-RF losses, HOM frequencies and Q’s, low peak surface fields, field flatness and microphonics. Module considerations include high packing factor, low static heat leak, image current heating of beam-line components, cost and maintainability. This module is being developed for the next generation ERL based high power FELs but may be useful for other applications such as electron cooling, electron-ion colliders, industrial processing etc.

RPPE067 Design and Fabrication of an FEL Injector Cryomodule SNS, gun, booster, electron 3724
  • J. Rathke, A. Ambrosio, H. Bluem, M.D. Cole, E. Peterson, T. Schultheiss, A.M.M. Todd
    AES, Medford, NY
  • I.E. Campisi, E. Daly, J. Hogan, J. Mammosser, G. Neil, J.P. Preble, R.A. Rimmer, C.H. Rode, T.E. Whitlatch, M. Wiseman
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  • J.S. Sekutowicz
    DESY, Hamburg
  Funding: This work is supported by NAVSEA, MDA, and SMDC.

Advanced Energy Systems has recently completed the design of a four cavity cryomodule for use as an FEL injector accelerator on the JLAB Injector Test Stand. Fabrication is nearing completion. Four 748.5 MHz single cell superconducting cavities have been completed and are currently at Jefferson Lab for final processing and test prior to integration in the module. This paper will review the design and fabrication of the cavities and cryomodule.

RPPE068 A Magnetostrictive Tuning System for Particle Accelerators radio-frequency, monitoring, background, synchrotron 3762
  • C.-Y. Tai, J. Cormier, W. J. Espinola, Z. Han, C.H. Joshi, A. Mavanur, L.M. Racz
    Energen, Inc., Lowell, Massachusetts
  • E. Daly, G.K. Davis
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  • K.W. Shepard
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: This work is supported by DOE SBIR Program DE-FG02-03ER83648.

Energen, Inc. has designed, built, and demonstrated several fast and slow tuners based on its magnetostrictive actuators and stepper motor. These tuners are designed for Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities, which are important structures in particle accelerators that support a wide spectrum of disciplines, including nuclear and high-energy physics and free electron lasers (FEL). In the past two years, Energen’s work has focused on magnetostrictive fast tuners for microphonics and Lorentz detuning compensation on elliptical-cell and spoke-loaded cavities, including the capability for real-time closed-loop control. These tuners were custom designed to meet specific requirements, which included a few to 100 micron stroke range, hundreds to kilohertz operation frequency, and cryogenic temperature operation in vacuum or liquid helium. These tuners have been tested in house and at different laboratories, such as DESY, Argonne National Lab, and Jefferson Lab. Some recent results are presented in this paper.

RPPP001 Commissioning and First Measurements on the CTF3 Chicane linac, quadrupole, emittance, background 785
  • A. Ghigo, D. Alesini, G. Benedetti, C. Biscari, M. Castellano, A. Drago, D. Filippetto, F. Marcellini, C. Milardi, B. Preger, M. Serio, F. Sgamma, A. Stella, M. Zobov
    INFN/LNF, Frascati (Roma)
  • R. Corsini, T. Lefevre, F. Tecker
    CERN, Geneva
  The transfer line between the linac and the first recombination ring (Delay Loop) of the CTF3 project hs been installed at CERN in spring-summer 2004. In the transfer line a magnetic chicane is used to tune the length of the bunches coming from the linac in order to minimize the Coherent Synchrotron Radiation contribution to the beam energy spread in the recombination system. The first measurements of the beam parameters at several linac and stretcher settings are described. We report the compression curve as a function of the optical parameter R56 representing the dependence of the longitudinal position of a particle on its energy, obtained by measuring the bunch length with a 3 GHz RF deflector.  
RPPP038 Electron-Cloud Effects in Transport Lines of a Normal Conducting Linear Collider positron, electron, focusing, resonance 2527
  • J. Wu, M.T.F. Pivi, T.O. Raubenheimer, A. Seryi
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: Work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

In the transport lines of a normal conducting linear collider, the long positron bunch train can generate an electron cloud which can then amplify intra-train offsets. This is a transient effect which is similar to but different from the electron-cloud driven coupled bunch instabilities in a positron storage ring. In this paper, we study this phenomenon both analytically and via numerical simulation. Some criterion on the critical cloud density with respect to given collider parameters is discussed.

RPPP046 An L-Band Polarized Electron PWT Photoinjector for the International Linear Collider (ILC) electron, cathode, emittance, simulation 2902
  • D. Yu, A. Baxter, P. Chen, M. Lundquist, Y. Luo, A. S. Smirnov
    DULY Research Inc., Rancho Palos Verdes, California
  Funding: Work supported by DOE SBIR Grant No. DE-FG02-03ER83846.

A multi-cell, standing-wave, L-band, p-mode, plane-wave-transformer (PWT) photoinjector with an integrated photocathode in a novel linac structure is proposed by DULY Research Inc. as a polarized electron source. The PWT photoinjector is capable of operation in ultra high vacuum and moderate field gradient. Expected performance of an L-band polarized electron PWT injector operating under the parameters for the International Linear Collider is presented. The projected normalized transverse rms emittance is an order of magnitude lower than that produced with a polarized electron dc gun followed by subharmonic bunchers.

RPPT028 Free Electron Lasers with Slowly Varying Beam and Undulator Parameters undulator, electron, radiation, simulation 2059
  • Z. Huang, G.V. Stupakov
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  The performance of a free electron lasers (FEL) is affected when the electron beam energy varies alone the undulator as would be caused by vacuum pipe wakefields and/or when the undulator strength parameter is tapered in the small signal regime until FEL saturation. In this paper, we present a self-consistent theory of FELs with slowly-varying beam and undulator parameters. A general method is developed to apply the WKB approximation to the beam-radiation system by employing the adjoint eigenvector that is orthogonal to the eigenfunctions of the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations. This method may be useful for other slowly varying processes in beam dynamics.  
RPPT035 Optimization of the LCLS X-Rray FEL Output Performance in the Presence of Strong Undulator Wakefields undulator, electron, simulation, radiation 2396
  • S. Reiche
    UCLA, Los Angeles, California
  • K.L.F. Bane, P. Emma, Z. Huang, H.-D. Nuhn, G.V. Stupakov
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • W.M. Fawley
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  Funding: The work was supported by the DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515.

