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Paper Title Other Keywords Page
MOPC003 Benchmarking of Simulation Codes Based on the Montague Resonance in the CERN Proton Synchrotron simulation, emittance, resonance, focusing 330
  • I. Hofmann, G. Franchetti
    GSI, Darmstadt
  • J.F. Amundson, P. Spentzouris
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  • S.M. Cousineau, J.A. Holmes
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  • M. Giovannozzi, E. Métral
    CERN, Geneva
  • F.W. Jones
    TRIUMF, Vancouver
  • A.U. Luccio
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • S. Machida
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • J. Qiang, R.D. Ryne
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  Experimental data on emittance exchange by the space charge driven ‘‘Montague resonance'' have been obtained at the CERN Proton Synchrotron in 2002-04 as a function of the working point. These data are used to advance the benchmarking of major simulation codes (ACCSIM, IMPACT, MICROMAP, ORBIT, SIMBAD, SIMPSONS, SYNERGIA) currently employed world-wide in the design or performance improvement of high intensity circular accelerators. In this paper we summarize the experimental findings and compare them with the first three steps of simulation results of the still progressing work.  
MPPE006 Particle Distribution Function Forming in Nonlinear Systems octupole, quadrupole, focusing, target 985
  • S.N. Andrianov, S. Edamenko
    St. Petersburg State University, Applied Mathematics & Control Processes Faculty, St. Petersburg
  Modern ion-optical systems are used in different fields of beam physics both independent facilities as consisting of largemachines. One of these destination is to create beams with a desired distribution of beams particles. Often there is a need to ensure a homogeneous distribution for a terminal beam phase portrait in a transverse configuration space. This is one of problems of nonlinear aberrations management. It is known that nonlinearity properties inhere to any beam lines. Such these nonlinearities have unremovable character, and their influence can be remove using only special nonlinear lattice elements, which are introduced artificially into the beam line. In this paper we suggest a procedure to find necessary nonlinear correcting control elements for purposive forming of beam particle distribution functions.  
MPPE012 MAD-X PTC Integration optics, radiation, synchrotron, synchrotron-radiation 1272
  • F. Schmidt
    CERN, Geneva
  MAD-X is CERN's successor for MAD8, a program for accelerator design with a long history. MAD-X is a modular, better maintainable re-write of MAD8 with data structures written in C. Early on in the design of MAD-X we relied on the fact that older or doubtful modules could be replaced by new modules using the PTC code by E. Forest. Both codes remain independent entities but are linked via a converter to the MAD-X data structures. PTC is used for symplectic tracking of smaller machines and transfer line using better defined physical models of the elements and taking into account of how the elements are placed in the tunnel. The matching of the LHC will profit form the fact that the high order nonlinear parameters are provided by a PTC Normal Form analysis.  
MPPE014 Non-Linear Beam Dynamics Studies of the Diamond Storage Ring coupling, resonance, storage-ring, vacuum 1410
  • R. Bartolini, A.I. Baldwin, M. Belgroune, I.P.S. Martin, J.H. Rowland, B. Singh
    Diamond, Oxfordshire
  • J.K. Jones
    CCLRC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire
  The non-linear beam dynamics have been investigated for the non-zero dispersion lattice of the Diamond storage ring. Effects in realistic lattice configurations such as the introduction of coupling errors, beta beating, closed orbit correction, quadrupole fringe field and in-vacuum and helical insertion devices have been studied in the presence of realistic physical aperture limitations. Frequency map analysis together with 6D tracking allows identification of the limiting resonances as well as the loss locations and calculation of the influence of non-linear longitudinal motion on the Touschek lifetime. The sensitivity of the lattice to some of these effects leads to the identification of a better working point for the machine.  
MPPE015 Non-Linear Ring Model Calibration with Frequency Analysis of Betatron Oscillations sextupole, resonance, target, betatron 1452
  • R. Bartolini
    Diamond, Oxfordshire
  • F. Schmidt
    CERN, Geneva
  A precise model of an accelerator ring is crucial to achieve ultimate performance both in synchrotron light sources and high energy synchrotrons. Algorithms have been developed to calibrate the linear model of the ring. They have been successfully applied experimentally to determine and correct the linear optics of the machine. More recently the Frequency Map Analysis has been used to model also the non-linear optics. We propose here a technique based on the fit of non-linear spectral lines to recover the non-linear driving terms and to compensate the non-linear field errors around the ring.  
MPPE020 Control of Dynamic Aperture for Synchrotron Light Sources optics, sextupole, radiation, emittance 1670
  • J. Bengtsson
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Under Contract with the U.S. Department of Energy Contract Number DE-AC02-98CH10886.

Given the following frameworks: "A Hamiltonian-Free Description of Single Particle Dynamics for Hopelessly Complex Periodic Systems" (Forest, 1990), "Normal Form Methods for Complicated Periodic Systems" (Forest, Berz, Irwin, 1989), "The Correct Local Description for Tracking in Rings" (Forest, 1994), "The C++ Programming Language" (Stroustrup, 1985), we have designed a compact object oriented beam dynamics class by re-using existing FORTRAN libraries for: Truncated Power Series Algebra (Berz, SSC, 1988), and Map Normal Rorm (Forest, CBP, LBNL, 1990). In other words, implemented a numerical- and analytical model for: 6-dim phase space tracking, with classical radiation, and evaluation of equilibrium emittance, driving terms, amplitude dependent tune shifts, chromaticity, momentum compaction, etc., to arbitrary order, with self-consistent treatment of magnet errors. The tool was developed for the lattice design of NSLS-II.

MPPE022 Modification to the Lattice of the Fermilab Debuncher Ring To Improve the Performance of the Stochastic Cooling Systems quadrupole, sextupole, antiproton, injection 1799
  • G. Dugan
    Cornell University, Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Ithaca, New York
  • B. Ashmanskas
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: Supported by the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation.

The Fermilab Debuncher is used to collect antiprotons from the production target, reduce the momentum spread of the beam by an RF bunch rotation, and stochastically cool the transverse and longitudinal emittances of the beam prior to transfer to the Accumulator. A large value of the slip factor of the ring lattice is favored to provide a larger momentum acceptance for the bunch rotation process, while a small value of the slip factor is desirable for stochastic cooling. A dynamic change in the lattice from a large slip factor at injection to a smaller slip factor at extraction would optimize both processes and could lead to an improvement in antiproton stacking rate. This paper discusses the details of lattice modifications to the Debuncher, achievable with the existing hardware, which would result in a 60% increase in the slip factor, while maintaining the tunes and chromaticities fixed, and keeping the betatron functions within an acceptable range.

MPPE023 Improvement of the Longitudinal Beam Dynamics Tuning Procedure for the MSU RIA Driver Linac linac, emittance, focusing, ion 1826
  • M. Doleans
    MSU, East Lansing, Michigan
  • D. Gorelov, T.L. Grimm, F. Marti, X. Wu, R.C. York
    NSCL, East Lansing, Michigan
  The Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac will use a superconducting, cw linac with independently phased superconducting radio frequency cavities for acceleration and, for the heavier ions, utilize beams of multiple-charge-states (multi-q). Given the acceleration of multi-q beams and a stringent beam loss requirement in the RIA driver linac, a new beam envelope code capable of simulating nonlinearities of the multi-q beam envelopes in the longitudinal phase space was developed. Using optimization routines, the code is able to maximize the linearity of the longitudinal phase space motion and thereby minimizing beam loss by finding values for the amplitude and phase of the cavities for a given accelerating lattice. Relative motion of the multi-q beams is also taken into account so that superposition of the beam centroids and matching of their Twiss parameters are automatically controlled. As a result, the linac tuning procedure has been simplified and the longitudinal lattice performance has been improved. In this paper, the general architecture of the code and the results of using it to determine tuning parameters for the RIA driver linac are presented.  
MPPE024 Failure Modes Analysis for the MSU-RIA Driver Linac linac, emittance, focusing, simulation 1868
  • X. Wu, M. Doleans, D. Gorelov, T.L. Grimm, F. Marti, R.C. York
    NSCL, East Lansing, Michigan
  Previous end-to-end beam dynamics simulation studies* using experimentally-based input beams including alignment and rf errors and variation in charge-stripping foil thickness have indicated that the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac proposed by MSU has adequate transverse and longitudinal acceptances to accelerate light and heavy ions to final energies of at least 400 MeV/u with beam powers of 100 to 400 kW. During linac operation, equipment loss due to, for example, cavity contamination, availability of cryogens, or failure of rf or power supply systems, will lead to at least a temporary loss of some of the cavities and focusing elements. To achieve high facility availability, each segment of the linac should be capable of adequate performance even with failed elements. Beam dynamics studies were performed to evaluate the linac performance under various scenarios of failed cavities and focusing elements with proper correction schemes, in order to prove the flexibility and robustness of the driver linac lattice design. The result of these beam dynamics studies will be presented.

*X. Wu, "End-to-End Beam Simulations for the MSU RIA Driver Linac," Proceedings of the XXII Linac Conference, Lubeck, Germany, August 2004.

MPPE034 Symmetries and Invariants of the Time-dependent Oscillator Equation and the Envelope Equation focusing, plasma 2315
  • H. Qin, R.C. Davidson
    PPPL, Princeton, New Jersey
  Funding: Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

Single-particle dynamics in a time-dependent focusing field is examined. The existence of the Courant-Snyder invariant* is fundamentally the result of the corresponding symmetry admitted by the oscillator equation with time-dependent frequency.** A careful analysis of the admitted symmetries reveals a deeper connection between the nonlinear envelope equation and the oscillator equation. A general theorem regarding the symmetries and invariants of the envelope equation, which includes the existence of the Courant-Snyder invariant as a special case, is demonstrated. The symmetries of the envelope equation enable a fast algorithm for finding matched solutions without using the conventional iterative shooting method.

*E.D. Courant and H.S. Snyder, Ann. Phys. 3, 1 (1958). **R.C. Davidson and H. Qin, Physics of Intense Charged Particle Beams in High Energy Accelerators (World Scientific, 2001).

MPPE039 A C++ Framework for Conducting High-speed, Long-term Particle Tracking Simulations insertion, multipole, quadrupole, factory 2565
  • A.C. Kabel
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  High-resolution tracking studies such as the ones presented in*,** require unprecented amounts of CPU power. Usually, flexibility of a simulation code compromises performance; we have developed a C++ framework for parallel simulation of circular accelerators which provides a high degree of flexibility and programmability (parsing of MAD beamline descriptions, manipulation of beamlines and interfaces, optimization and matching of beamlines, tracking of particles or differential-algebraic objects) while achieving raw tracking speeds comparable to and surpassing hand-coded Fortran code. We describe some of the techniques used, such as compile-time polymorphism, meta-programming, and present benchmarking results.

*A. Kabel, Y. Cai, this conference. **A. Kabel, Y. Cai, T. Sen, V. Shiltsev, this conference.

MPPE040 Efficient Modeling of Nonlinear Beam Optics Using Parametric Model Independent Analysis simulation, optics, quadrupole, beam-transport
  • B. Sayyar-Rodsari, E. Hartman, C. Schweiger
    Pavilion Technologies, Inc, Austin, Texas
  • M.J. Lee, Y.T. Yan
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: Research supported by DOE grant number: DE-FG02-04ER86225.

Based on precision beam orbit measurements, Model Independent Analysis(MIA) has been used successfully to build a computer model that matches the linear optics of the real accelerator. We report a parametric extension of MIA that will allow efficient modeling of the nonlinear beam optics to account for energy dispersions. A simulation study is presented where the nonlinear dependency of lattice parameters on beam energy is captured by constrained training of a universal nonlinear approximator. These parametric nonlinear models of beam optics are easy to construct, diagnose, and modify. They can be very useful for more accurate model predicted beam operation and control.

MPPE045 Accelerator Physics Issues at the 2.5 GeV PLS Storage Ring insertion, insertion-device, emittance, undulator 2854
  • E.-S. Kim
    PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk
  Over the past decade, PLS has served the synchrotron light source with the 2.0 GeV to 2.5 GeV electron beam. Accelerator physics issues at the present 2.5 GeV storage ring have been investigated in order to improve the performance of the light source. We present the issues of the low-beta lattice, low-emittance lattice, effects of six insertion devices on the lattice and low-alpha lattice, and show their effects on the beam dynamics in the storage ring.  
MPPE052 Study on Coupling Issues in the Recycler at Fermilab coupling, injection, simulation, multipole 3209
  • M. Xiao, Y. Alexahin, D.E. Johnson, M.-J. Yang
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  We have been working and trying to answer the following questions: where are the coupling sources in the Recycler and is the existing correcting system working fine? In this paper, we report the analysis on the sources from both modeling by code MAD based on nonlinear lattice and real machine. From the first turn flesh orbit, we fit the off-plane orbits by third order polynomial, then separate 1st, 2nd and 3rd order coefficients to see different effects. On the other hand, we present the analysis from turn by turn data, which is to verify the phase of two skew quads families are more or less orthogonal, and to make sure the minimum tune split is small enough, and is consistent with the measurement.  
MPPE055 Fitting the Fully Coupled ORM for the Fermilab Booster booster, focusing, quadrupole, simulation 3322
  • X. Huang, S.-Y. Lee
    IUCF, Bloomington, Indiana
  • C.M. Ankenbrandt, E. Prebys
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: This work is supported in part by grants from DE-AC02-76CH03000, DOE DE-FG02-92ER40747 and NSF PHY-0244793.

