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Paper Title Other Keywords Page
MPPE013 High Precision Measurement of Muon Beam Emittance Reduction in MICE emittance, factory, simulation, scattering 1330
  • C.T. Rogers, M. Ellis
    Imperial College of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, London
  Muon ionization cooling, an essential ingredient of a neutrino factory, will be demonstrated for the first time by the MICE experiment. The central part of MICE consists of a short section of a neutrino factory cooling channel and the emittance reduction achieved in this experiment is quite modest, 10% to 15%. In order to extrapolate the performance of a full cooling channel from these values, it is crucial for MICE to achieve an emittance measurement accuracy of 10-3 absolute. So far, beam emittance has never been measured with such a high level of precision and normailzed emittance in its present definition is not even conserved to 10-3 in the absence of dissipative forces. We present an improved definition of beam emittance and the requirements and constraints on MICE beam optics and spectrometers that are necessary to achieve the 10-3 level of accuracy.  
MPPE031 Simulation of Resonance Streaming at the eRHIC Electron Storage Ring electron, simulation, damping, luminosity 2215
  • C. Montag
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy.

To estimate electron beam lifetime and detector background at the future electron-ion collider eRHIC, knowledge of the electron beam halo region is essential. Simulations have been performed to determine the deviation of the transverse beam profile from a Gaussian distribution.

MPPT045 The Assembly of the LHC Short Straight Sections (SSS) at CERN: Project Status and Lessons Learned vacuum, collider, quadrupole, instrumentation 2890
  • V. Parma, N. Bourcey, P.M. Dos Santos de Campos, R.C. Feitor, mg. Gandel, R. Lopez, M. Schmidlkofer, I. Slits
    CERN, Geneva
  The series production of the LHC SSS has started in the beginning of 2004 and is foreseen to last until end 2006. The production consists in the assembly of 474 cold masses housing superconducting quadrupoles and corrector magnets within their cryostats. 87 cold mass variants, resulting from various combinations of main quadrupole and corrector magnets, have to be assembled in 55 cryostat types, depending on the specific cryogenic and electrical powering schemes required by the collider topology. The assembly activity features the execution of more than 5 km of leak-tight welding on 20-bar design pressure cryogenic lines in stainless steel and aluminium, according to high qualification standards and undergoing severe QA inspections. Some 2500 leak detection tests, using He mass spectrometry, are required to check the tightness of the cryogenic circuits. Extensive electrical control work, to check the integrity of the magnet instrumentation and electrical circuits throughout the assembly of the SSS, is also carried out. This paper presents the current status of production, the assembly facilities at CERN, work organisation and Quality Assurance issues, and the acquired assembly experience after one and a half years of production.  
MPPT051 Reshimming of Tevatron Dipoles; A Process-Quality and Lessons-Learned Perspective quadrupole, dipole, controls, gun 3156
  • J.N. Blowers, R. Hanft, D.J. Harding, J.A. John, W.F. Robotham
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH03000.

Over the last two years corrections have been made for the skew quadrupole moment in 530 of the 774 installed dipoles in the Tevatron. This process of modifying the magnets in situ has inherent risk of degrading the performance of the superconducting accelerator. In order to manage the risk, as well as to ensure the corrections were done consistently, formal quality tools were used to plan and verify the work. The quality tools used to define the process and for quality control are discussed, along with highlights of lessons learned.

TPAE057 A Multibunch Plasma Wakefield Accelerator plasma, electron, laser, simulation 3384
  • E.K. Kallos, T.C. Katsouleas, P. Muggli
    USC, Los Angeles, California
  • M. Babzien, I. Ben-Zvi, K. Kusche, P.I. Pavlishin, I. Pogorelsky, V. Yakimenko
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • W.D. Kimura
    STI, Washington
  • F. Zhou
    UCLA, Los Angeles, California
  We investigate a plasma wakefield acceleration scheme where a train of electron microbunches feeds into a high density plasma. When the microbunch train enters such a plasma that has a corresponding plasma wavelength equal to the microbunch separation distance, a strong wakefield is expected to be resonantly driven to an amplitude that is at least one order of magnitude higher than that using an unbunched beam. PIC simulations have been performed using the beamline parameters of the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility operating in the configuration of the STELLA inverse free electron laser (IFEL) experiment. A 65 MeV electron beam is modulated by a 10.6 um CO2 laser beam via an IFEL interaction. This produces a train of ~90 microbunches separated by the laser wavelength. In this paper, we present both a simple theoretical treatment and simulation results that demonstrate promising results for the multibunch technique as a plasma-based accelerator.  
TPAP053 IR Optics Measurement with Linear Coupling's Action-Angle Parameterization coupling, optics, dipole, heavy-ion 3218
  • Y. Luo, M. Bai, F.C. Pilat, T. Satogata, D. Trbojevic
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work supported by U.S. DOE under contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