The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Free-Electron Laser will operate in the wavelength range of 1.5 to 15 Angstroms. Energy loss due to wakefields within the long undulator can degrade the FEL process by detuning the resonant FEL frequency. The wakefields arise from the vacuum chamber wall resistivity, its surface roughness, and abrupt changes in its aperture. For LCLS parameters, the resistive component is the most critical and depends upon the chamber material (e.g. Cu) and its radius. To study the expected performance in the presence of these wakefields, we make a series of "start-to-end" simulations with tracking codes PARMELA and ELEGANT and time-dependent FEL simulation codes Genesis 1.3 and Ginger. We discuss the impact of the wakefield on output energy, spectral bandwidth, and temporal envelope of the output FEL pulse, as well as the benefits of a partial compensation obtained with a slight z dependent taper in the undulator field. We compare these results to those obtained by decreasing the bunch charge or increasing the vacuum chamber radius. We also compare our results to those predicted in concurrent analytical work.

RPPT043 Commissioning of the Main Magnet of Kolkata K-500 Superconducting Cyclotron cyclotron, superconducting-magnet, power-supply, radio-frequency 2765
  • R.K. Bhandari, B. Sinha
    DAE/VECC, Calcutta
  Main magnet of the K-500 superconducting cyclotron at Kolkata has been fully assembled in the cyclotron vault. The assembly includes alpha and beta superconducting coils inside the liquid helium chamber, coil tank for the outer vacuum, liquid nitrogen shield, support links, cryogenic instrumentation and 80 ton magnet frame forming the pill box structure. Cooling of the coils was started in mid-December. It took about three weeks to fill the liquid helium chamber - fully immersing the coils. All the four temperature sensors embedded in the coil are steady at about 4.4K. At this time the liquid nitrogen line for cooling the shield seems to show a leak. So, we are not cooling the shield. The helium liquefier/regrigerator of 200W capacity has been functioning well and so is the network of vacuum jacketted and liquid nitrogen cooled cryogenic transfer lines. Energization of the main magnet will begin soon. Magnetic field measurement set up is in place to start the mapping. In this presentation, our experiences with commissioning of the largest superconducting magnet in India, with stored energy 22 MJ at peak field of 6T, will be described. Some results of the magnetic field measurements will also be presented.  
RPPT044 Design, Construction and Commissioning of a NEG Coated Wiggler Vacuum Chamber for the LNLS Storage Ring wiggler, photon, insertion, insertion-device 2807
  • M.J. Ferreira, R.O. Ferraz, H.G. Filho, M.B. Silva
    LNLS, Campinas
  Funding: MCT - CNPQ - FAPESP

We present the design of the vacuum chamber for the LNLS 2 T Hybrid Wiggler. The chamber is a 3 m long, 1.2 mm thick 316 SS tube, which was mechanically pressed into an elliptical shape from an originally round tube. In order to provide the necessary mechanical tolerances, the rather flexible tube is welded to lateral supports that run the complete length of the chamber. Special care has been given to the mechanical and magnetic characterization of the chamber and the inner surface of the chamber was NEG-coated at the ESRF. We present the installation procedure as well the vacuum conditioning charge evolution.

RPPT069 The Installation Status of the SNS Accumulator Ring SNS, target, lattice, power-supply 3789
  • M.P. Hechler, R.I. Cutler, J.J. Error
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  • W.J. McGahern
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS*) SNS accumulator Ring, when completed in 2006, will be capable of delivering a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron production. This paper presents an overview of the issues and logistics associated with the preparation and installation of the accumulator Ring. The preparatory activities which occurred at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, vendors and at the SNS will be discussed as well as the installation sequence and procedures.

SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge.

RPPT070 Status Report on the Installation of the Warm Sections for the Superconducting Linac at the SNS SNS, linac, quadrupole, alignment 3828
  • R. Kersevan, D.P. Briggs, I.E. Campisi, J.A. Crandall, D.L. Douglas, T. Hunter, P. Ladd, C. Luck, R.C. Morton, K.S. Russell, D. Stout
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  Funding: SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley and Oak Ridge.

The SNS superconducting linac (SCL) consists of 23 cryomodules (CMs), with possibly 9 additional CMs being added for future energy upgrade from 1 GeV to 1.3 GeV. A total of 32 warm sections separate the comparatively short CMs, and this allows a CM exchange within 48 hours, in order to meet demanding beam availability specifications. The 32 warm section chambers are installed between each pair of CMs, with each section containing a quadrupole doublet, beam diagnostics, and pumping. The chambers are approximately 1.6 m long, have one bellow installed at each end for alignment, and are pumped by one ion-pump. The preparation and installation of these chambers must be made under stringent clean and particulate-free conditions, in order to ensure that the performance of the SCL CMs is not compromised. This paper will discuss the development of the cleaning, preparation, and installation procedures that have been adopted for the warm sections, and the vacuum performance of this system.

RPPT071 Installation of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Superconducting Linac SNS, linac, quadrupole, acceleration 3838
  • D. Stout, I.E. Campisi, F. Casagrande, R.I. Cutler, D.R. Hatfield, M.P. Howell, T. Hunter, R. Kersevan, P. Ladd, W.H. Strong
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  Funding: SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge.

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cold linac consists of 11 medium beta (0.61) and 12 high beta (0.81) superconducting RF cryomodules, 32 intersegment quadrupole magnet/diagnostics stations, 9 spool beampipes for future upgrade cryomodules, and two differential pumping stations on either side of the linac. The cryomodules and spool beampipes were designed and manufactured by Jefferson Laboratory, and the quadrupole magnets and beam position monitors were designed and furnished by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The remaining items were designed by ORNL. At present we are installing and testing the cold linac. Experience gained during installation will be presented. The performance in terms of mechanical and cryogenic systems will be described.

ROPA010 Component/Connection/Signal Modeling of Accelerator Systems power-supply, controls, photon 707
  • D. Dohan
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38.

This paper presents a pragmatic global approach to data modeling a complex facility such as a particle accelerator. By successively partitioning the facility into collaborating subsystems, one eventually arrives at the component level–the point at which the subsystem is replaceable as a single unit. The fundamental goal of the model is to capture the dynamical relationships (i.e., the connections) that exist among the accelerator components. Components participate in one or more of three connection types: control, housing, and power. These connections are captured in a multi-hierarchical model capable of handling any component of the accelerator, from the macro scale (magnets, power supplies, racks, etc.) to the embedded scale (circuit board components), if desired. The connection approach has been used to model the signal flows between the component via their port connections. The result is a schema for a cable database that provides end-to-end signal tracing throughout the facility. The paper will discuss the multi-hierarchy nature of the model and its success in replacing the "Revision Controlled Drawing" approach to system documentation.