The orbit response matrix (ORM) method* is applied to model the Fermilab Booster with parameters such as the BPM gains and rolls, and parameters in the lattice model, including the gradient errors and magnets rolls. We found that the gradients and rolls of the adjacent combined-function magnets were deeply correlated, preventing full determination of the model parameters. Suitable constraints of the parameters were introduced to guarantee an unique, equivalent solution. Simulations show that such solution preserves proper combinations of the adjacent parameters. The result shows that the gradient errors of combined-function magnets are within design limits.

*J. Safranek, Nucl. Instr and Meth. A, {\bf 388}, 27 (1997).

MPPE056 Studies to Increase the Anti-Proton Transmission from the Target to the Debuncher Ring sextupole, antiproton, quadrupole, simulation 3357
  • I. Reichel, M.S. Zisman
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  • K. Gollwitzer, S.J. Werkema
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: This work was supported by the Director, Office of Science, High Energy Physics, U.S. Department of Energy under Contracts No. DE-AC03-76SF00098 and DE-AC02-76CH03000.

The AP2 beamline at Fermilab transports anti-protons from the production target to the Debuncher ring. The measured admittance of the Debuncher ring and the theoretical aperture of the line are larger than the size of the transmitted beam. Extensive tracking studies were done using the Accelerator Toolbox (AT) to understand the sources of the difference. As simulations pointed to chromatic effects being a source of problems, measurements were done to study this. Several possible remedies were studied including adding sextupoles to the line to reduce the chromatic effects.

MPPE058 Virtual Accelerator for Accelerator Optics Improvement coupling, optics, quadrupole, luminosity 3426
  • Y.T. Yan, Y. Cai, F.-J. Decker, S. Ecklund, J. Irwin, J. Seeman, M.K. Sullivan, J.L. Turner, U. Wienands
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: Work supported by Department of Energy contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

Through determination of all quadrupole strengths and sextupole feed-downs by fitting quantities derivable from precision orbit measurement, one can establish a virtual accelerator that matches the real accelerator optics. These quantities (the phase advances, the Green's functions, and the coupling eigen-plane ellipses tilt angles and axis ratios) are obtained by analyzing turn-by-turn Beam Position Monitor (BPM) data with a model-independent analysis (MIA). Instead of trying to identify magnet errors, a limited number of quadrupoles are chosen for optimized strength adjustment to improve the virtual accelerator optics and then applied to the real accelerator accordingly. These processes have been successfully applied to PEP-II rings for beta beating fixes, phase and working tune adjustments, and linear coupling reduction to improve PEP-II luminosity.

MPPE059 Precision Measurement of Coupling Ellipses Parameters in a Storage Ring coupling, resonance, storage-ring, optics 3459
  • Y.T. Yan, Y. Cai
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: Work supported by Department of Energy contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

Eigen-mode coupling ellipses' tilt angles and axis ratios can be precisely measured with a Model-Independent Analysis (MIA) of the turn-by-turn BPM data from resonance excitation of the betatron motion. For each BPM location one can measure 4 parameters from the two resonance excitation, which completely describe the linear coupling of the location. Results from application to PEP-II storage rings are presented.

MPPE063 Optimization of Steering Elements in the RIA Driver Linac linac, focusing, simulation, quadrupole 3600
  • E.S. Lessner, V.S. Assev, P.N. Ostroumov
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract W-31-109-ENG-38.

The driver linac of the projected RIA facility is a versatile accelerator, a 1.4-GV, CW superconducting linac designed to simultaneously accelerate several heavy-ion charge states, providing beams from protons at about 1 GeV to uranium at 400 MeV/u at power levels at a minimum of 100 kW and up to 400 kW for most beams. Acceleration of multiple-charge-state uranium beams places stringent requirements on the linac design. A steering algorithm was derived that fulfilled the driver’s real estate requirements, such as placement of steering dipole coils on SC solenoids and of beam position monitors outside cryostats, and beam-dynamics requirements, such as coupling effects induced by the focusing solenoids.* The algorithm has been fully integrated in the tracking code TRACK** and is used to study and optimize the number and position of steering elements that minimize the multiple-beam centroid oscillations and preserve the beam emittance under misalignments of accelerating and transverse focusing elements in the driver linac.

*E.S. Lessner and P.N. Ostroumov, Proceedings of the 9-th European Particle Accelerator Conference, July 2005, pp.1476-1478. **V.N. Aseev, P.N. Ostroumov, E.S. Lessner, and B. Mustapha, these proceedings.

MPPE069 Optics for the ALBA Lattice insertion, insertion-device, vacuum, synchrotron 3777
  • M. Muñoz, D. Einfeld
    CELLS, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès)
  ALBA will be a third generation synchrotron light source built in Spain near Barcelona. The lattice chosen for ALBA consists in an extended DBA-like structure with finite dispersion in the straight sections, providing low emittance (under 5nmrad), small beam cross sections at the source points (σ x ~ 150 micrometers and σ y ~ 10micrometers), and a large number of straight sections (4 times 8m, 12 times 4.2m and 8 times 2.6m). The small circumference (268 meters) and medium energy (3GeV) makes it challenging to provide the desired emittance while preserving a large enough dynamic aperture and energy acceptance. This paper reviews the main beam dynamics issues (dynamic aperture, energy acceptance, closed correction, lifetime, influence of insertion devices, and higher multipoles of magnets) and the solutions adopted.  
MPPE074 Commissioning of a Locally Isochronous Lattice at ALS quadrupole, sextupole, injection, coupling 3922
  • W. Wan, W.E. Byrne, H. Nishimura, G.J. Portmann, D. Robin, F. Sannibale, A. Zholents
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  Funding: Work supported by the Director, Office of Energy Research, Office of Basic Energy Science, Material Sciences Division, U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098.

With the advance of ultrafast science, manipulating electron beam at the sub-micron and nanometer scale has been actively pursued. A special lattice of the ALS storage ring was conceived to studythe sub-micron longitudinal structure of the beam. It contains sections that are isochronous to the firstorder. Due to the practical constraints of the accelerator, sextupoles have to be off and the dispersion at the injection point is 60 cm, which make commissioning a highly nontrivial task. After a few months of tuning, we have been able to store at 30 mA of beam at the life time of 2 hours. After a brief introduction to the motivation of the experiment and the design of the lattice, the process and more detailed results of the commissioning will be presented. Future plan will also be discussed.

MPPE075 Simulation of the Effect of an In-Vacuum Undulator on the Beam Dynamics of the ALS undulator, simulation, dynamic-aperture, injection 3949
  • W. Wan, C. Steier
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  Funding: Work supported by the Director, Office of Energy Research, Office of Basic Energy Science, Material Sciences Division, U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098.

The femtosecond slicing project at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) requires that a short period (3 cm) and narrow gap (5.5 mm) in vacuum undulator to be installed. The combination of the short period and the narrow gap raised concern of the impact on the beam dynamics. A 3D field model was established based on numerical data using 8 longitudinal and 4 transverse harmonics. At first fourth-order symplectic integrator was used. It was to our surprise that the dynamic aperture decreased by a fact of 3. To understand the cause of the drastic change in the dynamic aperture, the field model was implemented in a differential algebraic code and the Taylor map of the undulator was obtained. Tracking result using the Taylor map showed little change in the dynamic aperture, which was latter corroborated by that using the symplectic integrator with 150 slices per period (as opposed to 10 before). Yet it is simply too time consuming to use the symplectic integrator with such thin slices. For this case, Taylor proves to be a much faster alternative.

MPPP049 Observations and Measurements of Anomalous Hollow Electron Beams in a Storage Ring storage-ring, single-bunch, electron, betatron 3082
  • Y.K. Wu, J. Li
    DU/FEL, Durham, North Carolina
  • J. Wu
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: This work is supported by the U.S. AFOSR MFEL grant F49620-001-0370 and by U.S. DOE grant DE-FG05-91ER40665 (YW and JL). This work is also supported by U.S. DOE contract DE-AC02-76SF00515 (JW).

This paper reports first observations and measurements of anomalous hollow electron beams in a storage ring. In a lattice with a negative chromaticity, hollow electron beams consisting of a solid core beam inside and a large ring beam outside have been created and studied in the Duke storage ring. We report the detailed measurements of the hollow beam phenomenon, including its distinct image pattern, spectrum signature, and its evolution with time. By capturing the post-instability bursting beam, the hollow beam is a unique model system for studying the transverse instabilities, in particular, the interplay of the wake field and the lattice nonlinearity. In addition, the hollow beam can be used as a powerful tool to study the linear and nonlinear particle dynamics in the storage ring.

MPPT057 Design of a Magnet System for a Muon Cooling Ring closed-orbit, dynamic-aperture, dipole, simulation 3366
  • S.A. Kahn, H.G. Kirk
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • D. Cline, A.A. Garren
    UCLA, Los Angeles, California
  • F.E. Mills
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: This work was performed with the support of the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

A hydrogen gas filled muon cooling ring appears to be a promising approach to reducing the emittance of a muon beam for use in a neutrino factory or a muon collider. A small muon cooling ring is being studied to test the feasibility of cooling by this method. This paper describes the magnet system to circulate the muons. The magnet design is optimized to produce a large dynamic aperture to contain the muon beam with minimum losses. Muons are tracked through the field to verify the design.

MPPT071 The Lambertson Septum Magnet of the Spallation Neutron Source septum, extraction, vacuum, target 3847
  • J. Rank, Y.Y. Lee, W.J. McGahern, G. Miglionico, D. Raparia, N. Tsoupas, J.E. Tuozzolo, J. Wei
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work performed under contract for SNS, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge.

In the Spallation Neutron Source, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, multiple-stage injections to an accumulator ring increase intensity until a final extraction delivers the full proton beam to the target via transfer line. This extraction is achieved by a series of kicker elements and a thin septum Extraction Lambertson Septum Magnet. Here we discuss the lattice geometry, beam dynamics and optics, and the vacuum, electromagnetic and electromechanical design aspects of the SNS Extraction Lambertson Septum Magnet. Relevant datums are established. Beam optics is studied. Vector calculus is solved for pitch and roll angles. Fundamental magnet sections are depicted schematically. Coil, pole and yoke design calculations and electromagnetics optimization are presented.

MPPT084 Dipole and Quadrupole Magnets for the Duke FEL Booster Injector dipole, quadrupole, booster, simulation 4147
  • S. Mikhailov
    DU/FEL, Durham, North Carolina
  • N. Gavrilov, D.G. Gurov, O.B. Kiselev, A.B. Ogurtsov, E.R. Rouvinsky, K.Zh. Zhiliaev
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk
  Funding: This work is supported by U.S. DOE grant # DE-FG02-01ER41175 and by AFOSR MFEL grant # F49620-001-0370.

The full energy booster injector for the Duke FEL storage ring is presently under installation. The booster is designed to provide continuous injection into the Duke FEL storage ring in the top-off mode at the energy variable from 270 MeV to 1.2 GeV. The magnetic elements for the booster have been fabricated and magnetically measured in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russia. The paper presents magnetic and mechanical design of the booster dipole and quadrupole magnets and results of their magnetic measurements. Results of simulation of the booster lattice taking into account residual field and non-linearity of the magnets are also presented.

TPAE022 Analytical and Numerical Calculations of Two-Dimensional Dielectric Photonic Band Gap Structures and Cavities for Laser Acceleration simulation, laser, acceleration, plasma 1793
  • K.R. Samokhvalova, C. Chen
    MIT/PSFC, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  • B.L. Qian
    National University of Defense Technology, Hunan
  Funding: Research supported in part by Department of Energy, Office of High Energy Physics, Grant No. DE-FG02-95ER40919 and in part by Department of Defense, Joint Technology Office, under a subcontract with University of Arizona.

Dielectric photonic band gap (PBG) structures have many promising applications in laser acceleration. For these applications, accurate determination of fundamental and high order band gaps is critical. We present the results of our recent work on analytical calculations of two-dimensional (2D) PBG structures in rectangular geometry. We compare the analytical results with computer simulation results from the MIT Photonic Band Gap Structure Simulator (PBGSS) code, and discuss the convergence of the computer simulation results to the analytical results. Using the accurate analytical results, we design a mode-selective 2D dielectric cylindrical PBG cavity with the first global band gap in the frequency range of 8.8812 THz to 9.2654 THz. In this frequency range, the TM01-like mode is shown to be well confined.

TPAE023 3D Metallic Lattices for Accelerator Applications plasma, simulation, photon, vacuum 1838
  • M.A. Shapiro, J.R. Sirigiri, R.J. Temkin
    MIT/PSFC, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  • G. Shvets
    The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas
  Funding: DOE-HEP

We present the results of research on 3D metallic lattices operating at microwave frequencies for application in (1) accelerator structures with higher order mode suppression, (2) Smith-Purcell radiation beam diagnostics, and (3) polaritonic materials for laser acceleration. Electromagnetic waves in a 3D simple cubic lattice formed by metal wires are calculated using HFSS. The bulk modes in the lattice are determined using single cell calculations with different phase advances in all three directions. The Brillouin diagram for the bulk modes is presented and indicates the absence of band gaps in simple lattices except the band below the cutoff. Lattices with thin wires as well as with thick wires have been analyzed. The Brillouin diagram also indicates the presence of low frequency 3D plasmon mode as well as the two degenerate photon modes analogous to those in a 2D lattice. Surface modes for a semi-infinite cubic lattice are modeled as a stack of cells with different phase advances in the two directions along the surface. The surface modes are found for both the thin and thick wire lattices in the band below the cutoff. They demonstrate that the lattice acts as a negative dielectric constant material.

TPAE051 Designing Photonic Crystal Devices for Accelerators coupling, simulation, electron, photon 3164
  • G.R. Werner
    CIPS, Boulder, Colorado
  • J.R. Cary
    Tech-X, Boulder, Colorado
  Funding: This work supported by U.S. Department of Energy grant DE-FG02-04ER41317.