The interaction region (IP) optics are measured with the two DX/BPMs close to the IPs at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The beta functions at IP are measured with the two eigenmodes' phase advances between the two BPMs. And the beta waists are also determined through the beta functions at the two BPMs. The coupling parameters at the IPs are also given through the linear coupling's action-angle parameterization. All the experimental data are taken during the driving oscillations with the AC dipole. The methods to do these measurements are discussed. And the measurement results during the beta* squeezings are also presented.

TPAT026 Synergia: An Advanced Object-Oriented Framework for Beam Dynamics Simultation simulation, collective-effects, impedance, hadron 1925
  • D.R. Dechow, P. Stoltz
    Tech-X, Boulder, Colorado
  • J.F. Amundson, P. Spentzouris
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Synergia is a 3-D, parallel, particle-in-cell beam dynamics simulation toolkit. At heart of the software development effort is the integration of two extant object-oriented accelerator modeling frameworks–Impact written in Fortran 90 and mxyptlk written in C++–so that they may be steered by a third, a more flexible human interface framework, written in Python. Recent efforts are focused on the refactoring of the Impact-Fortran 90 codes in order to expose more loosely-coupled interfaces to the Python interface framework.  
TPAT093 Operations and Performance of RHIC as a Cu-Cu Collider luminosity, collider, ion, emittance 4281
  • F.C. Pilat, L. Ahrens, M. Bai, D.S. Barton, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, D. Bruno, P. Cameron, R. Connolly, T. D'Ottavio, J. DeLong, K.A. Drees, W. Fischer, G. Ganetis, C.J. Gardner, J. Glenn, M. Harvey, T. Hayes, H.-C. Hseuh, H. Huang, P. Ingrassia, U. Iriso, R.C. Lee, V. Litvinenko, Y. Luo, W.W. MacKay, G.J. Marr, A. Marusic, R.J. Michnoff, C. Montag, J. Morris, T. Nicoletti, B. Oerter, V. Ptitsyn, T. Roser, T. Russo, J. Sandberg, T. Satogata, C. Schultheiss, S. Tepikian, R. Tomas, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J.E. Tuozzolo, K. Vetter, A. Zaltsman, K. Zeno, S.Y. Zhang, W. Zhang
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy.

The 5th year of RHIC operations, started in November 2004 and expected to last till June 2005, consists of a physics run with Cu-Cu collisions at 100 GeV/u followed by one with polarized protons at 100 GeV. We will address here overall performance of the RHIC complex used for the first time as a Cu-Cu collider, and compare it with previous operational experience with Au, PP and asymmetric d-Au collisions. We will also discuss operational improvements, such as a ?* squeeze to 85cm in the high luminosity interaction regions from the design value of 1m, system improvements and machine performance limitations, such as vacuum pressure rise, intra-beam scattering, and beam beam interaction.

TPAT095 Beam Induced Pressure Rise at RHIC electron, ion, proton, luminosity 4308
  • S.Y. Zhang, J.G. Alessi, M. Bai, M. Blaskiewicz, P. Cameron, K.A. Drees, W. Fischer, J. Gullotta, P. He, H.-C. Hseuh, H. Huang, U. Iriso, R.C. Lee, V. Litvinenko, W.W. MacKay, T. Nicoletti, B. Oerter, S. Peggs, F.C. Pilat, V. Ptitsyn, T. Roser, T. Satogata, L. Smart, L. Snydstrup, P. Thieberger, D. Trbojevic, L. Wang, J. Wei, K. Zeno
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Beam induced pressure rise in RHIC warm sections is currently one of the machine intensity and luminosity limits. This pressure rise is mainly due to electron cloud effects. The RHIC warm section electron cloud is associated with longer bunch spacings compared with other machines, and is distributed non-uniformly around the ring. In addition to the countermeasures for normal electron cloud, such as the NEG coated pipe, solenoids, beam scrubbing, bunch gaps, and larger bunch spacing, other studies and beam tests toward the understanding and counteracting RHIC warm electron cloud are of interest. These include the ion desorption studies and the test of anti-grazing ridges. For high bunch intensities and the shortest bunch spacings, pressure rises at certain locations in the cryogenic region have been observed during the past two runs. Beam studies are planned for the current 2005 run and the results will be reported.