ROPC006 Commissioning of Fermilab's Electron Cooling System for 8-GeV Antiprotons electron, antiproton, beam-losses, simulation 540
  • S. Nagaitsev, D.R. Broemmelsiek, A.V. Burov, K. Carlson, C. Gattuso, M. Hu, B.J. Kramper, T.K. Kroc, J.R. Leibfritz, L.R. Prost, S.M. Pruss, G.W. Saewert, C.W. Schmidt, A.V. Shemyakin, M. Sutherland, V. Tupikov, A. Warner
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  • W. Gai
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  • G.M. Kazakevich
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk
  • S. Seletsky
    Rochester University, Rochester, New York
  A 4.3-MeV electron cooling system has been installed at Fermilab in the Recycler antiproton storage ring and is being currently commissioned. The cooling system is designed to assist accumulation of 8.9-GeV/c antiprotons for the Tevatron collider operations. This paper will report on the progress of the electron beam commissioning effort as well as on detailed plans of demonstrating the cooling of antiprotons.  
ROPC009 First Acceleration with Superconducting RF Cavities at ISAC-II simulation, acceleration, diagnostics, ion 662
  • R.E. Laxdal, K. Fong, M. Marchetto, W.R. Rawnsley, V. Verzilov
    TRIUMF, Vancouver
  We have demonstrated the first acceleration of ions with superconducting rf at TRIUMF/ISAC. Alpha particles from a radioactive source were accelerated from 2.8MeV through the ISAC-II medium beta cryomodule to a maximum energy of 9.4 MeV. The four 106 MHz quarter wave cavities (beta_o=7%) were set to the ISAC-II specified gradient of 6 MV/m (Leff=18cm, Ep=30MV/m and Veff=1.08MV) with a cavity power of about 6W per cavity. The final particle energy spectra was measured with a silicon detector. The initial alpha energy corresponds to a velocity of beta=3.9% giving an expected T/To efficiency of 0.48, 0.76, 0.92 and 0.99 for the four cavities respectively and an expected final energy of 9.6MeV. The experimental set-up including details of the source and diagnostic boxes and the detector electronics are described. Beam simulations of the unbunched, uncollimated beam indicate a unique spectral fingerprint that can be used to unambiguously determine each cavity voltage.  
ROPC010 Testing, Installation, Commissioning and First Operation of the ISIS RFQ Pre-Injector Upgrade rfq, linac, emittance, quadrupole 695
  • A.P. Letchford, D.C. Faircloth, D.J.S. Findlay, M. Perkins, A.F. Stevens, M. Whitehead
    CCLRC/RAL/ISIS, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon
  Situated at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (Oxon., UK), ISIS is currently the world's most intense pulse spallation neutron source, delivering 160 kW of 800 MeV protons to a tungsten target at 50 Hz. A major facility upgrade programme involves the construction of a second, 10 Hz target and an increase in the total beam power of up to 50% (i.e. up to 240 kW). To achieve the planned increase in average beam current to 300 μA whilst maintaining the current manageable levels of beam loss, four 2nd harmonic RF cavities have been installed in the synchrotron and the ageing Cockroft-Walton pre-injector in the linac has been replaced with a 665 keV, 202.5 MHz, 4-rod RFQ. This paper describes the extensive testing, installation, commissioning and successful initial operation of the RFQ pre-injector upgrade.  
FPAE027 Status of the ISAC-II Accelerator at TRIUMF linac, acceleration, ion, heavy-ion 2003
  • R.E. Laxdal, W. Andersson, P. Bricault, I. Bylinskii, K. Fong, M. Marchetto, A.K. Mitra, R.L. Poirier, W.R. Rawnsley, P. Schmor, I. Sekachev, G. Stanford, G.M. Stinson, V. Zviagintsev
    TRIUMF, Vancouver
  A heavy ion superconducting linac is being installed at TRIUMF to increase the final energy of radioactive beams at ISAC. A first stage of 20MV consisting of five medium beta cryomodules each with four quarter wave bulk niobium cavities and a superconducting solenoid is being installed with initial beam commissioning scheduled for Dec. 2005. The initial cryomodule has met cryogenic and rf performance specifications. In addition we have demonstrated acceleration of alpha particles in an off-line test. A 500W refrigerator system has been installed and commissioned in Jan. 2005 with cold distribution due for commissioning in Sept. 2005. A transfer beamline from the ISAC accelerator and beam transport to a first experimental station are being installed. The status of the project will be presented.  
FPAE037 SPIRAL 2 RFQ Prototype First Tests rfq, pick-up, acceleration, ion 2488
  • R. Ferdinand, G. Congretel, A. Curtoni, O. Delferriere, A. France, D. Leboeuf, J. Thinel, J.-C. Toussaint
    CEA/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette
  • A.C. Caruso
    INFN/LNS, Catania
  • M. Di Giacomo
    GANIL, Caen
  The SPIRAL2 RFQ is designed to accelerate at 88MHz two kinds of charge-over-mass ratio, Q/A, particles. The proposed injector can accelerate a 5 mA deuteron beam (Q/A=1/2) or a 1 mA particles beam with q/A=1/3 up to 0.75 MeV/A. It is a CW machine which has to show stable operation, provide the request availability, have the minimum losses in order to minimize the activation constraints and show the best quality/cost ratio. The prototype of this 4-vane RFQ has been built and tested. It allowed to verify the mechanical assembly concept (RFQ without any brazing step). The full power was easily injected in the cavity, with no concerns for the RF joints. The paper describes the different achievements.  
FPAE040 First Operation of PIAVE, the Heavy Ion Injector Based on Superconducting RFQ's ion, linac, ion-source, acceleration 2621
  • G. Bisoffi, G. Bassato, A. Battistella, G.P. Bezzon, l. Boscagli, A. Calore, S. Canella, D. Carlucci, F. Chiurlotto, M. Comunian, M. De Lazzari, A. Facco, E. Fagotti, A. Lombardi, P. Modanese, M.F. Moisio, A. Pisent, M. Poggi, A.M. Porcellato, S. Stark
    INFN/LNL, Legnaro, Padova
  The Positive Ion Accelerator for low-Velocity Ions (PIAVE), based on superconducting RFQ's (SRFQ's), has been completed in fall 2004 with the first acceleration of beams from the ECR ion source. Superconducting RFQ's were used, for the first time, for beam acceleration on a user-oriented accelerator complex. A general status of the injector performances is given: it includes, besides the SRFQ's, eight superconducting (SC) QWR's and three bunchers; the beam is received from an ECR source on a HV platform and is delivered, through the SC accelerator ALPI, to nuclear physics experimental apparatuses. The paper emphasizes, in particular, the technological challenges related to the operation of the SC cavities, the cryogenics, control, diagnostics and vacuum systems.  
FPAE046 Initial Test of the PEFP 20MeV DTL proton, alignment, klystron, power-supply 2917
  • H.-S. Kim, Y.-S. Cho, S.-H. Han, J.-H. Jang, Y.-H. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, M.-Y. Park, K.T. Seol
    KAERI, Daejon
  • Y.-S. Hwang
    SNU, Seoul
  Funding: This work is supported by the 21C Frontier R&D program in the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Korean government.