Photonic crystals (periodic dielectric structures with a lattice constant on the order of the wavelength of light) can have a wide range of properties. For instance, photonic crystals can be designed to be completely reflective within a certain bandwidth, thereby becoming a replacement for metal in accelerator structures such as waveguides and cavities. To see whether photonic crystals might find application in accelerators, and to design potential accelerator structures, we will need reliable computer simulations to predict fields and frequencies and other properties of photonic crystal structures. We propose to build photonic crystal structures in the microwave regime and test the validity of computer simulation against experiment. We can then explore more complex issues such as coupling to photonic crystal structures, higher-order mode rejection, and tunable photonic crystals.

TPAP024 Decoupling Schemes for the Tevatron in the Presence of Skew Quadrupole Fields quadrupole, dipole, sextupole, optics 1850
  • C. Johnstone, P. Snopok
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  • M. Berz
    MSU, East Lansing, Michigan
  Funding: Work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract no DE-AC02-76CH03000.

With increasing demands for luminosity, optimal performance must be extracted from the existing Tevatron optics. We have, therefore, initiated a high-order dynamical study of the Tevatron to assess the performance, functionality and potential of the baseline lattice. This work describes the nonlinear or high-order performance of the Tevatron lattice with emphasis on the coupled and increased nonlinear behavior introduced by the significant skew quadrupole error in combination with conventional sextupole correction, a behavior still clearly evident after optimal tuning of available skew quadrupole circuits. An optimization study is then performed using different skew quadrupole families, and, importantly, local and global correction of the linear skew terms in maps generated by the code, COSY. A correction scheme, with two families locally correcting each arc and eight independent correctors outside the arc for global correction is shown to be optimal and dramatically improve the linear performance of the baseline Tevatron lattice.

TPAP040 Feasibility Study of Beam-Beam Compensation in the Tevatron with Wires antiproton, injection, simulation, beam-losses 2645
  • T. Sen
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  • B. Erdélyi
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois
  Funding: Dept. of Energy.

At large distances the field profile of a current carrying wire matches the profile of the field of a round beam. We consider the practical applicability of this principle in compensating long-range beam-beam effects in the Tevatron. Changes in the helix and beam separation from injection energy to collision energy require that different wire configurations at these different energies. Due to the seventy or more long-range interactions, each set of wires must compensate several interactions. We first develop the principles of non-local compensation with a small set of wires. Next we use these principles in detailed simulation studies with beam-beam interactions and wire fields to determine the feasibility of the compensation in the Tevatron.

TPAP046 Towards an Optimization of the LHC Intersection Region using New Magnet Technology quadrupole, dipole, insertion, radiation 2920
  • P.M. McIntyre, A. Sattarov
    Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas
  • J.-P. Koutchouk
    CERN, Geneva
  An optimized design of the intersection region of LHC is presented. The starting point of the design is to move the quadrupole triplet to a minimum distance from the intersect – 12 m. The innermost quadrupole must accommodate substantial heat load from particles, and is designed using a structured cable that incorporates internal refrigeration with supercritical helium. Using the reduced aperture required by this closer spacing, Nb3Sn quadrupoles have been designed with gradients of 350-400 T/m for the triplet. The separation dipole utilizes a levitated-pole design that mitigates the extreme heat and radiation challenges for that application. The above technical elements have been incorporated into an optimized insertion design that minimizes ?* while significantly reducing sensitivities to errors in multipoles and alignment. The additional space that is opened in the lattice can be used to fully localize the optical design of the insertion so that it does not require corrections through the neighboring arcs.  
TPAP048 Optimization of the Phase Advance Between RHIC Interaction Points resonance, quadrupole, proton, luminosity 3031
  • R. Tomas
    CELLS, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès)
  • W. Fischer
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: U.S. department of Energy.

We consider the scenario of having two identical Interaction Points (IPs) in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The strengths of beam-beam resonances strongly depend on the phase advance between these two IPs and therefore certain phase advances could improve beam lifetime and luminosity. We compute the dynamic aperture as function of the phase advance between these IPs to find the optimum settings. The beam-beam interaction is treated in the weak-strong approximation and a complete non-linear model of the lattice is used. For the current RHIC proton working point (0.69,0.685) the design lattice is found to have the optimum phase advance. However this is not the case for other working points.

TPAT027 Measurement of Transverse Echoes in RHIC quadrupole, dipole, scattering, octupole 1955
  • W. Fischer, T. Satogata
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • R. Tomas
    CELLS, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès)
  Funding: Work supported by U.S. DOE under contract No DE-AC02-98CH10886.

Beam echoes are a very sensitive method to measure diffusion, and longitudinal echo measurements were performed in a number of machines. In RHIC, for the first time, a transverse beam echo was observed after applying a dipole kick followed by a quadrupole kick. After application of the dipole kick, the dipole moment decohered completely due to lattice nonlinearities. When a quadrupole kick is applied at time T after the dipole kick, the beam re-cohered at time 2T thus showing an echo response. We describe the experimental setup and measurement results. In the measurements the dipole and quadrupole kick amplitudes, amplitude dependent tune shift, and the time between dipole and quadrupole kick were varied. In addition, measurements were taken with gold bunches of different intensities. These should exhibit different transverse diffusion rates due to intra-beam scattering.

TPAT029 RIA Beam Dynamics: Comparing TRACK to IMPACT linac, simulation, injection, ion-source 2095
  • B. Mustapha, V.N. Aseev, P.N. Ostroumov
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  • J. Qiang, R.D. Ryne
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  Funding: This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38.

In order to benchmark the newly developed beam dynamics code TRACK we have performed comparisons with well established existing codes. During code development, codes like TRANSPORT, COSY, GIOS and RAYTRACE were used to check TRACK's implementation of the different beam line elements. To benchmark the end-to-end simulation of the RIA driver linac, the simulation of the low-energy part (from the ion source to the entrance of the SC linac) was compared with PARMTEQ and found to agree well. For the simulation of the SC linac the code IMPACT is used. Prior to these simulations, the code IMPACT had to be updated to meet the special requirements of the RIA driver linac. Features such as multiple charge state acceleration, stripper simulation and beam collimation were added to the code. IMPACT was also modified to support new types of rf cavities and to include fringe fields for all the elements. This paper will present a comparison of the beam dynamics simulation in the RIA driver linac between the codes TRACK and IMPACT. A very good agreement was obtained which represents another validation of both codes.

TPAT031 Painting Self-Consistent Beam Distributions in Rings SNS, space-charge, quadrupole, injection 2194
  • J.A. Holmes, S.M. Cousineau, V.V. Danilov
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  Funding: SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge.

We define self-consistent beam distributions to have the following properties: 1) time-independence or periodicity, 2) linear space charge forces, and 3) maintainance of their defining shape and density under all linear transformations. The periodic condition guarantees zero space-charge-induced halo growth and beam loss during injection. Some self-consistent distributions can be manipulated into flat, or even point-like, beams, which makes them interesting to colliders and to heavy-ion fusion. This paper presents methods for painting 2D and 3D self-consistent distributions and for their manipulation to produce flat and point-like beams.

TPAT037 Simulating the Long-Distance Propagation of Intense Beams in the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment plasma, ion, simulation, focusing 2491
  • E.P. Gilson, M. Chung, R.C. Davidson, P. Efthimion, R. M. Majeski, E. Startsev
    PPPL, Princeton, New Jersey
  Funding: Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) makes use of a compact Paul trap configuration with quadrupolar oscillating wall voltages to simulate the propagation of intense charged particle beams over distances of many kilometers through magnetic alternating-gradient transport systems. The simulation is possible because of the similarity between the transverse dynamics of particles in the two systems. One-component pure cesium ion plasmas have been trapped that correspond to normalized intensity parameters s < 0.8, where s is the ratio of the square of the plasma frequency to twice the square of the average transverse focusing frequency. The PTSX device confines the plasma for hundreds of milliseconds, which is equivalent to beam propagation over tens of kilometers. Results are presented for experiments in which the amplitude of the oscillating confining voltage waveform has been modified as a function of time. A comparison is made between abrupt changes in amplitude and adiabatic changes in amplitude. The effects of varying the frequency are also discussed. A barium ion source and a laser system have been installed and initial measurements made with this system are presented.

TPAT042 Progress on a Vlasov Treatment of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation from Arbitrary Planar Orbits synchrotron, synchrotron-radiation, emittance, radiation 2699
  • G. Bassi, J.A. Ellison
    UNM, Albuquerque, New Mexico
  • R.L. Warnock
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: Support from DOE grants DE-AC02-76SF00515 and DE-FG02-99ER1104 is gratefully acknowledged.

We study the influence of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on particle bunches traveling on arbitrary planar orbits between parallel conducting plates (shielding). The time evolution of the phase space distribution is determined by solving the Vlasov-Maxwell equations in the time domain. This provides lower numerical noise than the macroparticle method, and allows the study of emittance degradation and microbunching in bunch compressors. We calculate the fields excited by the bunch in the lab frame using a formula simpler than that based on retarded potentials.* We have developed an algorithm for solving the Vlasov equation in the beam frame using arc length as the independent variable and our method of local characteristics (discretized Perron-Frobenius operator).We integrate in the interaction picture in the hope that we can adopt a fixed grid. The distribution function will be represented by B-splines, in a scheme preserving positivity and normalization of the distribution. The transformation between lab and beam frame is carefully treated. Here we report on our implementation of the algorithm for a chicane bunch compressor with linear energy chirp and take steps to treat the nonlinear case.

*"Vlasov Treatment of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation from Arbitrary Planar Orbits" to be published in the Proceedings of ICAP04, St. Petersburg, R. Warnock, G. Bassi and J. A. Ellison.

TPAT061 Accurate Iterative Analysis of the K-V Equations quadrupole, emittance, simulation, focusing 3535
  • O.A. Anderson
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  Funding: Supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098.

Previous solutions of the K-V equations have either yielded poor accuracy or have been complex and difficult to follow. We describe a new approach, simple in concept, easy to use, with accuracy substantially improved over previous treatments. The results are given in the same form as the smooth approximation but include a few correction terms obtained from the field gradient integrated along the axis of a quadrupole cell. The input quantities–quadrupole field, beam current, and emittance–yield the average beam radius, the maximum envelope excursion, and the depressed and undepressed tunes. For all values of the input parameters, the results are much closer to the exact values from simulations than are results from the smooth approximation. For example, with the parameters adjusted for an exact phase advance of 83.4 degrees and 50% tune depression, both tunes are in error by less than 0.5%–over 22 times better than the smooth approximation. The error in maximum radius is 0.04%, improved by a factor of 80. The new method and its application to a wide range of cases will be presented.

TPAT066 Significance of Space Charge and the Earth Magnetic Field on the Dispersive Characteristics of a Low Energy Electron Beam space-charge, emittance, simulation, electron 3691
  • R.A. Kishek, G. Bai, S. Bernal, T.F. Godlove, I. Haber, P.G. O'Shea, B. Quinn, C. Tobin, M. Walter
    IREAP, College Park, Maryland
  • M. Reiser
    University Maryland, College Park, Maryland
  Funding: This work is funded by U.S. Dept. of Energy grant numbers DE-FG02-94ER40855 and DE-FG02-92ER54178.

The combination of energy spread and space charge provides a rich domain for interesting beam dynamics that are currently not well understood. The University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) [1] is a small scaled ring designed to probe the little-known regions of higher beam intensities using low-energy electrons. As such, design, commissioning and operation of UMER present many challenges, some quite novel. For example the UMER beam energy of 10 keV makes the beam very sensitive to the Earth magnetic field, which we can fortunately use to assist in bending the beam. This paper presents a systematic simulation study of the interaction of space charge and energy spread, with and without the earth magnetic field.

*"Commissioning of the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER)," S. Bernal, et al., this conference.

TPAT070 Intensity and Bunch-Shape Dependent Beam Loss Simulation for the SIS100 beam-losses, resonance, ion, space-charge 3807
  • G. Franchetti, I. Hofmann, A. Orzhekovskaya, P.J. Spiller
    GSI, Darmstadt
  We have studied the combined influence of magnet nonlinearities, space charge and bunch shapes consistent with different RF scenarios on the long-term loss in the planned SIS100 synchrotron of the FAIR project. The simulation is a 3D tracking with "frozen-in" space charge calculation employing the MICROMAP code. Comparing a one-harmonic RF scenario with an alternative double-harmonic scenario we find that for the same absolute beam loss roughly twice the number of particles can be stored in the double-RF system. Moreover, a barrier bucket RF scenario is found to be loss free. This is due to the fact that loss is caused here by space-charge induced periodic resonance crossing, which is absent for the strictly flat bunch profile of the barrier case.  
TPAT072 Long-Term Simulation of Beam-Beam Effects in the Tevatron at Collision Energy simulation, coupling, antiproton, beam-beam-effects 3871
  • A.C. Kabel, Y. Cai
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • T. Sen
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  The weak-strong beam-beam effect is expected substantially to contribute to the degradation of beam lifetimes in the Tevatron at collision energy. We have expanded an existing multi-processor code (which previously was applied to the Tevatron at injection energy* to include chromatic and non-linear lattice effects as well as a fully-coupled treatment of the lattice in different approximations.** We obtain lifetime predictions by doing temporal statistics on the tracking results of a weighted macroparticle distribution and fitting it to a class of solutions for the diffusion equation. We present typical results of parameter scans.

*A. Kabel, Y. Cai, B. Erdelyi, T. Sen, M. Xiao; Proceedings of PAC03. **A. Kabel, this Conference.