Work performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy.

TOAD004 The Possibility of Noninvasive Micron High Energy Electron Beam Size Measurement Using Diffraction Radiation target, radiation, electron, emittance 404
  • G.A. Naumenko, A. Potylitsyn
    Tomsk Polytechnic University, Physical-Technical Department, Tomsk
  • S. Araki, A. Aryshev, H. Hayano, V. Karataev, T. Muto, J.U. Urakawa
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • D. Cline, Y. Fukui
    UCLA, Los Angeles, California
  • R. Hamatsu
    TMU, Hatioji-shi,Tokyo
  • M.C. Ross
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  During the last years a noninvasive method for beam size measurement based on the optical diffraction radiation (ODR) has been in progress (P. Karataev, et al., Physical Review Letters 93, 244802 (2004). However this technique encounters with hard sensitivity limitation for electron energies larger than several GeV. For example, for SLAC conditions the sensitivity of this method is 4 orders smaller than an appropriate one. We suggest to use a "dis-phased" slit target, where two semi-planes are turned with respect to each other at a small "dis-phased" angle. In order to ensure the interference between the diverged radiation beams we use a cylindrical lens. This method has much better sensitivity and resolution. A "dis-phased" angle 10 milliradians gives the optimal sensitivity to 5 microns transversal beam size. The theoretical model for calculating the ODR radiation from such targets (including focusing by cylindrical lens) is presented. It is shown that the sensitivity of this method does not depend on the Lorenz-factor directly. The target with the "dis-phased" angle 6.2 milliradians and the slit width 425 microns was manufactured for experimental test. Some preliminary experimental results are presented.  
TOPC002 Residual-Gas-Ionization Beam Profile Monitors in RHIC emittance, electron, coupling, heavy-ion 230
  • R. Connolly, R.J. Michnoff, S. Tepikian
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work performed under Contract #DE-AC02-98CH10886 under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy.

Four ionization profile monitors (IPMs) are in RHIC to measure vertical and horizontal beam profiles in the two rings. These work by measuring the distribution of electrons produced by beam ionization of residual gas. During the last two years both the collection accuracy and signal/noise ratio have been improved. An electron source is mounted across the beam pipe from the collector to monitor microchannel plate (MCP) aging and the signal electrons are gated to reduce MCP aging and to allow charge replenishment between single-turn measurements. Software changes permit simultaneous measurements of any number of individual bunches in the ring. This has been used to measure emittance growth rates on six bunches of varying intensities in a single store. Also the software supports FFT analysis of turn-by-turn profiles of a single bunch at injection to detect dipole and quadrupole oscillations.

TPPP023 Simulation of PEP-II Accelerator Backgrounds Using TURTLE scattering, collimation, betatron, electron 1835
  • R.J. Barlow, H. Fieguth
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • W. Kozanecki
    CEA/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette
  • S.A. Majewski
    Stanford University, Stanford, Califormia
  • P. Roudeau, A. Stocchi
    LAL, Orsay
  We present studies of accelerator-induced backgrounds in the BaBar detector at the SLAC B-Factory, carried out using a modified version ofthe DECAY TURTLE simulation package. Lost-particle backgrounds in PEP-II are dominated by a combination of beam-gas bremstrahlung, beam-gas Coulomb scattering, radiative-Bhabha events and beam-beam blow-up. The radiation damage and detector occupancy caused by the associated electromagnetic shower debris can limit the usable luminosity. In order to understand and mitigate such backgrounds, we have performed a full programme of beam-gas and luminosity-background simulations, that include the effects of the detector solenoidal field, detailed modelling of limiting apertures in both collider rings, and optimization of the betatron collimation scheme in the presence of large transverse tails.  
TPPP025 Modeling Lost-Particle Accelerator Backgrounds in PEP-II Using LPTURTLE scattering, vacuum, electron, optics 1889
  • H. Fieguth, R.J. Barlow
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • W. Kozanecki
    CEA/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette
  Funding: Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

Background studies during the design, construction, commissioning, operation and improvement of BaBar and PEP-II have been greatly influenced by results from a program referred to as LPTURTLE (Lost Particle TURTLE a modified version of Decay TURTLE) which was originally conceived for the purpose of studying gas background for SLC. This venerable program is still in use today. We describe its use, capabilities and improvements and refer to current results now being applied to BaBar.