A conventional 20MeV drift tube linac (DTL) for the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) has been developed as a low energy section of 100MeV accelerator. The machine consists of four tanks with 152 cells supplied with 900kW RF power from 350MHz klystron through the ridge-loaded waveguide coupler. We assembled the fabricated accelerator components and aligned each part with care. We have also prepared the subsystems for the test of the DTL such as RF power delivery system, high voltage DC power supply, vacuum system, cooling system, measurements and control system and so on. The detailed description of the initial test setup and preliminary test results will be given in this paper.

FPAE048 Fabrication of the PEFP 3MeV RFQ Upgrade rfq, proton, quadrupole, coupling 3010
  • H.-J. Kwon, Y.-S. Cho, J.-H. Jang, H.-S. Kim, Y.-H. Kim
    KAERI, Daejon
  Funding: This work is supported by the 21C Frontier R&D program in the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Korean government.

A 100MeV proton accelerator has been developed at PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) as a 21C Frontier Project. The goal of the first stage of the project is to develop a 20MeV accelerator. The 20MeV accelerator consists of ion source, LEBT, 3MeV RFQ and 20MeV DTL. The 3MeV RFQ was already installed and being tested. During preliminary test, some problems, such as the resonant frequency and field profile tuning, sharp edge in the vane end, inadequate RF seals have been found out. Therefore, it was decided to fabricate another RFQ. The RFQ upgrade includes some characteristics such as constant voltage profile, adoption of transition cell which are different from present one. In this paper, the fabrication of the PEFP 3MeV RFQ upgrade are presented.

FPAE061 Status of the Booster Injector for the Duke FEL Storage Ring booster, storage-ring, injection, synchrotron 3544
  • S. Mikhailov, M.D. Busch, M. Emamian, J.F. Faircloth, S.M. Hartman, J. Li, V. Popov, G. Swift, V. Vylet, P.W. Wallace, P. Wang, Y.K. Wu
    DU/FEL, Durham, North Carolina
  • O. Anchugov, N. Gavrilov, G.Y. Kurkin, Yu. Matveev, D. Shvedov, N. Vinokurov
    BINP SB RAS, Protvino, Moscow Region
  Funding: This work is supported by U.S. DOE grant # DE-FG02-01ER41175 and by AFOSR MFEL grant # F49620-001-0370.

This paper presents the current status of the booster synchrotron for the Duke FEL storage ring. The booster will provide full energy injection into the storage ring in a wide energy range from 0.27 to 1.2 GeV. When operating the Duke FEL storage ring as the High Intensity Gamma Source (HIGS) to produce gamma photons above 20 MeV with Compton scattering, continuous electron loss occurs. The top-off mode operation of the booster injector will enable the continuous operation of the HIGS facility by replenishing the lost electrons. The design requirement for a compact booster with the single bunch extraction capability remains a challenge for the machine development. Presently, the booster project is in the installation phase. The magnetic elements, vacuum chambers, injection and extraction kickers have been fabricated in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russia. The diagnostic and control system is being developed in the FEL lab, Duke University. The commissioning of the booster synchrotron is planned for fall 2005.