TPAT082 Phonon Modes and the Maintenance Condition of a Crystalline Beam resonance, focusing, coupling, emittance 4111
  • J. Wei
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • H. Enokizono, H. Okamoto, Y. Yuri
    HU/AdSM, Higashi-Hiroshima
  • X.-P. Li
    Skyworks Solutions, Inc., Newbury Park. California
  • A. Sessler
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  Funding: * Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy.

Previously it has been shown that the maintenance condition for a crystalline beam requires that there not be a resonance between the crystal phonon frequencies and the frequency associated with a beam moving through a lattice of N periods. This resonance can be avoided provided the phonon frequencies are all below half of the lattice frequency. Here we make a detailed study of the phonon modes of a crystalline beam. Analytic results obtained in a “smooth approximation” using the ground-state crystalline beam structure is compared with numerical evaluation employing Fourier transform of Molecular Dynamic (MD) modes. The MD also determines when a crystalline beam is stable. The maintenance condition, when combined with either the simple analytic theory or the numerical evaluation of phonon modes, is shown to be in excellent agreement with the MD calculations of crystal stability.

[1] X-P. Li, A. M. Sessler, J. Wei, EPAC (1994) p. 1379 - 1381. ‘Necessary Conditions for Attaining a Crystalline Beam''}[2] J. Wei, H. Okamoto, A.M. Sessler, Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 80, p. 2606-2609 (1998).

TPAT091 IBS for Ion Distribution Under Electron Cooling ion, luminosity, emittance, simulation 4263
  • A.V. Fedotov, I. Ben-Zvi, Yu.I. Eidelman, V. Litvinenko, G. Parzen
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • A.O. Sidorin, A.V. Smirnov, G.V. Troubnikov
    JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

Standard models of the intra-beam scattering (IBS) are based on the growth of the rms beam parameters for a Gaussian beam distribution. As a result of electron cooling, the core of beam distribution is cooled much faster than the tails, producing a denser core. Formation of such a core is an important feature since it plays dominant role in the luminosity increase. A simple use of standard rms-based IBS approach may significantly underestimate IBS for the beam core. A detailed treatment of IBS, which depends on individual particle amplitudes, was recently proposed by Burov,* with an analytic formulation done for a Gaussian distribution. However, during the cooling process the beam distribution quickly deviates from a Gaussian profile. To understand the extent of the dense core formation in the ion distribution, the "core-tail" model for IBS, based on the diffusion coefficients for bi-Gaussian distributions, was employed in cooling studies for RHIC. In addition, the standard IBS theory was recently reformulated for rms parameters growth of a bi-Gaussian distribution by Parzen.** In this paper, we compare various approaches to IBS treatment for such distribution. Its impact on the luminosity is also discussed.

*A. Burov, FERMILAB-TM-2213 (2003). **G. Parzen, Tech Note C-AD/AP/150 (2004).

TPPE030 A Method to Polarize Stored Antiprotons to a High Degree electron, antiproton, target, polarization 2158
  • A. Lehrach, S. Martin, F. Rathmann
    FZJ, Jülich
  • P. Lenisa
    INFN-Ferrara, Ferrara
  • I.N. Meshkov, A.O. Sidorin, A.V. Smirnov
    JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region
  • C. Montag
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • E. Steffens
    University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Physikalisches Institut II, Erlangen
  • C.-A. Wiedner
    UGS, Langenbernsdorf
  The PAX collaboration proposes a method to produce intense beams of polarized antiprotons. Polarized antiprotons can be produced in a storage ring by spin-dependent interaction in a purely hydrogen gas target. The polarizing process is based on spin transfer from the polarized electrons of the target atoms to the orbiting antiprotons. After spin filtering for about two beam lifetimes at energies of about 50-100 MeV using a dedicated large acceptance ring, the antiproton polarization would reach P=0.2-0.4. In the presentation, beside a description of the polarization technique and its potentiality, a description of the ideal characterstics of the antiproton polarizer will be given.


TPPP003 Lattice Upgrade Plan for Crab Crossing at the KEKB Rings quadrupole, luminosity, optics, coupling 865
  • A. Morita, K. Egawa, K. Hosoyama, H. Koiso, T. Kubo, M. Masuzawa, K. Ohmi, K. Oide, R. Sugahara, M. Yoshida
    KEK, Ibaraki
  We plan to install two superconducting crab cavities into the rings at Janyary, 2006. In our plan, we will install one crab cavity per one ring into the NIKKO straight section where the cryogenic infrastructure is already operated for the superconducting accelerating cavities. In order to obtain the correct crabbing angle at the interaction point(IP), we have to enlarge the horizontal beta function(200m for HER) and have to adjust the horizontal phase advance between the IP and the cavity installation point. In this paper, we will report the lattice modified for the crab crossing and the study results about the single beam dynamics.  
TPPP012 A Study of the Effect of Beam-Beam Interactions on CESR Optics electron, positron, quadrupole, betatron 1275
  • J.A. Crittenden, M.G. Billing
    Cornell University, Department of Physics, Ithaca, New York
  • D. L. Rubin
    Cornell University, Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Ithaca, New York
  Funding: National Science Foundation.

The CESR storage ring facility has begun operation in an energy region which allows high-statistics investigation of charm-quark bound states. Experience during the first year has shown that the effects of parasitic crossings in the pretzel orbits present an important factor in injection efficiency, in the beam lifetime and stored current limits. We compare the results of beam dynamics and tracking calculations which quantify the effects of these parasitic crossings on optics and dynamic aperture for the injected and stored trajectories to observations of beam behavior.

TPPP013 Simulations of Parametric Resonance Ionization Cooling of Muon Beams synchrotron, simulation, resonance, focusing 1321
  • K. Beard, S.A. Bogacz, Y.S. Derbenev
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  • R.P. Johnson, K. Paul, T.J. Roberts
    Muons, Inc, Batavia
  • K. Yonehara
    Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois
  Funding: This work was supported in part by DOE SBIR grants DE-FG02-03ER83722, and 04ER84016.

The technique of using a parametric resonance to allow better ionization cooling is being developed to create small beams so that high collider luminosity can be achieved with fewer muons. In the linear channel that is studied in this effort, a half integer resonance is induced such that the normal elliptical motion of particles in x-x' phase space becomes hyperbolic, with particles moving to smaller x and larger x' as they pass down the channel. Thin absorbers placed at the focal points of the channel then cool the angular divergence of the beam by the usual ionization cooling mechanism where each absorber is followed by RF cavities. Thus the phase space of the beam is compressed in transverse position by the dynamics of the resonance and its angular divergence is compressed by the ionization cooling mechanism. We report the first results of simulations of this process, including comparisons to theoretical cooling rates and studies of sensitivity to variations in absorber thickness and initial beam conditions.

TPPP048 A Compact 6D Muon Cooling Ring emittance, closed-orbit, dipole, simulation 3025
  • H.G. Kirk, S.A. Kahn
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • D. Cline, A.A. Garren
    UCLA, Los Angeles, California
  • F.E. Mills
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: U.S. Department of Energy.

We discuss a conceptual design for a compact muon cooling system based on a weak-focusing ring loaded with high-pressure Hydrogen gas. We demonstrate that such a ring will be capable of cooling a circulating muon beam in each of the three spatial dimensions so that 6d cooling of the muon beam phase space is achieved.

TPPT025 Breakdown in RF Cavities vacuum, site, ion, target 1886
  • J. Norem, A. Hassanein, Z. Insepov, I. Konkashbaev
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: DOE

We present a simple model of breakdown in rf cavities. For most events this involves tensile stress and tensile strength, however other effects can also contribute. We discuss the effects of different materials, fatigue, high pressure gas, primary and secondary emission sites, local field enhancements, dark currents, secondary emission, work functions, magnetic fields, macro and microscopic fracture mechanisms high current densities, surface and subsurface defects, and astronomical power densities. While primarily devoted to normal conductors, this work also has consequences for superconducting rf surfaces.

TPPT050 Rod-Loaded and PBG Multi-Beam Klystron Cavities coupling, klystron, dipole, cathode 3094
  • A. Smirnov, D. Yu
    DULY Research Inc., Rancho Palos Verdes, California
  Funding: Work supported by DOE SBIR Grant No. DE-FG02-03ER83845.

Performance of PBG-like structures was studied for multi-defect and single-defect metal cavities. Conceptual designs of a 6-beam, X-band, multi-beam klystron (MBK) demonstrate feasibility of high power generation with efficiency ~63% in a compact structure. Sheet-beam and annular-beam rod-loaded configurations were also investigated.

TOPA009 Photonic Band Gap Accelerator Demonstration at Ku-Band. linac, electron, klystron, acceleration 656
  • E.I. Smirnova, L.M. Earley, R.L. Edwards
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
  • A.S. Kesar, I. Mastovsky, M.A. Shapiro, R.J. Temkin
    MIT/PSFC, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  Funding: The research is supported by DOE High Energy Physics, Contract No. DE-FG02-91ER40648.

We report progress on the design and cold test of a metal Ku-band PBG accelerator structure. The 17.140 GHz 6-cell PBG accelerator structure with reduced long-range wakefields was designed for the experiment. The copper structure was electroformed and cold-tested. Tuning was performed through chemical etching of the rods. Final cold test measurements were found to be in very good agreement with the design. The structure will be installed on the beam line at the accelerator laboratory at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and will be powered with 3 MW of peak power from the Haimson 17.14 GHz klystron. Results of the design, fabrication, cold test and hot test on the Haimson accelerator will be presented.

TOPA010 Photonic Crystal Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures focusing, laser, dynamic-aperture, simulation 731
  • B.M. Cowan
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: Work supported by Department of Energy contract DE-AC03-76SF00515 (SLAC).

We discuss simulated photonic crystal structure designs, including two- and three-dimensional planar structures and fibers. The discussion of 2D structures demonstrates guiding of a speed-of-light accelerating mode by a defect in a photonic crystal lattice and reveals design considerations and trade-offs. With a three-dimensional lattice, we introduce a candidate geometry and discuss beam dynamics, coupling, and manufacturing techniques for that structure. In addition we discuss W-band scale tests of photonic crystal structures. The computational methods are also discussed.

TOPD003 Cooler Storage Ring at China Institute of Modern Physics ion, dipole, heavy-ion, injection 271
  • J.W. Xia
    IMP, Lanzhou
  • B.W. Wei, W.L. Zhan
    IHEP Beijing, Beijing
  CSR, a new ion cooler-storage-ring project in China IMP, is a double ring system, and consists of a main ring (CSRm) and an experimental ring (CSRe). The two existing cyclotrons SFC (K=69) and SSC (K=450) of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) will be used as its injector system. The heavy ion beams with the energy range of 7–30 MeV/nucleus from the HIRFL will be accumulated, cooled and accelerated to the higher energy range of 100–500 MeV/ nucleus in CSRm, and then extracted fast to produce radioactive ion beams or highly charged heavy ions. Those secondary beams will be accepted and stored or decelerated by CSRe for many internal-target experiments or high precision spectroscopy with beam cooling. On the other hand, the beams with the energy range of 100–1000MeV/ nucleus will also be extracted from CSRm by using slow extraction or fast extraction for many external-target experiments. CSR project was started in the end of 1999 and will be finished in 2006. In this paper the outline and the activities of the project will be described.  
WPAE021 Short Straight Sections in the LHC Matching Sections (MS SSS): An Extension of the Arc Cryostats To Fulfill Specific Machine Functionalities vacuum, quadrupole, insertion, collider 1724
  • V. Parma, H. Prin
    CERN, Geneva
  • fl. Lutton
    IPN, Orsay
  Funding: IPN-CNRS, 15 rue Georges Clémenceau 91406 ORSAY, France.

The LHC insertions require 50 specific superconducting quadrupoles, operating in boiling helium at 4.5 K and housed in individual cryostats to form the MS Short Straight Sections (MS SSS). The quadrupoles and corrector magnets are assembled in 8 families of cold masses, with lengths ranging from 5 to 11 m and weights ranging from 60 to 140 kN. The MS SSS need to fulfil specific requirements related to the collider topology, its cryogenic layout and the powering scheme. Most MS SSS are standalone cryogenic and super-conducting units, i.e. they are not in the continuous arc cryostat, and therefore need dedicated cryogenic and electrical feeding. Specially designed cryostat end-caps are required to close the vacuum vessels at each end, which include low heat in-leak Cold-to-Warm transitions (CWT) for the beam tubes and 6 kA local electrical feedthrough for powering the quadrupoles. This paper presents the design of the MS SSS cryostats as an extension of the arc cryostat’s design to achieve a standard and consequently cost-effective solution, and the design solutions chosen to satisfy their specific functionalities.

WPAE036 Harmonic Analysis of Linac Alignment alignment, linac, focusing, laser 2431
  • R.C. McCrady
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
  Funding: Work conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory, which is operated by the University of California for the United States Department of Energy under contract W-7405-ENG-36.

We have analyzed the requirements on alignment of the focusing elements (quadrupole doublets) in the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) side coupled linac. The analysis is performed in terms of harmonics of the quardrupole spacing. This allows us to determine the effect of intentional deviations from a straight line, such as following the curvature of the Earth, and of unintentional deviations introduced by measurement and alignment errors. Results are compared to measured positions of the doublets.

WOAC005 Application of Independent Component Analysis for Beam Diagnosis betatron, synchrotron, booster, injection 489
  • X. Huang, S.-Y. Lee
    IUCF, Bloomington, Indiana
  • E. Prebys, R.E. Tomlin
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: This work is supported in part by grants from DE-AC02-76CH03000, DOE DE-FG02-92ER40747 and NSF PHY-0244793.