FPAE070 A Collimation Scheme for Ions Changing Charge State in the LEIR Ring ion, electron, lattice, accumulation 3816
  • J. Pasternak, C.B. Bal, C. Carli, M. Chanel, E. Mahner
    CERN, Geneva
  Avalanche-like pressure rise and an associated decrease of the beam lifetime, caused by (i) beam loss due to charge exchange interactions with rest gas molecules and (ii) ion impact induced outgassing, is a potential limitation for heavy ion accelerators operating at low energy. Capture of electrons from the electron cooler is another source of ion losses and thus, of pressure rise. The vacuum system of the LEIR ring has to be upgraded to reach the dynamical vacuum pressure in the low 10-12 Torr range necessary to reach design performance. A collimation system to intercept lost ions by absorber blocksmade of low beam induced outgassing material will be installed. This paper reviews the collimation scheme and simulations of beam loss patterns around the ring.  
FPAP001 Electron Cloud Build-Up Study for DAFNE positron, electron, simulation, wiggler 779
  • C. Vaccarezza, R. Cimino, A. Drago, M. Zobov
    INFN/LNF, Frascati (Roma)
  • G. Bellodi
    CCLRC/RAL/ASTeC, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon
  • K. Ohmi
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • M.T.F. Pivi
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • G. Rumolo
    GSI, Darmstadt
  • D. Schulte, F. Zimmermann
    CERN, Geneva
  After the first experimental observations compatible with the presence of the electron cloud effect in the DAFNE positron ring, a more systematic study has been performed regarding the e-cloud build-up and related instability. The measured field map of the magnetic field has been taken into account in the simulation for elements present in the four 10 m long bending sections, representing 40% of the whole positron ring. The simulation results obtained with different codes are presented and compared with the recent experimental observations performed on the beam instabilities and the vacuum behavior of the positron ring.  
FPAP002 Experimental Determination of E-Cloud Simulation Input Parameters for DAFNE electron, photon, simulation, radiation 817
  • C. Vaccarezza, R. Cimino
    INFN/LNF, Frascati (Roma)
  • A. Giglia, N. Mahne
    ELETTRA, Basovizza, Trieste
  • S. Nannarone
    UNIMORE, Modena
  After the first experimental observations compatible with the presence of the electron-cloud effect in the DAFNE positron ring, an experimental campaign has been started to measure realistic parameters to be used in the simulation codes. Here we present a synchrotron radiation experiment on the photon reflectivity from the actual Al vacuum chamber of DAFNE (same material, roughness and surface cleaning as the one used to manufacture the ring) in the same energy range of photons produced by the accelerator itself. The derived experimental parameter has than been included in the e-cloud simulation codes and the obtained results confirm the relevance of the detailed knowledge of the input parameter to obtain reliable e-cloud simulations.  
FPAP003 Simulation Study of the Electron Cloud Instability in SuperKEKB electron, simulation, positron, synchrotron 868
  • H. Fukuma
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • L. Wang
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  The electron-cloud instability (ECI), especially a beam blowup caused by the single-bunch instability, is one of the most important issues faced at existing B factories. In SuperKEKB which is an upgrade plan of the KEK B factory, a positron beam will be stored in the high energy ring after LINAC upgrade to mitigate the ECI and ante-chambers will be effective to reduce the number of electrons. Nevertheless the ECI might be an issue of SuperKEKB because a large beam current of 4.1A will be stored with a short bunch spacing of 2ns. We performed a simulation of the cloud buildup by a program CLOUDLAND. The average electron density and the electron density at the center of a chamber were calculated both in drift space and in various magnetic fields. The result shows that a solenoid field is very effective for reducing the electron density. The simulated electron density will be compared with a threshold electron density of the strong head-tail instability.  
FPAP007 Measurement of the Electron Cloud Density Around the Beam electron, simulation, positron, storage-ring 1054
  • K.-I. Kanazawa, H. Fukuma, H. Hisamatsu, Y. Suetsugu
    KEK, Ibaraki
  Under the present operating condition of KEKB LER, most high energy electrons in the electron cloud that hit the chamber wall are produced near the circulating bunch by the single kick. By separating the high energy component of the electron current monitored at a pump port of a vacuum chamber, the density of the electron cloud near the beam is estimated. The estimated density is close to the order of magnitude expected from simulation. At present there still remains an ambiguity that comes from the detector efficiency in the measurement and the assumed secondary electron yield in the simulation.  
FPAP011 New Vortices in Axisymmetric Beams in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Field electron, plasma, cyclotron
  • Y. Golub
    MRTI RAS, Moscow
  We analyzed localized vortices in non-neutral inhomogeneous by density and velocity electron beams propagating in vacuum along the inhomogeneous external magnetic field. These vortices distinguish from vortices, which used in Golub Yu.Ya. et al. and Golub Yu.Ya. because of inhomogeneous external magnetic field. Also new types of vortex are obtained by new solution method of nonlinear equations.** The new method is development of a method described in Golub Yu.Ya. That method distinguish from standard Larichev-Reznik or Reznik method, which used in Golub Yu.Ya. et al. It has been found new expression for electric field potential of vortex in a wave frame. The expression is axisymmetric in a wave frame. New vortices are new solitons in the inhomogeneous external magnetic field.

*Golub Yu.Ya. et al., in Nonlinear world: IV Intern. Workshop on Nonlin. and Turbul. Proc. in Phys., (ed. by V.G. Bar'yakhtar et al.) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., Singapore, 1990, vol. 2, p. 857. **Golub Yu.Ya., Proceedings of EPAC 2002, Paris, France, p. 1253.

FPAP014 Electron Cloud Measurements in the SPS in 2004 electron, simulation, proton, space-charge 1371
  • D. Schulte, G. Arduini, V. Baglin, J.M. Jimenez, F. Zimmermann
    CERN, Geneva
  Novel measurements of the electron cloud have been performed in the SPS in 2004. In this machine the beam consists of a number of short bunch trains. By varying the distance between these trains it is possible to witness the survival of the electrons after the bunch passage. In this paper, results from simulations and experiments are compared.  
FPAP021 A Cross-Platform Numerical Model of Ion-Wall Collisions ion, simulation, electron, heavy-ion 1707
  • S.A. Veitzer, P. Stoltz
    Tech-X, Boulder, Colorado
  • R.H. Cohen, A.W. Molvik
    LLNL, Livermore, California
  • J.-L. Vay
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  Ion collisions with beam-pipe walls is a significant source of secondary electron clouds and desorbed neutral gasses in particle accelerators. Ions may reflect from beam-pipe walls and undergo further collisions downstream. These effects can cause beam degradation and are expected to be problematic in the design of heavy ion accelerators. The well-known SRIM code provides physically-based monte carlo simulations of ion-wall collisions. However, it is difficult to interface SRIM with high-performance simulation codes. We present details on the development of a package of Python modules which integrate the simulation of ion-wall interactions at grazing incidences with the high-performance particle-in-cell and electron cloud codes WARP and POSINST. This software package, called GriPY, calculates reflected angles and energies of ions which strike beam-pipe walls at grazing incidences, based upon interpolation of monte carlo statistics generated by benchmark simulations run in SRIM for a variety of relevant incident angles and energies. We present here solutions for 1.8 MeV K+ ions and 1 Gev protons incident on stainless steel.  
FPAP031 Model of Electron Cloud Build Up with Secondary Ion-Electron Emission as a Source of Delayed Electrons electron, ion, proton, space-charge 2197
  • V.G. Dudnikov, G. Dudnikova
    BTG, New York
  For explanation of anomaly long electron cloud surviving after the gap between bunches it was proposed beam particle leaking to the gap and anomaly high reflectivity of low energy electrons in collision with pipe wall. We will attract an attention to some other possibilities of efficient electron generation in the high vacuum environment and delay electron generation after gap between bunches. Model of electron cloud build up with secondary ion-electron emission as a source of delay electrons is presented and discussed. This model is used for explanation of bunched beam instability in Los Alamos PSR, prediction of e-cloud generation in SNS, and can be important for pressure rise in cold sections of RHIC. A fast desorbtion by ion of physically adsorbed molecules can explain a "first pulse Instability" observed in LA PSR  
FPAT020 A Fast Chopper for Intensity Adjustment of Heavy-Ion Beams impedance, linac, ion, heavy-ion 1692
  • A.V. Novikov-Borodin, V.A. Kutuzov
    RAS/INR, Moscow
  • P.N. Ostroumov
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: CRDF Grant.

There are several heavy-ion linac projects being developed worldwide. For example, the Rare Isotope Accelerator Facility [J.A. Nolen, Nucl. Phys. A. 734 (2004) 661] currently being designed in the U.S. will use both heavy-ion and light ion beams to produce radionuclides via the fragmentation and spallation reactions, respectively. With simultaneous beam delivery to more than one target independent adjustment of relative beam intensities is essential. A fast traveling wave chopper can be used to modulate cw beam intensity at low energy ~200 keV/u. Such a device should have high frequency characteristics at high power level. By increasing the wave impedance of the traveling wave structure up to 200 Ohm one can reduce power requirements to the fast voltage pulser. Several design options of the high-impedance structure are discussed.

FPAT021 Experience with Kicker Beam Coupling Reduction Techniques kicker, impedance, extraction, simulation 1742
  • E.H.R. Gaxiola, J. Bertin, F. Caspers, L. Ducimetière, T. Kroyer
    CERN, Geneva
  SPS beam impedance is still one of the worries for operation with nominal LHC beam over longer periods once the final configuration will be installed in 2006. Several CERN SPS kickers suffer from significant beam induced ferrite heating. In specific cases, for instance beam scrubbing, the temperature of certain ferrite yokes went beyond the Curie point. Several retrofit impedance reduction techniques have been investigated theoretically and with practical tests. We report on experience gained during the 2004 SPS operation with restively coated ceramic inserts in terms of kicker heating, pulse rise time, operating voltage, and vacuum behavior. For another technique using interleaved metallic strips we observed significant improvements in bench measurements. Advantages and drawbacks of both methods and potential combinations of them are discussed and simulation as well as measured data are shown. Prospects for further improvements beyond 2006 are briefly outlined.  
FPAT029 High Voltage Operation of Helical Pulseline Structures for Ion Acceleration ion, coupling, impedance, acceleration 2092
  • W. Waldron, L. R. Reginato
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  • R.J. Briggs
    SAIC, Alamo, California
  Funding: This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Contract # DE-AC03-76SF00098.

The basic concept for the acceleration of heavy ions using a helical pulseline requires the launching of a high voltage traveling wave with a waveform determined by the beam transport physics in order to maintain stability and acceleration.* This waveform is applied to the front of the helix, creating over the region of the ion bunch a constant axial acceleration electric field that travels down the line in synchronism with the ions. Several methods of driving the helix have been considered. Presently, the best method of generating the waveform and also maintaining the high voltage integrity appears to be a transformer primary loosely coupled to the front of the helix, generating the desired waveform and achieving a voltage step-up from primary to secondary (the helix). This can reduce the drive voltage that must be brought into the helix enclosure through the feedthroughs by factors of 5 or more. The accelerating gradient is limited by the voltage holding of the vacuum insulator, and the material and helix geometry must be chosen appropriately. The helix must also be terminated into its characteristic impedance, and designs of terminations incorporated into the helix internal enclosure are presented in the paper.

*Briggs, et al, "Helical Pulseline Structures for Ion Acceleration," this conference.

FPAT030 Parametric Studies of Image-Charge Effects in Small-Aperture Alternating-Gradient Focusing Systems beam-losses, simulation, focusing, quadrupole 2128
  • J.Z. Zhou, C. Chen
    MIT/PSFC, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  Funding: The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of High-Energy Physics, Grant No. DE-FG02-95ER40919, Office of Fusion Energy Science, Grant No. DE-FG02-01ER54662, and in part by Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Grant No. F49620-03-1-0230.

Image charges have important effects on an intense charged-particle beam propagating through an alternating-gradient (AG) focusing channel with a small circular aperture. This is especially true with regard to chaotic particle motion, halo formation, and beam loss.* In this paper, we examine the dependence of these effects on system parameters such as the filling factor of the AG focusing field, the vacuum phase advance, the beam perveance, and the ratio of the beam size to the aperture. We calculate the percentage of beam loss to the conductor wall as a function of propagating distance and aperture, and compare theoretical results with simulation results from the particle-in-cell (PIC) code PFB2D.

*Zhou, Qian and Chen, Phys. Plasmas 10, 4203 (2003).

FPAT034 Dispersion Analysis of the Pulseline Accelerator ion, beam-loading, impedance, acceleration 2330
  • G.J. Caporaso, S.D. Nelson, B.R. Poole
    LLNL, Livermore, California
  • R.J. Briggs
    SAIC, Alamo, California
  Funding: This work was perfomed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

We analyze the sheath helix model of the pulseline accelerator.* We find the dispersion relation for a shielded helix with a dielectric material between the shield and the helix and compare it against the results from 3-D electromagnetic simulations. Expressions for the fields near the beam axis are obtained. A scheme to taper the properties of the helix to maintain synchronism with the accelerated ions is described. An approximate circuit model of the system that includes beam loading is derived.

*"Helical Pulseline Structures for Ion Acceleration," Briggs, Reginato, Waldron, this conference.

FPAT041 Design and Simulation of an Anode Stalk Support Insulator simulation, alignment, radiation, power-supply 2663
  • L. Wang, T.L. Houck, G.A. Westenskow
    LLNL, Livermore, California
  Funding: This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

An anode stalk support insulator in a magnetically insulated transmission line was designed and modeled. One of the important design criteria is that within space constraints, the electric field along the insulator surface has to be minimized in order to prevent a surface flashover. In order to further reduce the field on the insulator surface, metal rings between insulator layers were also specially shaped. To facilitate the design process, electric field simulations were performed to determine the maximum field stress on the insulator surfaces and the transmission line chamber.

FPAT045 Upgrade of the ESRF Vacuum Control System monitoring, storage-ring, radiation, diagnostics 2857
  • D. Schmied, E. Burtin, P. Guerin, M. Hahn, R. Kersevan
    ESRF, Grenoble
  The temperature acquisition as well as the whole vacuum control system of the electron storage ring of the ESRF is in operation since more than ten years now. Apart from difficulties to have appropriate support for the old systems we start facing problems of aging and obsolescence. We have been reviewing our philosophy of data acquisition and remote control in order to update our systems with state of the art technology, taking into account our operational experience. We have started installing shielded “intelligent” devices inside the storage ring tunnel taking benefit from the availability of ethernet connections. Like this we can take advantage of the latest developments linked to these technologies, such as OPC Server, Webpage instrument control, and more.  
FPAT049 Upgrade of the PF Ring Vacuum Control System ion, controls, cathode, storage-ring 3061
  • Y. Tanimoto, T. Nogami, T. Obina
    KEK, Ibaraki
  Having been operated for more than two decades, the PF ring vacuum control system had become superannuated. The system reliability had been degraded and the maintenance work had been difficult. In addition, the device operability had not been high because the operating software, written in BASIC, had been running in a stand-alone computer. In the summer of 2004, the vacuum control system was upgraded to solve these problems. In this upgrade, the operating system was constructed in the EPICS environment. And numerous NIM modules composing hardware interfaces between vacuum device controllers and the operating computers were replaced by reliable PLCs.  
FPAT063 Control System for the ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility High-Voltage Platform ion, ion-source, controls, power-supply 3591
  • M.E. Bannister, F.W. Meyer, J. W. Sinclair
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  Funding: Work supported by U. S. DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences and Office of Basic Energy Sciences under contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC.