The independent component analysis (ICA)* is applied to analyze simultaneous multiple turn-by-turn beam position monitor (BPM) data of synchrotrons. The sampled data are decomposed to physically independent source signals, such as betatron motion, synchrotron motion and other perturbation sources. The decomposition is based on simultaneous diagonalization of several unequal time covariance matrices, unlike the model independent analysis (MIA),** which uses equal-time covariance matrix only. Consequently the new method has advantage over MIA in isolating the independent modes and is more robust under the influence of contaminating signals of bad BPMs. The spatial pattern and temporal pattern of each resulting component (mode) can be used to identify and analyze the associated physical cause. Beam optics can be studied on the basis of the betatron modes. The method has been successfully applied to the Booster Synchrotron at Fermilab.

*A. Belouchrani et al., IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing, {\bf 45}, 434-444, (1997). **J. Irwin, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 82}, 1684 (1999); Chun-xi Wang, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams} {\bf 6}, 104001 (2003).

WOAD001 Super-B Factories luminosity, background, factory, vacuum 64
  • H. Koiso
    KEK, Ibaraki
  Energy-asymmetric electron-positron B factories, KEKB and PEP-II, have been operated at the luminosity frontiers and have delivered the integrated luminosities of a few hundreds of /fb to experiments. For further progress in particle physics, a luminosity of higher than 100/nb/s is strongly required, which means higher beam currents, smaller beta functions at the interaction point, larger beam-beam parameters, shorter bunch lengths, etc. This paper will review major upgrade plans of both machines toward SuperKEKB and Super PEP-II.  
RPAE006 Feasibility Study on Introducing a Superconducting Wiggler to Saga Light Source dynamic-aperture, multipole, quadrupole, wiggler 1021
  • S. Koda, Y. Iwasaki, T. Okajima, H. Setoyama, Y. Takabayashi, T. Tomimasu, K. Yoshida
    Saga Synchrotron Light Source, Industry Promotion Division, Saga City
  • H. Ohgaki
    Kyoto IAE, Kyoto
  • M. Torikoshi
    NIRS, Chiba-shi
  Saga light source (SAGA-LS) is the synchrotron radiation facility, which consists of 250 MeV electron linac and 1.4 GeV storage ring. We have a plan to introduce an existing superconducting wiggler, which has been developed for other project by National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The superconducting wiggler consists of a main pole of 7T and two side poles of 4T. Each pole is composed of a racetrack-shaped coil and an iron core. We have examined the effects of the wiggler on the beam optics when it is introduced into SAGA-LS. The distribution of multipole components in the planes perpendicular to the electron orbit, which is deformed by the wiggler fields, have been calculated using magnetic field calculation code RADIA. Then the lattice function and the dynamic aperture of the ring have been calculated by the lattice calculation code SAD. The results show that the tune shift due to the quadrupole component of the wiggler field is as large as to make horizontal beam orbit unstable. The dynamic aperture after the tune correction becomes small by about 20%. These effects due to multipole field are considered to be tolerable for the SAGA-LS.  
RPAE015 High Energy, High Brightness X-Rays Produced by Compton Back Scattering at the Livermore PLEIADES facility electron, laser, brightness, linac 1464
  • A.M. Tremaine, S.G. Anderson, S.M. Betts, K. Crane, D.J. Gibson, F.V. Hartemann, J.S. Jacob
    LLNL, Livermore, California
  • P. Frigola, J. Lim, J.B. Rosenzweig, G. Travish
    UCLA, Los Angeles, California
  Funding: This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract no. W-7405-Eng-48.

PLEIADES (Picosecond Laser Electron Interaction for the Dynamic Evaluation of Structures) produces tunable 30-140 keV x-rays with 0.3-5 ps pulse lengths and 107 photons/pulse by colliding a high brightness electron beam with a high power laser. The electron beam is created by an rf photo-injector system, accelerated by a 120 MeV linac, and focused to 20 mm with novel permanent magnet quadrupoles. To produce Compton back scattered x-rays, the electron bunch is overlapped with a Ti:Sapphire laser that delivers 500 mJ, 80 fs, pulses to the interaction point. K-edge radiography at 115 keV on Uranium has verified the angle correlated energy spectrum inherent in Compton scattering and high-energy tunability of the Livermore source. Current upgrades to the facility will allow laser pumping of targets synchronized to the x-ray source enabling dynamic diffraction and time-resolved studies of high Z materials. Near future plans include extending the radiation energies to >400 keV, allowing for nuclear fluorescence studies of materials.

RPAE028 Lattice Upgrade Options for the ESRF Storage Ring emittance, dipole, optics, quadrupole 2047
  • Y. Papaphilippou, P. Elleaume, L. Farvacque, A. Ropert
    ESRF, Grenoble
  Several scenarios of lattice upgrade for the ESRF storage ring are under study. In order to minimise the cost, their design is based on the length constraints of the existing tunnel with the ID beamlines kept in place. The goal is to shrink the emittance in order to increase the undulator brilliance. The two main options are a double bend achromat structure with non-uniform field dipoles and a triple bend achromat lattice. The two scenarios are detailed and compared with respect to their linear optics solutions, correction of chromatic effects and non-linear dynamics. An attempt to reveal the horizontal effective emittance dependence on important design parameters, such as optics functions maxima, chromaticity and dynamic aperture, is also undertaken. Technological challenges concerning magnet design with small physical aperture in a reduced space are also addressed.  
RPAE047 Lattice Study for the Taiwan Photon Source dynamic-aperture, emittance, sextupole, photon 2989
  • C.-C. Kuo, H.-P. Chang, C.-T. Chen, G.-H. Luo, H.-J. Tsai, M.-H. Wang
    NSRRC, Hsinchu
  The feasibility study for the new 3.0~3.3 GeV Taiwan synchrotron light source, dubbed Taiwan Photon Source, was initiated in July, 2004. The goal is to construct a high performance light source with extremely bright X-ray in complementary to the existing 1.5 GeV light source in Taiwan. The ring circumference is 518.4 m and a 24-cell DBA lattice structure is chosen. The natural emittance with distributed dispersion is less than 2 nm-rad. A large booster ring of 499.2 m sharing the storage ring tunnel will be adopted.  
RPAE048 Design Consideration of a Booster for Taiwan Photon Source booster, emittance, storage-ring, synchrotron 2992
  • G.-H. Luo, H.-P. Chang, C.-C. Kuo, K.-K. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, M.-H. Wang
    NSRRC, Hsinchu
  After more than 10 years' operation and expansion, the Taiwan Light Source (TLS) of National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC) reaches very stable operation condition. The storage ring has better than 96% of beam availability annually with 6 Insertion Devices (ID) in a six-folds symmetry over-crowded machine. Two superconducting IDs and one superconducting RF cavity were installed in recent year, which intend to push the photon energy to hard x-ray regime and double the photon flux with better beam quality. Beamlines and experimental stations occupied all over the experimental area. The uproar for more beamlines in higher photon energy with higher brightness was frequently transpired from users' community. The Board of Trustee of NSRRC gave a green light to a new design and construction of median-energy light source, Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) in the coming decade. This paper will present two draft designs of booster and the consideration of the design criteria for new booster to work with a top-up injected and very low-emittance storage ring.  
RPAE050 Status of the CAMD Light Source quadrupole, wiggler, emittance, diagnostics 3103
  • V.P. Suller
    CCLRC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire
  • E.J. Anzalone, M.G. Fedurin, P. Jines, D.J. Launey, T.A. Miller, Y. Wang
    LSU/CAMD, Baton Rouge, Louisiana
  With the increasing diversity of its research program, the CAMD Light Source has improved its beam brightness and quality. Using a well calibrated model of the lattice, the ring optic has been refined to generate a lower beam emittance of 150 nm.rad and this has been confirmed by measuring the beta values with the modulated quadrupole shunt system. The beam sizes have also been measured with an X-ray pinhole camera and compared to the calculated emittance. The beam orbit is corrected to a standard position referenced to the quadrupole centers to a precision better than 0.5 mm, using a suite of well localized bumps which can also flexibly steer the user photon beams to their requirements. Beam reliability has been improved by bringing into use a VME control system for the energy ramp.  
RPAE057 Dynamic Aperture Optimization for Low Emittance Light Sources sextupole, emittance, dipole, quadrupole 3378
  • S.L. Kramer, J. Bengtsson
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Under Contract with the United States Department of Energy Contract Number DE-AC02-98CH10886.

State of the art low emittance light source lattices, require small bend angle dipole magnets and strong quadrupoles. This in turn creates large chromaticity and small value of dispersion in the lattice. To counter the high chromaticity strong sextupoles are required which limit the dynamic aperture. Traditional methods for expanding the dynamic aperture use harmonic sextupoles to counter the tune shift with amplitude. This has been successful up to now, but is non-deterministic and limited as the sextupole strength increases, driving higher order nonlinearities. We have taken a different approach that makes use of the tune flexibility of a TBA lattice to minimize the lowest order nonlinearities, freeing the harmonic sextupoles to counter the higher order nonlinearities. This procedure is being used to improve the nonlinear dynamics of the NSLS-II lattice.

RPAE059 Design of 3 GeV Booster for NSLS-II booster, injection, dipole, sextupole 3473
  • T.V. Shaftan, E.D. Johnson, J.B. Murphy, I.P. Pinayev, J. Rose, X.J. Wang
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  We present preliminary design of full energy booster for NSLS-II. In the paper we analyze single- and multi-bunch modes of the booster operations. The booster lattice consists of 24 TME cells with two dispersion suppressors. Initial design of the magnets, power supply specifications, Eddy current contribution to the booster chromaticity are discussed.  
RPAE062 Estimation of the Effective Magnet Misalignments of the ALS Storage Ring storage-ring, closed-orbit, quadrupole, coupling 3559
  • H. Nishimura, T. Scarvie
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098

New storage ring lattices have traditionally been commissioned using a trial-and-error approach, where the number of turns circulated is slowly built up until enough beam is stored to correct the orbit. We have found that by combining the calculated response matrix of magnet misalignments from a linear model of a new lattice with the measured steering magnet response matrix used during normal operations, it is possible to make an educated guess for the steering magnet settings that will immediately allow beam circulation in the new lattice. “Effective” magnet misalignments are simply those that are sufficiently close to the real misalignments to make the first guess good enough to circulate beam; the relationship between effective and real magnet misalignments is also discussed in the paper. This predictive steering method makes the process of establishing enough circulating beam for SVD-based orbit correction in a new lattice very efficient.

RPAE066 Terahertz Coherent Synchrotron Radiation from Femtosecond Laser Modulation of the Electron Beam at the Advanced Light Source laser, radiation, synchrotron, electron 3682
  • J.M. Byrd, Z. Hao, M.C. Martin, D. Robin, F. Sannibale, R.W. Schoenlein, A. Zholents, M.S. Zolotorev
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098.

At the Advanced Light Source (ALS), the "femtoslicing" beamline is in operation since 1999 for the production of x-ray synchrotron radiation pulses with femtosecond duration. The mechanism used for generating the short x-ray pulses induces at the same time temporary structures in the electron bunch longitudinal distribution with very short characteristic length. Such structures emit intense coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency range. This CSR, whose measured intensity is routinely used as a diagnostics for the tune-up of the femtoslicing experiments, represents a potential source of terahertz radiation with very interesting features. Several measurements have been performed for its characterization and in this paper an updated description of the experimental results and of their interpretation is presented.

RPAE068 Very Short Bunches in MIT-Bates South Hall Ring optics, electron, synchrotron, radiation 3768
  • D. Wang, dc. Cheever, M. Farkhondeh, W.A. Franklin, W. Graves, E. Ihloff, C. Tschalaer, D. Wang, D. Wang, F. Wang, T. Zwart, J. van der Laan
    MIT, Middleton, Massachusetts
  • B. Podobedov
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Department of Energy

The study of ultra-short bunches in MIT SHR storage ring with very small momentum compactions is carried out. The ultra-short bunches are to greatly enhence the coherent radiation by many orders of magnitude. The ring lattice is resigned to reach very small momentum compaction factor down to 1·10-5 levels. The measurement is performed with the streak camera. The various associated issues are discussed.

RPAE069 Terahertz Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in the MIT-Bates South Hall Ring synchrotron, storage-ring, electron, laser 3783
  • F. Wang, dc. Cheever, M. Farkhondeh, W.A. Franklin, W. Graves, E. Ihloff, C. Tschalaer, D. Wang, D. Wang, T. Zwart, J. van der Laan
    MIT, Middleton, Massachusetts
  • G.L. Carr, B. Podobedov
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • F. Sannibale
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  We investigate the terahertz coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) potential of the South Hall Ring (SHR) at MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center. The SHR is equipped with a unique single cavity, 2.856 GHz RF system. The high RF frequency is advantageous for producing short bunch length and for having higher bunch current threshold to generate stable CSR. Combining with other techniques such as external pulse stacking cavity, femtosecond laser slicing, the potential for generating ultra-stable, high power, broadband terahertz CSR is very attractive. Beam dynamics issues related to short bunch length operation, and may associated with the high frequency RF system, such as multi-bunch instability are concerned. They could affect bunch length, bunch intensity and beam stability. The SHR is ideal for experimental exploration of these problems. Results of initial test of low momentum compaction lattice and bunch length measurements are presented and compared to expectations.  
RPAE071 Touschek Lifetime and Undulator Damage in the Advanced Photon Source scattering, injection, simulation, radiation 3835
  • M. Borland, L. Emery
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38.

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has two insertion devices (IDs) with small-aperture vacuum chambers. The full vertical aperture in these chambers is 5 mm, while the inboard horizontal aperture is 15 mm. These devices suffer significant radiation damage, requiring frequent retuning. We recently hypothesized that the damage resulted from loss of Touschek-scattered particles on the horizontal aperture of the chambers. This results partly from the smallness of the aperture and partly from the pattern of the dispersion and beta functions in the low-emittance APS lattice. The horizontal scrapers were originally at a high-dispersion location, but, in the low-emittance lattice, they are at a fairly low-dispersion location. Similarly, the dispersion at the IDs was originally zero but is now close to the maximum for the lattice. In this paper, we summarize simulations and experiments that support our hypothesis and discuss plans to remedy the problem.