A control system for the 250-kV platform and beamlines for accelerating and transporting multiply-charged ion beams produced by an all-permanent-magnet ECR ion source has been developed at the ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility. The system employs Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) software controlling an Allen-Bradley ControlLogix Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). In addition to the I/O control points of the PLC, other devices are controlled directly by the EPICS computer through RS-232 and GPIB interfaces. PLC chassis are located at each major electrical potential of the facility, that is, at the ECR source potential, at the platform potential, and at ground potential used in the beamlines transporting ions to the various experimental end-stations. Connection of the control system components to the EPICS host is accomplished via EtherNet, including fiber optic links to the HV platform. The user interface is designed with the Extensible Display Manager (EDM) software and custom applets perform such tasks as mass-to-charge ratio scans of the platform analyzing magnet and archival of source and beamline operating parameters.

FPAT067 The Design Performance of the Integrated Spallation Neutron Source Vacuum Control System SNS, linac, instrumentation, Spallation-Neutron-Source 3730
  • J.Y. Tang, J.A. Crandall, P. Ladd, D.C. Williams
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  The Spallation Neutron Source vacuum control systems have been developed within a collaboration of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory(LBNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory(LANL), Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility(TJNAF), and Brookhaven National Laboratory(BNL). Each participating lab is responsible for a different section of the machine. Although a great deal of effort has been made to standardize vacuum instrumentation components and the global control system interfaces, the varied requirements of the different sections of the machine made horizontal integration of the individual vacuum control systems both interesting and challenging. To support commissioning, the SNS control system team and the vacuum group developed a set of test strategies and the interlock schemes that allowed horizontal vacuum system integration to be effectively achieved. The design of the vacuum control interlock scheme developed will be presented together with the results of performance measurements made on these schemes. In addition, the experience and performance of an industrial Ethernet with real-time control used in this application will be discussed.

SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy.

FPAT075 Using a Control System Ethernet Network as a Field Bus SNS, target, cryogenics, diagnostics 3961
  • W.R. DeVan, S.E. Hicks, G.S. Lawson, W.H. Wagner, D.M. Wantland, E. Williams
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  A major component of a typical accelerator distributed control system (DCS) is a dedicated, large-scale local area communications network (LAN). The SNS EPICS-based control system uses a LAN based on the popular IEEE-802.3 set of standards (Ethernet). Since the control system network infrastructure is available throughout the facility, and since Ethernet-based controllers are readily available, it is tempting to use the control system LAN for "fieldbus" communications to low-level control devices (e.g. vacuum controllers; remote I/O). These devices may or may not be compatible with the high-level DCS protocols. This paper presents some of the benefits and risks of combining high-level DCS communications with low-level "field bus" communications on the same network, and describes measures taken at SNS to promote compatibility between devices connected to the control system network.

Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

FPAT076 PC-LabView Based Control System in SAGA-LS linac, power-supply, storage-ring, synchrotron 3976
  • H. Ohgaki
    Kyoto IAE, Kyoto
  • Y. Iwasaki, S. Koda, Y. Takabayashi, T. Tomimasu, K. Yoshida
    Saga Synchrotron Light Source, Industry Promotion Division, Saga City
  • H. Toyokawa
    AIST, Ibaraki
  A control system for SAGA Synchrotron Light Source (SAGA-LS) has been constructed. SAGA-LS is a small-medium size light source and is run by local government, which means there are a few number of staff in the laboratory. Thus the control system must be simple and robust, while inexpensive, easy to develop and maintain. The basic ideas of the system are 1) using PCs to build a low cost control system, 2) using off-shelf devices, FieldPoint (National Instrument) and PLCs, (FA-M3, Yokogawa), for robust and replaceable system, 3) using LabView for a quick in-house system development, 4) using channel access protocol between server and client to transparent from regular EPICS utilities, 5) using ActiveX CA to emulate the CA protocol. About 1,000 PVs are employed to control the magnet power supplies, the RF control sub-system, vacuum monitors, BPM data and several LCW data. The system has been operated and tuned at the beginning of the commissioning, spring 2004. MySQL database system also archives data to assist daily operation and to display the trend chart of the machine. The database applications developed by LabView, too.  
FOAA002 Technological Improvements in the DARHT II Accelerator Cells cathode, induction, electron, linac 169
  • B.A. Prichard, R.J. Briggs
    SAIC, Los Alamos, New Mexico
  • J. Barraza, M. Kang, K. Nielsen
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
  • F.M. Bieniosek, K. Chow, W.M. Fawley, E. Henestroza, L. R. Reginato, W. Waldron
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  • T.E. Genoni, T.P. Hughes
    ATK-MR, Albuquerque, New Mexico
  Funding: This work was supported by the U.S. National Nuclear Security Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy under contract W-7405-ENG-36.

DARHT employs two perpendicular electron Linear Induction Accelerators to produce intense, bremsstrahlung x-ray pulses for flash radiography. The second axis, DARHT II, features an 18 MeV, 2-kA, 2-microsecond accelerator. DARHT II accelerator cells have undergone a series of test and modeling efforts to fully understand their sub par performance. These R&D efforts have led to a better understanding of Linear Induction Accelerator physics for the unique DARHT II design. Specific improvements have been identified and tested. Improvements in the cell oil region, the cell vacuum region, and the PFNs have been implemented in the prototype units that have doubled the cell’s performance. A series of prototype acceptance test are underway on a number of prototype units to demonstrate that the required cell lifetime is met at the improved performance levels. Early acceptance tests indicate that the lifetime requirements are being exceeded. The shortcomings of the previous design are summarized. The improvements to the original design, their resultant improvement in performance, and various test results are included. The final acceptance test results will also be included.

FOAA003 HOM Effects in Vacuum System with Short Bunches resonance, positron, luminosity, synchrotron 289
  • A. Novokhatski
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: Work supported by Department of Energy contract DE–AC02–76SF00515.