RPAE074 Recommissioning of Duke Storage Ring with a HOM-Damped RF Cavity and a New Straight Section Lattice for FELs wiggler, storage-ring, vacuum, injection 3934
  • Y.K. Wu, M.D. Busch, M. Emamian, J.F. Faircloth, J. Gustavsson, S.M. Hartman, C. Howell, M. Johnson, J. Li, S. Mikhailov, O. Oakeley, J. Patterson, M. Pentico, V. Popov, V. Rathbone, G. Swift, P.W. Wallace, P. Wang
    DU/FEL, Durham, North Carolina
  Funding: This work is supported by the U.S. AFOSR MFEL grant F49620-001-0370 and by U.S. DoE grant DE-FG02-01ER41175.

The Duke FEL lab operates a unique UV/VUV storage ring FEL and an FEL driven, nearly monochromatic, highly polarized, high intensity Compton gamma-ray source. The Duke storage ring light source is undergoing several phases of upgrade in order to significantly improve light source capabilities and performance. The 2004 phase included an upgrade of the RF system with a high-order mode damped RF cavity and a new 34 meter long straight section lattice to host new FEL wigglers in the next phase. This upgrade was completed in August 2004 and storage ring and light source commissioning were completed in November 2004. This paper will provide an overview of this upgrade project and report our commissioning experience of the storage ring and light sources.

RPAE087 Progress of the Synchrotron Light Source ALBA storage-ring, synchrotron, vacuum, quadrupole 4203
  • D. Einfeld, E. Al-Dmour, J. Campmany, M. Muñoz, M. Pont, F. Pérez
    CELLS, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès)
  ALBA will be a third generation synchrotron light source built in Spain near Barcelona. Commissioning of the storage ring is foreseen to start at the end of 2008. The design phase of ALBA is almost completed and the first components are ready to be ordered. A 100 MeV LINAC will inject electrons into a nominal energy booster synchrotron of similar circumference as the storage ring, so that both accelerators will share the same tunnel. The storage ring, working at 3 GeV with a circumference of 268.8 m, has been designed for a maximum current of 400 mA. The lattice is based on an extended DBA structure and has a nominal emittance of 4 nm.rad.The machine has a four fold symmetry with 4 long straight sections (8 m), 12 medium (4.2 m) and 8 short (2.6 m). This report concentrates on recent design developments, component choices and current status. Another paper at this conference deals with accelerator physics issues.  
RPAP022 A Study of Storage Ring Requirements for an Explosive Detection System Using NRA Method proton, storage-ring, target, emittance 1790
  • T.-S. F. Wang, J. T. Kwan
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
  Funding: US Department of Energy

The technical feasibility of an explosives detection system based on the nuclear resonance absorption (NRA) of gamma rays in nitrogen-rich materials was demonstrated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 1993 by using an RFQ proton accelerator and a tomographic imaging prototype.* The study is being continued recently to examine deployment of such an active interrogation system in realistic scenarios. The approach is to use a cyclotron and electron-cooling-equipped storage rings(s) to provide the high quality and high current proton beam needed in a practical application. In this work, we investigate the storage ring requirements for a variant of the airport luggage inspection system considered in the earlier LANL experiments. Estimations are carried out based on the required inspection throughput, the gamma ray yield, the proton beam emittance growth due to scattering with the photon-production target, beam current limit in the storage ring, and the electron cooling rate. Studies using scaling and reasonable parameter values indicate that it is possible to use no more than a few storage rings in a practical NRA luggage inspection system.

*R. E. Morgado et al., SPIE Conf. Proc. 2092, International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, 1993, p. 503.

RPAT031 Beam Profile Measurement with Flying Wires at the Fermilab Recycler Ring emittance, antiproton, vacuum, scattering 2182
  • M. Hu, R. H. Carcagno, J. Krider, E. Lorman, A. Marchionni, Y.M.P. Pischalnikov, S. Pordes, D. Slimmer, J. Wilson, J.R. Zagel
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  The Fermilab Recycler Ring is a high vacuum fixed energy antiproton storage ring with stochastic and electron cooling systems. Flying wires were installed at the Fermilab Recycler Ring for transverse beam profile measurement. The following note describes the system configuration, calibration and resolution of the flying wire system, as well as analysis of the transverse beam profile in the presence of both cooling systems.  
RPAT033 Beta Function Measurement in the Tevatron Using Quadrupole Gradient Modulation quadrupole, coupling, emittance, dipole 2272
  • A. Jansson, P. Lebrun, J.T. Volk
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

Early in Run2, there was an effort to compare the different emittance measurements in the Tevatron (flying wires and synchtotron light) and understand the origin of the observed differences. To measure the beta function at a few key locations near the instruments, air-core quadrupoles were installed. By modulating the gradient of these magents and measuring the effect on the tune, the lattice parameters can be extracted. Initially, the results seem to disagree with with other methods. At the time, the lattice was strongly coupled due to a skew component in the main dipoles, caused by sagging of the cryostat. After a large fraction of the superconducting magnets were shimmed to remove a strong skew quadrupole component, the results now agree with expectations, confirming that the beta function is not the major error source of discrepancy in the emittance measurement.

RPAT049 Numerical Studies on the Electro-Optic Sampling of Relativistic Electron Bunches laser, electron, resonance, simulation 3070
  • S. Casalbuoni, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, B. Steffen
    DESY, Hamburg
  • P. Schmüser, A. Winter
    Uni HH, Hamburg
  Ultraviolet and X ray free electron lasers require sub-picosecond electron bunches of high charge density. Electro-optic sampling (EOS) is a suitable diagnostic tool for resolving the time structure of these ultrashort bunches. The transient electric field of the relativistic bunch induces a polarization anisotropy in a nonlinear crystal which is sampled by femtosecond laser pulses. In this paper, the EOS process is studied in detailed numerical calculations. The THz and the laser pulses are treated as wave packets which are propagated through the zinc telluride resp. gallium phosphide crystals. The effects of signal broadening and distortion are taken into account. The time resolution is limited by the lowest lattice oscillation frequency which amounts to 5.3 THz in ZnTe and 11 THz in GaP. The shortest bunch length which can be resolved with moderate distortion is about 200 fs (FWHM) in ZnTe and 100 fs in GaP.  
RPAT098 Phase-Space Dynamic Tracking by a Two Pickups Data Acquisition System octupole, sextupole, pick-up, kicker 4326
  • A. Drago, M.E. Biagini, S. Guiducci, C. Milardi, M.A. Preger, C. Vaccarezza, M. Zobov
    INFN/LNF, Frascati (Roma)
  A two pickups dynamic tracking data acquisition system has been developed at LNF for the DAFNE Phi-factory. Two oscilloscopes sample horizontal and vertical sum and difference signals from two pickups simultaneously; the sampling clock is locked to the DAFNE timing system. A horizontal kick excites the beam motion and initiates the acquisition. Turn-by-turn signals are converted to beam position and stored on a server in a database using timestamp labels. Oscillation amplitude versus time, phase space distribution and frequency domain analysis are shown for several lattices and different settings of sextupoles and octupoles. Results are used to check the DAFNE non-linear model.  
ROPB004 Effect of Lattice and Electron Distribution in Electron-Cloud Instability Simulations for the CERN SPS and LHC electron, emittance, dipole, simulation 387
  • E. Benedetto, E. Benedetto
    Politecnico di Torino, Torino
  • G. Arduini, F. Roncarolo, F. Zimmermann
    CERN, Geneva
  • B. Feng, A.F. Ghalam, T.C. Katsouleas
    USC, Los Angeles, California
  • G. Franchetti
    GSI, Darmstadt
  • K. Ohmi
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • G. Rumolo
    CELLS, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès)
  Several simulation codes have been adapted so as to model the single-bunch electron-cloud instability including a realistic variation of the optical functions with longitudinal position. In addition, the electron cloud is typically not uniformly distributed around the ring, as frequently assumed, but it is mainly concentrated in certain regions with specific features, e.g., regions which give rise to strong multipacting or suffer from large synchrotron radiation flux. Particularly, electrons in a dipole magnet are forced to follow the vertical field lines and, depending on the bunch intensity, they may populate two vertical stripes, symmetrically located on either side of the beam. In this paper, we present simulation results for the CERN SPS and LHC, which can be compared with measurements or analytical predictions.  
ROPB010 Self-Consistent Electron-Cloud Simulation for Long Proton Bunches proton, electron, simulation, dipole 722
  • A.P. Shishlo, S.M. Cousineau, V.V. Danilov, S. Henderson, J.A. Holmes, Y. Sato
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  • S.-Y. Lee
    IUCF, Bloomington, Indiana
  • R.J. Macek
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
  Funding: SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge.

The results of numerical electron-cloud simulations for long-bunch proton beams in accumulator rings are presented and compared with data from the Proton Storage Ring at LANL. The frequency spectra and growth rate of proton-bunch transverse instabilities are studied as functions of the RF cavity voltage, external magnetic fields, beam pipe surface properties, and other factors. We used the recently developed electron-cloud module in the ORBIT code. The model includes a fully self-consistent coupled treatment of the "proton bunch – electron-cloud" dynamics and the multipacting process with a realistic secondary emission surface model. Realistic lattices and proton bunch distributions are used. The efficiency of electron-cloud instability suppression has also been studied using a new ORBIT model.

RPPE006 Air Temperature Analysis and Control Improvement for the Storage Ring Tunnel storage-ring, simulation, synchrotron, synchrotron-radiation 1027
  • J.-C. Chang, Z.-D. Tsai
    NSRRC, Hsinchu
  • J.-R. Chen
    NTHU, Hsinchu
  • M. Ke
    NTUT, Taipei
  The stability of the electron beam orbit had been observed to be sensitive to the utility conditions. The stability of air temperature in the storage ring tunnel is one of the most critical factors. Accordingly, a series of air conditioning system upgrade studies and projects have been conducted at the Taiwan Light Source (TLS). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is applied to simulate the flow field and the spatial temperature distribution in the storage ring tunnel. The circumference and the height of the storage tunnel are 120m and 2.8m, respectively. The temperature data and the flow rates at different locations around the storage ring tunnel are collected as the boundary conditions. The k-epsilon turbulence model is applied to simulate the flow field in the three dimensional space. The global air temperature variation related to time in the storage ring tunnel is currently controlled within ±0.1 degree C. However, the temperature difference between two different locations is as high as 2 degree C. Some measures improving the temperature uniformity will be taken according to the CFD simulation results.  
RPPE030 Corrugated Thin Diamond Foils for SNS H- Injection Stripping SNS, ion, Spallation-Neutron-Source, injection 2152
  • R.W. Shaw, V.A. Davis, R.N. Potter, L.L. Wilson
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  • C.S. Feigerle, M.E. Peretich
    University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee
  • C.J. Liaw
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: MEP acknowledges a SURE fellowship, supported by Science Alliance, a UT Center of Excellence. RNP acknowledges an appointment to the U.S. DOE SULI Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a collaboration of six US National Laboratories: ANL, BNL, TJNAF, LANL, LBNL, and ORNL.

We have prepared and tested corrugated, thin diamond foils for use in stripping the SNS H- Linac beam. Diamond has shown promise for providing ca. 10X increased lifetime over traditional carbon foils. The preferred foil geometry is 10.5 by 20 mm at 350 microgram/cm2, mechanically supported on preferably one, but no more than two, edges. The foils are prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a patterned silicon substrate, followed by chemical removal of the silicon. This yields a foil with trapezoidal corrugations to enhance mechanical strength and foil flatness. Both micro- and nano-crystalline diamond foils have been grown. Microwave plasma CVD methods that incorporate high argon gas content were used to produce the latter. Sixteen foils of a variety of characteristics have been tested using the BNL 750 keV RFQ H- beam to simulate the energy deposition in the SNS foil. Long foil lifetimes, up to more than 130 hours, have been demonstrated. Characterization of the foils after beam testing indicates creation of sp2 defects within the ion beam spot. Current efforts are centered on development of corrugation patterns that will enhance flatness of single-edge supported foils.

RPPP026 Linear Accelerator Simulations with BMAD linac, simulation, emittance, longitudinal-dynamics 1937
  • J.T. Urban, L.J. Fields, D. Sagan
    Cornell University, Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Ithaca, New York
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. DOE.

BMAD is a subroutine library for simulating relativistic charged-particle dynamics. It has been used extensively as a diagnostic tool at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR). The BMAD libraries have recently been extended to include modeling of the dynamics of linear accelerators. Calculations of emittance dilution due to orbit offsets and misalignments have been compared with LIAR, Merlin and PLACET, and good agreement is found with both particle and macroparticle tracking through the NLC and Tesla lattices for the bunch compressor, main linac and final focus regions.

RPPP047 Global Optimization of Damping Ring Designs Using a Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm wiggler, damping, sextupole, optics 2962
  • L. Emery
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38.

Several damping ring designs for the International Linear Collider have been proposed recently. Some of the specifications, such as circumference and bunch train, are not fixed yet. Designers must make a choice anyway, select a geometry type (dog-bone or circular), an arc cell type (TME or FODO), and optimize linear and nonlinear part of the optics. The design process include straightforward steps (usually the linear optics), and some steps not so straightforward (when nonlinear optics optimization is affected by the linear optics). A first attempt at automating this process for the linear optics is reported. We first recognize that the optics is defined by just a few primary parameters (e.g., phase advance per cell) that determine the rest (e.g., quadrupole strength). In addition to the exact specification of circumference, equilibrium emittance and damping time there are some other quantities which could be optimized that may conflict with each other. A multiobjective genetic optimizer solves this problem by producing a population of best-ranked solutions on a multi-dimensional surface from which one solution can be chosen by the designer. The application of the NSGA-II optimizer to a damping ring of FODO cells is presented.

RPPP051 Characterization of a 6-km Damping Ring for the International Linear Collider dynamic-aperture, damping, emittance, wiggler 3147
  • A. Xiao
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  • L. Emery
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Several damping ring designs for the International Linear Collider have been proposed recently. One particular design has a circumference of 6 km (hoping to take advantage of future kicker technology advances), TME arc cells, and 77 m of 2 T wigglers. Several beam dynamics characterizations and optimizations are reported. We used the accelerator code elegant for matching and tracking, and a 100-CPU linux cluster to provide high throughput.  
RPPP054 Achieving Large Dynamic Aperture in the ILC Damping Rings damping, dynamic-aperture, sextupole, emittance 3277
  • A. Wolski
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  • Y. Cai
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: Work supported by US Department of Energy, Director, Office of Science - Contract Nos. DE-AC03-76SF00098 and DE-AC03-76SF00515.

The Damping Rings for the International Linear Collider have challenging requirements for the acceptance, because of the high average injected beam power and the large beam produced from the positron source. At the same time, the luminosity goals of the collider mean that the natural emittance must be very small, and this makes it particularly difficult to achieve a good dynamic aperture. We describe a design approach and present a lattice design that meets the emittance specification and has a very promising dynamic aperture. We also discuss the potential impact of the damping wiggler and of magnet errors.

RPPT012 Layout of the Diagnostic Section for the European XFEL emittance, diagnostics, electron, radiation 1285
  • C. Gerth, Mr. Roehrs, H. Schlarb
    DESY, Hamburg
  Fourth generation synchrotron light sources, such as the European Free Electron Laser (XFEL) project, are based on an exponential gain of the radiation amplification in a single pass through a long undulator magnet. To initiate the FEL process and to reach staturation, precise monitoring and control of the electron beam parameters is mandatory. Most challenging are the longitudinal compression processes in magnetic chicanes of the high brightness electron bunch emitted from an RF photo-injector. To measure and control the beam properties after compression, careful consideration must be given to the design of a diagnostic section and the choice of beam monitors. In this paper, the proposed layout of the XFEL diagnostics beamline is discussed and emphasis is put on the possibility of monitoring on-line the slice energy spread, slice emittance and longitudinal bunch profile with high accuracy.  
RPPT032 High Current Energy Recovery Linac at BNL linac, electron, emittance, gun 2242
  • V. Litvinenko, D.B. Beavis, I. Ben-Zvi, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, A. Burrill, R. Calaga, P. Cameron, X.Y. Chang, R. Connolly, D.M. Gassner, H. Hahn, A. Hershcovitch, H.-C. Hseuh, P.D.J. Johnson, D. Kayran, J. Kewisch, R.F. Lambiase, G.J. Mahler, G.T. McIntyre, W. Meng, T.C.N. Nehring, T. Nicoletti, B. Oerter, D. Pate, J. Rank, T. Rao, T. Roser, T. Russo, J. Scaduto, K. Smith, N.W.W. Williams, K.-C. Wu, V. Yakimenko, K. Yip, A. Zaltsman, Y. Zhao
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • H. Bluem, A. Burger, M.D. Cole, A.J. Favale, D. Holmes, J. Rathke, T. Schultheiss, A.M.M. Todd
    AES, Princeton, New Jersey
  • J.R. Delayen, L. W. Funk, H.L. Phillips, J.P. Preble
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Funding: Work performed under Contract Number DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy.

We present the design and the parameters of a small Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) facility, which is under construction at BNL. This R&D facility has goals to demonstrate CW operation of ERL with average beam current in the range of 0.1 - 1 ampere, combined with very high efficiency of energy recovery. The possibility for future up-grade to a two-pass ERL is being considered. The heart of the facility is a 5-cell 703.75 MHz super-conducting RF linac with HOM damping. Flexible lattice of ERL provides a test-bed for testing issues of transverse and longitudinal instabilities and diagnostics of intense CW e-beam. We present the status and plans for this facility.

RPPT050 The Measurement of Tune and Phase Space at HLS extraction, betatron, storage-ring, pick-up 3114
  • Y.L. Yang, J.H. Liu, L. Liu, B. Sun, J.H. Wang, K. Zheng
    USTC/NSRL, Hefei, Anhui
  Tune and phase space online monitor at the electronic storage ring of Hefei Light Source (HLS) have been realized by using of turn-by-turn beam position data. In this paper, we have compared many methods to compute tune and discussed how to choose the best fitting method for our online tune computing. We can compute and display tune online, at the same time, beam tracks were obtained on the transverse phase space by using turn-by-turn beam position data at two differently-located beam-position-monitor electrodes. With these instruments we can precise and attractive study machine instabilities  
RPPT052 Analysis of Rapid Betatron Resonance Crossing resonance, betatron, acceleration, linac 3206
  • S.R. Koscielniak, A. Baartman
    TRIUMF, Vancouver
  Funding: TRIUMF receives federal funding via a contribution agreement through the National Research Council of Canada.

The reduction of transverse and longitudinal cooling requirements, the increased number of beam circulations, and the reduce cost, as compared to RLAs, are arguments to adopt the linear-field FFAG as the acceleration stage of a Neutrino Factory. Because of the large range of central momenta, pm 50% delta p/p, and negative uncorrected chromaticity, the non-scaling FFAG will cross many integer and half-integer betatron resonances during the 10-20 turns acceleration. There is the expectation that if driving terms are small enough and crossing is fast enough, then there is insufficient time for the betatron amplitudes to grow. The conventional theory of resonance crossing is applied to slow acceleration, over 100s or 1000s of turns. This paper examines whether the rapid parameter changes encountered in the multi-GeV FFAGs, or few-MeV electron model, are compatible with simple theory.

RPPT069 The Installation Status of the SNS Accumulator Ring SNS, target, power-supply, vacuum 3789
  • M.P. Hechler, R.I. Cutler, J.J. Error
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  • W.J. McGahern
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS*) SNS accumulator Ring, when completed in 2006, will be capable of delivering a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron production. This paper presents an overview of the issues and logistics associated with the preparation and installation of the accumulator Ring. The preparatory activities which occurred at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, vendors and at the SNS will be discussed as well as the installation sequence and procedures.

SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge.

RPPT075 Generation of Femtosecond Electron and Photon Pulses radiation, electron, photon, synchrotron 3946
  • C. Thongbai, V. Jinamoon, Mr. Kangrang, K. Kusoljariyakul, S. Rimjaem, J. Saisut, T. Vilaithong
    FNRF, Chiang Mai
  • M.W. Rhodes, P. Wichaisirimongkol
    IST, Chiang Mai
  • H. Wiedemann
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: We are grateful to the Thailand Research Fund, the National Research Council of Thailand, the Thai Royal Golden Jubilee Scholarship, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the Hansen Experimental Physics laboratory of Stanford University.

Femtosecond electron and photon pulses become a tool of interesting important to study dynamics at molecular or atomic levels. Such short pulses can be generated from a system consisting of an RF-gun with a thermionic cathode, an alpha magnet as a magnetic bunch compressor, and a linear accelerator. The femtosecond electron pulses can be used directly or used as sources to produce electromagnetic radiation of equally short pulses by choosing certain kind of radiation pruduction processes. At the Fast Neutron Research Facility (Thailand), we are especially interested in production of radiation in Far-infrared and X-ray regime. In the far-infrared wavelengths which are longer than the femtosecond pulse length, the radiation is emitted coherently producing intense radiation. In the X-ray regime, development of femtosecond X-ray source is crucial for application in ultrafast science.

ROPA001 XAL Application Programming Structure SNS, linac, injection, diagnostics 79
  • J. Galambos, C. Chu, S.M. Cousineau, V.V. Danilov, J.G. Patton, T.A. Pelaia, A.P. Shishlo
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  • C.K. Allen
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
  Funding: SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge.

XAL is an application programming framework used at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project in Oak Ridge. It is written in Java, and provides users with a hierarchal view of the accelerator. Features include database configuration of the accelerator structure, an online envelope model that is configurable from design or live machine values, an application framework for quick-start GUI development, a scripting interface for algorithm development, and a common toolkit for shared resources. To date, about 25 applications have been written, many of which are used extensively in the SNS beam commissioning activities. The XAL framework and example applications will be discussed.

ROPA007 Vlasov Simulations of Beams and Halo simulation, focusing, hadron, brightness 581
  • E. Sonnendrucker, M. Gutnic, M. Haefele, G. Latu
    IRMA, Strasbourg
  • J.-L. Lemaire
    CEA/DIF/DPTA/SP2A, Bruyeres-le-Chatel
  Even though PIC simulations have proven an efficient tool for beam simulations for many years, they are subject to numerical noise which only decreases slowly when the number of particles is increased. Therefore other methods might be preferable, when one is interested in accurate simulations of high intensity beams especially in the low density part of phase space. We have been developing new methods based on the direct resolution of the Vlasov equation on a grid of phase space. In order for these methods to be efficient special care needs to be taken to optimize the number of necessary grid points. We shall describe two different approaches that are used to this aim: moving grid methods and wavelet based automatic grid refinement. Beam simulations in different configurations using direct Vlasov methods will be presented.  
FPAE013 Calculation of the Orbit Length Change of the Recycler Due to Main Injector Ramp closed-orbit, dipole, kicker, betatron 1318
  • M. Xiao
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Orbit length of beam in the Recycler changes during the Main Injector ramps. The unknown kicks from the effects generated by stray field are distributed around the ring. To estimate the changes, simulated virtual kicks are created around each lambson, C-magnet and bus cable of the Main Injector. The orbit lengths are calculated from measurements of evolution frequency and transverse beam positions. A BPM system distributed throughout the Recycler lattice in both Horizontal and vertical planes are used to take the closed orbit measurement during the ramps. The calculation method and the results of the orbit length changes and the strength of the simulated kicks are presented in this report.  
FPAE036 Lattice Modification of a 1.2 GeV STB Ring for Generation of High Energy Gamma-Rays Using Internal Target Wire electron, target, scattering, simulation 2458
  • F. Hinode, H. Hama, M. Kawai, A. Kurihara, A. Miyamoto, M. Mutoh, M. Nanao, Y. Shibasaki, K. Shinto, S. Takahashi, T. Tanaka
    LNS, Sendai
  A 1.2 GeV Stretcher-Booster Ring (STB ring) has been routinely operated at Laboratory of Nuclear Science (LNS), Tohoku University. The STB ring has functions of a pulse-beam stretcher and a booster-storage ring. In the booster-storage operation, high energy gamma-ray beam generated via bremsstrahlung from internal target wire is utilized for experiments of nuclear physics. Some fractions of circulating electrons are also deflected in the target wire due to Coulomb scattering without significant loss of the energy. The scattered electrons that are not getting out of the dynamic aperture once can circulate in the ring. Such electrons, however, would hit the chamber walls and supports of the target wire during further turns, because they have very large betatron amplitude. Consequently the Coulomb scattered electrons must be a source of significant background and may cause a degradation of gamma-ray beam quality. The quality of the gamma-ray beam has been improved by modifying the lattice functions of the ring, and we report the improvement in this conference.  
FPAE054 Front End Design of a Multi-GeV H-minus Linac focusing, rfq, linac, emittance 3286
  • P.N. Ostroumov, K.W. Shepard
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  • G.W. Foster, I.G. Gonin, G. Romanov
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contracts No. W-31-109-ENG-38 and DE-AC02-76CH03000.

The proposed 8-GeV driver at FNAL is based on ~480 independently phased SC resonators. Significant cost saving is expected by using an rf power fan out from high-power klystrons to multiple cavities. Successful development of superconducting (SC) multi-spoke resonators operating at ~345-350 MHz provides a strong basis for their application in the front end of multi-GeV linear accelerators. Such a front-end operating at 325 MHz would enable direct transition to high-gradient 1300 MHz SC TESLA-style cavities at ~400 MeV. The proposed front end consists of 5 sections: a conventional RFQ, room-temperature (RT) cross-bar H-type (CH) cavities, single-, double- and triple-spoke superconducting resonators. For several reasons which are discussed in this paper there is a large advantage in using independently phased RT CH-cavities between the RFQ and SC sections in the energy range 3-15 MeV.

FPAE070 A Collimation Scheme for Ions Changing Charge State in the LEIR Ring ion, vacuum, electron, accumulation 3816
  • J. Pasternak, C.B. Bal, C. Carli, M. Chanel, E. Mahner
    CERN, Geneva
  Avalanche-like pressure rise and an associated decrease of the beam lifetime, caused by (i) beam loss due to charge exchange interactions with rest gas molecules and (ii) ion impact induced outgassing, is a potential limitation for heavy ion accelerators operating at low energy. Capture of electrons from the electron cooler is another source of ion losses and thus, of pressure rise. The vacuum system of the LEIR ring has to be upgraded to reach the dynamical vacuum pressure in the low 10-12 Torr range necessary to reach design performance. A collimation system to intercept lost ions by absorber blocksmade of low beam induced outgassing material will be installed. This paper reviews the collimation scheme and simulations of beam loss patterns around the ring.  
FPAP034 Space-Charge Transport Limits in Periodic Channels resonance, focusing, space-charge, simulation 2348
  • S.M. Lund
    LLNL, Livermore, California
  • S. R. Chawla
    UCB, Berkeley, California
  Funding: Research performed under the auspices of the US DOE by the University of California at LLNL and LBNL under contract Nos. W-7405-Eng-48 and DE-AC03-76SF00098.