High luminosity in electron-positron factories requires high beam currents of very short bunches. SLAC PEP-II and KEKB B-factories are progressively increasing currents and gaining more and more luminosity. Because of this the interaction of high currents and vacuum chamber elements becomes more important for the operation of the rings. High Order Modes (HOM) excited by short intense bunches propagate along the vacuum chamber, penetrating and dissipating inside vital vacuum elements like shielded bellows, vacuum valves and vacuum pumps. As a result these elements can heat up or have temperature oscillations. Often HOM heating has a resonance character. HOM heating of vacuum pumps can lead to vacuum pressure increases. High frequency modes excited by short bunches “check” the quality of the vacuum chamber by detecting small gaps, weak RF screens or weak feed-through. At these high currents even smooth tapers and smooth collimators become a source of HOM production. We will discuss the physical nature of these very interesting HOM effects.

FOAA005 Mechanical Vibration Measurements on TTF Cryomodules monitoring, instrumentation, linac, quadrupole 434
  • A. Bosotti, C. Pagani, R. Paparella, P. Pierini, D. Sertore
    INFN/LASA, Segrate (MI)
  • R. De Monte, M. Ferianis
    ELETTRA, Basovizza, Trieste
  • R. Lange
    DESY, Hamburg
  Few of the TTF cryomodules have been equipped with Wire Position Monitors (WPM) for the on line monitoring of cold mass movements during cool-down, warm-up and operation. Each sensor can be used as a detector for mechanical vibrations of the cryostat. A Digital Receiver board is used to sample and analyze with high frequency resolution, the WPM picked up signals, looking to its amplitude modulation in the microphonic frequency range. Here we review and analyze the data and the vibration spectra taken during operation of the TTF cryomodules # 4 and #5.  
FOAA008 Superconducting RF Development at Nuclear Science Centre linac, electron, ion, coupling 625
  • A. Roy
    NSC, New Delhi
  Funding: Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi, India.

A Superconducting Linac is being installed as a booster for the 15 UD Pelletron accelerator at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC). The accelerating structure for this linac is a Nb QWR cavity, designed and fabricated as a joint collaboration between NSC and ANL, USA. Initial cavities required for the first linac module were fabricated at ANL. For fabrication of cavities required for future modules a Superconducting Resonator Fabrication Facility has been set up at NSC. Three quarter wave resonator (QWR) cavities have been fabricated using the in-house facility. This facility has been used for repairs on the resonators which sprung leaks. Fabrication of fifteen resonators for the second and third linac modules is under progress. Eight resonators along with a superconducting solenoid has been installed in the first linac cryostat and tested for energy gain with a pulsed beam of 90 MeV Si from the Pelletron. Acceleration of the ions to 96 MeV was measured downstream and beam transmission through the linac was measured to be ~ 100%.

FOAA009 SRF Performance of CEBAF After Thermal Cycle to Ambient Temperature linac, pulsed-power, site, accumulation 665
  • R.A. Rimmer, J. F. Benesch, J.P. Preble, C.E. Reece
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Funding: This manuscript has been authored by SURA, Inc. under Contract No. DE-AC05-84ER-40150 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

In September 2003, in the wake of Hurricane Isabel, JLab was without power for four days after a tree fell on the main power lines feeding the site. This was long enough to lose insulating vacuum in the cryomodules and cryogenic systems resulting in the whole accelerator warming up and the total loss of the liquid helium inventory. This thermal cycle stressed many of the cryomodule components causing several cavities to become inoperable due to helium to vacuum leaks. At the same time the thermal cycle released years of adsorbed gas from the cold surfaces. Over the next days and weeks this gas was pumped away, the insulating vacuum was restored and the machine was cooled back down and re-commissioned. In a testament to the robustness of SRF technology, only a small loss in energy capability was apparent, although individual cavities had quite different field-emission characteristics compared to before the event. In Summer 2004 a section of the machine was again cycled to room temperature during the long maintenance shutdown. We report on the overall SRF performance of the machine after these major disturbances and on efforts to characterize and optimize the new behavior for high-energy running.

FOAA010 Full Characterization at Low Temperature of Piezoelectric Actuators Used for SRF Cavities Active Tuning linac, proton, radiation, electromagnetic-fields 728
  • M. Fouaidy, S. Blivet, F. Chatelet, N. Hammoudi, G.M. Martinet, A. Olivier, H. Saugnac
    IPN, Orsay
  Funding: EU, CNRS-IN2P3.

In the frame of the CARE project activities, supported by EU, IPN Orsay participate to the development of a fast cold tuning system for SRF cavities operating at a temperature T=2 K. The study is aimed at full characterization of piezoelectric actuators at low temperature. A new experimental facility was developed for testing various prototypes piezoelectric actuators and successfully operated for T in the range 1.8 K-300 K. Different parameters were investigated as function of T: piezoelectric actuator displacement vs. applied voltage V, capacitance vs. T, dielectric and thermal properties vs. T and finally heating DT due to dielectric losses vs. modulating voltage Vmod and frequency. We observed a decrease of the Full Range Displacement (FRD or DX) of the actuator from ~40μm @ 300K down to 1.8μm-3μm @ 1.8K, depending on both material and fabrication process of the piezostacks. Besides, both material and fabrication process have a strong influence on the shape of the characteristics DX vs. T dependence. Moreover, the variations of losses tangent with T show a maximum at T in the range 30 K-120 K. Finally a dedicated facility located at CERI (Orléans, France) for radiation hardness tests of actuators with fast neutrons at T=4.2 K was developed and the first beam tests results are summarized.

FOAB002 Advances in X-Band and S-Band Linear Accelerators for Security, NDT, and Other Applications linac, electron, radiation, gun 240
  • A.V. Mishin
    AS&E, Billerica, Massachusetts
  At AS&E High Energy Systems Division, we designed several new advanced high energy electron beam and X-ray sources. Our primary focus has always been in building the world’s most portable commercial X-band accelerators. Today, our X-band systems frequently exceed performance of the similar S-band machines, while they are more portable compared to the latter. The new designs of the X-band accelerators in the most practical energy range from 1 MeV to 6 MeV have been tested delivering outstanding results. Seventy 6 MeV X-band linacs systems have been produced. The most compact linac for security is used by AS&E in a self-shielded, Shaped Energy™ cargo screening system. We pioneered using the X-band linear accelerators for CT, producing high quality images of oil pipes and wood logs. An X-band linear accelerator head on a robotic arm has been used for electron beam radiation curing of an odd-shaped graphite composite part. We developed the broad-range 4 MeV to over 10 MeV energy-regulated X-band and S-band systems for medical and NDT applications. The regulated pulse length systems operating in a range from nanoseconds to microseconds have been built both in X-band and in S-band frequency range.