It has been observed in both experiment and particle in cell simulations that space-charge-dominated beams suffer strong emittance growth in alternating gradient quadrupole transport channels when the undepressed phase advance σ0 increases beyond about 80 degrees per lattice period. Transport systems have long been designed to respect this phase advance limit but no theory has been proposed to date to explain the the cause of the limit. Here we propose a mechanism to parametrically explain the transport limit as being due to classes of halo particle orbits moving close to the beam edge in phase-space when σ0 increases beyond 80 degrees. A finite beam edge and/or perturbation acting on an edge particle can then act to move edge particles to large amplitude and lead to large increases in beam phase space area, lost particles, and degraded transport. A core particle model for a uniform density elliptical beam in a periodic focusing lattice was written and is applied to parametrically analyze this process for both periodic alternating gradient quadrupole and solenoidal transport lattices. Self-consistent particle in cell simulations are also carried out to support results.

FPAT002 Automatic Steering for the CTF3 Linear Accelerator simulation, linac, dipole, focusing 814
  • R.D. Lifshitz
    Technion, Haifa
  • D. Schulte
    CERN, Geneva
  Funding: We acknowledge the support of the European Community-Research Infrastructure Activity under the FP6 "Structuring the European Research Area" programme (CARE, contract number RII3-CT-2003-506395)

A system for automatic beam steering has been implemented at the CTF3 linear accelerator. Beam position readings are logged while corrector magnet strengths are scanned over a given range, thus giving a steering response measurement. Assuming linearity, a response matrix is constructed and used to automatically optimize the beam trajectory along the linac. Using a simple BPM-reading minimization for trajectory correction, this system has been tested in the 2004 CTF3 summer run. Although not in routine operation, it has already proved useful as a tool for the machine setup and operation. In this paper, the automatic steering system for the CTF3 linac is introduced, trajectory correction results are presented, and the agreement with a computer model of the machine is discussed.

FPAT003 Joining the RHIC Online and Offline Models simulation, optics, insertion, luminosity 880
  • N. Malitsky, K.A. Brown, N. D'Imperio, A.V. Fedotov, J. Kewisch, A.U. Luccio, F.C. Pilat, V. Ptitsyn, T. Satogata, S. Tepikian, J. Wei
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • R.M. Talman
    Cornell University, Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Ithaca, New York
  Funding: Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy.

The paper presents an interface encompassing the RHIC online ramp model and the UAL offline simulation framework. The resulting consolidated facility aims to minimize the gap between design and operational data, and to facilitate analysis of RHIC performance and future upgrades in an operational context. The interface is based on the Accelerator Description Exchange Format (ADXF), and represents a snapshot of the RHIC online model which is in turn driven by machine setpoints. This approach is also considered as an intermediate step towards integrating the AGS and RHIC modeling environments to produce a unified online and offline AGS model for operations.

FPAT006 CHEF: An Interactive Program for Accelerator Optics Calculations optics, factory, target, controls 988
  • L. Michelotti, J.-F. Ostiguy
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: Fermilab is operated by Universities Research Association Inc. under Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH03000 with the United States Department of Energy.

We introduce CHEF, a program built on a "Collaborative Hierarchical Exploratory Framework" for doing optical calculations in accelerator physics. CHEF organizes and shares information between independent components that employ graphical user interfaces for interactive use. Among them are: a browser to display the beamline model's structure; a site viewer to show a line's geometry; phase space windows to oversee development of tracking calculations; a trace window to display the passage of a probe particle through beam position monitors; a plotter for displaying optical functions; a parser which constructs beamline models defined in MAD8 format and allows for interactive editing and debugging of the lattice files. Calculations are carried out by a hierarchy of C++ class libraries, most notably: MXYZPTLK handles automatic differentiation and differential algebra; BEAMLINE contains classes for modeling accelerator components; PHYSICS_TOOLKIT encapsulates specific calculations. Python bindings to these libraries and to CHEF's components, in conjunction with an embedded interpreter, provide a mechanism to extend and customize CHEF's functionality.

FPAT007 The Fermilab Lattice Information Repository optics, antiproton, coupling, collider 1066
  • J.-F. Ostiguy, M. Kriss, M. McCusker-Whiting, L. Michelotti
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: Fermilab is operated by Universities Research Association Inc. under Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH03000 with the United States Department of Energy.

Fermilab is a large accelerator complex with six rings and sixteen transfer beamlines operating in various modes and configurations, subject to modifications, improvements and occasional major redesign. Over the years, it became increasingly obvious that a centralized lattice repository with the ability to track revisions would be of great value. To that end, we evaluated potentially suitable revision systems, either freely available or commercial, and decided that expecting infrequent users to become fully conversant with complex revision system software was neither realistic nor practical. In this paper, we discuss technical aspects of the recently introduced FNAL Accelerator Division's Lattice Repository, whose fully web-based interface hides the complexity of Subversion, a comprehensive open source revision system. In particular we emphasize how the architecture of Subversion was a key ingredient in the technical success of the repository's implementation.

FPAT010 Automated Beam Steering Using Optimal Control target, controls, quadrupole, simulation 1213
  • C.K. Allen
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
  • E. Schuster
    Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

We present an optimal control strategy for beam steering where the operator can specify a variety of optimality conditions by selecting a parameter set describing an optimally steered beam. Novel approaches here include the ability to base optimality on the beam state throughout the entire beamline, rather than just at BPM locations. Moreover, we also may use the trajectory slope to base our optimality criteria. To achieve this feature we must introduce model dependency. Specifically, we predict the state of the beam from BPM measurements, the set-point of the steering magnets, and a model of beam behavior. The predictions are then used to calculate the optimum setting for steering magnets. The optimal control problem has rich mathematical structure that can be exploited and we cover some topics as they apply to accelerator systems.


FPAT026 The Dynamic Aperture of an Electrostatic Quadrupole Lattice simulation, quadrupole, beam-losses, focusing 1946
  • C.M. Celata, F.M. Bieniosek, P.A. Seidl
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  • A. Friedman, D.P. Grote
    LLNL, Livermore, California
  • L.R. Prost
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. DOE, under contract numbers DE-AC03-76SF00098 and W-7405-Eng-48.

In heavy-ion-driven inertial fusion accelerator concepts, dynamic aperture is important to the cost of the accelerator, most especially for designs which envision multibeam linacs, where extra clearance for each beam greatly enlarges the transverse scale of the machine. In many designs the low-energy end of such an accelerator uses electrostatic quadrupole focusing. The dynamic aperture of such a lattice has been investigated for intense, space-charge-dominated ion beams using the 2-D transverse slice version of the 3-D particle-in-cell simulation code WARP. The representation of the focusing field used is a 3-D solution of the Laplace equation for the biased focusing elements, as opposed to previous calculations which used a less-accurate multipole approximation. 80% radial filling of the aperture is found to be possible. Results from the simulations, as well as corroborating data from the High Current Experiment at LBNL, will be presented.

FPAT042 Beam Dynamics and Pulse Duration Control During Final Beam Bunching in Driver System for Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion emittance, focusing, beam-transport, bunching 2735
  • T. Kikuchi, S. Kawata, T. Someya
    Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya
  • K. Horioka, M. Nakajima
    TIT, Yokohama
  • T. Katayama
    CNS, Saitama
  Beam dynamics is investigated by multi-particle simulations during a final beam bunching in a driver system for heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF). The longitudinal bunch compression causes the beam instability induced by the strong space charge effect. The multi-particle simulation can indicate the emittance growth due to the longitudinal bunch compression. Dependence in the beam pulse duration is also investigated for effective pellet implosion in HIF. Not only the spatial nonuniformity of the beam illumination, but also the errors of the beam pulse duration cause changes of implosion dynamics. The allowable regime of the beam pulse duration for the effective fusion output becomes narrow with decreasing the input beam energy. The voltage accuracy requirement at the beam velocity modulator is also estimated for the final beam bunching. It is estimated that the integrated voltage error is allowable as a few percent.  
FPAT058 Creating EPICS Soft Channels the Easy Way with sddspcas: Features and Applications quadrupole, simulation, emittance, photon 3429
  • R. Soliday, M. Borland
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38.

Using sddspcas, a portable channel access server that is configured by SDDS input files, it is relatively simple to create process variables (PVs). It can be run in a standalone mode or it can be run so that the PVs are checked to ensure that they don’t conflict with other IOCs or portable channel access servers. It can also be run using the Run Control facility to prevent additional instances of the same sddspcas from being run. The SDDS configuration file provides the PV names, upper and lower limits, units, element counts if the PVs are waveforms, and the types of PVs. Valid types include various precision floats and integers as well as strings. One simple application of this program is that software developers can quickly test their code without requiring the coordination needed to update an IOC database to create PVs. Further details of the features, configuration, and applications of sddspcas will be discussed.

FPAT077 An Accelerator Control Middle Layer Using Matlab simulation, alignment, photon, feedback 4009
  • G.J. Portmann
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  • W.J. Corbett, A. Terebilo
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DEAC03-76SF00098.

Matlab is a matrix manipulation language originally developed to be a convenient language for using the LINPACK and EISPACK libraries. What makes Matlab so appealing for accelerator physics is the combination of a matrix oriented programming language, an active workspace for system variables, powerful graphics capability, built-in math libraries, and platform independence. A number of software toolboxes for accelerators have been written in Matlab – the Accelerator Toolbox (AT) for machine simulations, LOCO for accelerator calibration, Matlab Channel Access Toolbox (MCA) for EPICS connections, and the Middle Layer. This paper will describe the MiddleLayer software toolbox that resides between the high-level control applications and the low-level accelerator control system. This software was a collaborative effort between ALS and Spear but was written to easily port. Five accelerators presently use this software – Spear, ALS, CLS, and the X-ray and VUV rings at Brookhaven. The Middle Layer functionality includes energy ramp, configuration control, global orbit correction, local beam steering, insertion device compensation, beam-based alignment, tune correction, response matrices, and script-based physics studies.

FPAT085 The TAO Accelerator Simulation Program quadrupole, linac, simulation, damping 4159
  • D. Sagan
    Cornell University, Department of Physics, Ithaca, New York
  • J.C. Smith
    Cornell University, Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Ithaca, New York
  Funding: NSF and DOE.

A new accelerator design and analysis simulation environment based on the BMAD relativistic charged particle dynamics library is in development at Cornell University. Called TAO (Tool for Accelerator Optimization), it is a machine independent program that implements the essential ingredients needed to solve simulation problems. This includes the ability to: 1. Design lattices subject to constraints, 2. Simulate errors and changes in machine parameters, and 3. Simulate machine commissioning including simulating data measurement and correction. TAO is designed to be easily customizable so that extending it to solve new and different problems is straight forward. The capability to simultaneously model multiple accelerator lattices, both linacs and storage rings, and injection from one lattice to another allows for the design and commissioning of large multi stage accelerators. It can also simultaneously model multiple configurations of a single lattice. Single particle, particle beam and macroparticle tracking is implemented. Use of TAO with both the International Linear Collider and the Cornell Energy Recovery Linac are provided as examples.

FPAT086 Lucretia: A Matlab-Based Toolbox for the Modeling and Simulation of Single-Pass Electron Beam Transport Systems simulation, linac, klystron, electron 4197
  • P. Tenenbaum
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  We report on Lucretia, a new simulation tool for the study of single-pass electron beam transport systems. Lucretia supports a combination of analytic and tracking techniques to model the tuning and operation of bunch compressors, linear accelerators, and beam delivery systems of linear colliders and linac-driven Free Electron Laser (FEL) facilities. Extensive use of Matlab scripting, graphics, and numerical capabilities maximize the flexibility of the system, and emphasis has been placed on representing and preserving the fixed relationships between elements (common girders, power supplies, etc.) which must be respected in the design of tuning algorithms. An overview of the code organization, some simple examples, and plans for future development are discussed.  
FPAT087 elegantRingAnalysis: An Interface for High-Throughput Analysis of Storage Ring Lattices Using elegant dynamic-aperture, storage-ring, simulation, sextupole 4200
  • M. Borland
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38.

The code {\tt elegant} is widely used for simulation of linacs for drivers for free-electron lasers. Less well known is that elegant is also a very capable code for simulation of storage rings. In this paper, we show a newly-developed graphical user interface that allows the user to easily take advantage of these capabilities. The interface is designed for use on a Linux cluster, providing very high throughput. It can also be used on a single computer. Among the features it gives access to are basic calculations (Twiss parameters, radiation integrals), phase-space tracking, nonlinear dispersion, dynamic aperture (on- and off-momentum), frequency map analysis, and collective effects (IBS, bunch-lengthening). Using a cluster, it is easy to get highly detailed dynamic aperture and frequency map results in a surprisingly short time.

FOAD001 Frozen Beams storage-ring, ion, resonance, laser 4
  • H. Okamoto
    HU/AdSM, Higashi-Hiroshima
  In general, the temperature of a charged particle beam traveling in an accelerator is very high. Seen from the rest frame of the beam, individual particles randomly oscillate about the reference orbit at high speed. This internal kinetic energy can, however, be removed by introducing dissipative interactions into the system. As a dissipative process advances, the beam becomes denser in phase space or, in other words, the emittance is more diminished. Ideally, it is possible to reach a "zero-emittance" state where the beam is Coulomb crystallized. The space-charge repulsion of a crystalline beam just balances the external restoring force provided by artificial electromagnetic elements. In this talk, general discussion is made of coasting and bunched crystalline beams circulating in a storage ring. Results of molecular dynamics simulations are presented to demonstrate the dynamic nature of various crystalline states. A possible method to approach such an ultimate state of matter is also discussed.