TPPP029 A Preliminary Interaction Region Design for a Super B-Factory luminosity, radiation, interaction-region, synchrotron 2077
  • M.K. Sullivan, M.H. Donald, S. Ecklund, A. Novokhatski, J. Seeman, U. Wienands
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • M.E. Biagini
    INFN/LNF, Frascati (Roma)
  Funding: work supportted by the Department of Energy under contract number DE-AC03-76SF00515.

The success of the two B-Factories (PEP-II and KEKB) has encouraged us to look at design parameters for a B-Factory with a 30-50 times increase in the luminosity of the present machines (L~1e36). In order to achieve this high luminosity, the beta y* values are reduced to 3-2 mm, the bunch spacing is minimized (0.6-0.3 m) and the bunch currents are increased. Total beam currents range from 5-25 A. The interaction region (IR) of these "SuperB" designs presents special challenges. Synchrotron radiation fans from local bending in shared magnets and from upstream sources pose difficulties due to the high power levels in these fans. High-order-mode(HOM)heating, effects that have been seen in the present B-factories, will become much more pronounced with the very short bunches and high beam currents. Masking the detector beam pipe from synchrotron radiation must take into account effects of HOM power generation. Backgrounds that are a function of the luminosity will become very important. We present an initial design of an IR with a crossing angle of ± 14 mrad and include a discussion of the constraints, requirements and concerns that go into designing an IR for these very high luminosity e+e- machines.

WPAE056 Geant4-Based Simulation Study of PEP-II Beam Backgrounds in the BaBar Detector at the SLAC B-Factory vacuum, simulation, luminosity, scattering 3351
  • W.S. Lockman
    SCIPP, Santa Cruz, California
  • D. Aston, G.R. Bower, M. Cristinziani, H. Fieguth, D. H. Wright
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • N.R. Barlow, C.L. Edgar
    Manchester University, Manchester
  • N.L. Blount, D. Strom
    University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon
  • M. Bondioli
    INFN-Pisa, Pisa
  • G. Calderini
    UNIPI, Pisa
  • B. Campbell, S.H. Robertson
    CHEP, Montreal, Quebec
  • W. Kozanecki
    CEA/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette
  • B.A. Petersen
    Stanford University, Stanford, Califormia
  To improve the understanding of accelerator-induced backgrounds at the SLAC B-Factory and validate the proposed PEP-II luminosity upgrade, we simulate lost-particle backgrounds in the BaBar detector originating from beam-gas interactions and radiative-Bhabha scatters. To perform this study, we have extended the GEANT4-based BaBar detector simulation to include PEP-II beam-line components and magnetic fields up to 10m away from the interaction point. We first describe the simulation model and then compare predicted background levels with measurements from dedicated single-and colliding-beam experiments. Finally, we compare the simulated background levels in the current and the proposed luminosity-upgrade configurations.  
WPAE079 Dual Power Supplies for PEP-II Injection Kickers kicker, injection, power-supply, luminosity 4045
  • J. Olszewski, F.-J. Decker, R.H. Iverson, A. Kulikov, G.C. Pappas
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: Work supported by Department of Energy contract DE-AC03-76SF00515.

Originally the PEP-II injection kickers where powered by one power supply. Since the kicker magnets where not perfectly matched, the stored beam got excited by about 7% of the maximum kicker amplitude. This led to luminosity losses which were especially obvious for trickle injection when the detector is on for data taking. Therefore two independant power supplies with thyratrons in the tunnel next to the kicker magnet were installed. This also reduces the necessary power by about a factor of five since there are no long cables that have to be charged. The kickers are now independantly adjustable to eliminate any non-closure of the kicker system and therefore excitation of the stored beam. Setup, commissioning and fine tuning of this system are discussed.

WPAT025 First Results of the IOT Based 300 kW 500 MHz Amplifier for the Diamond Light Source factory, power-supply, synchrotron, radio-frequency 1883
  • M. Jensen, M. Maddock, S. Rains, A.V. Watkins
    Diamond, Oxfordshire
  • J. Alex, M. Mueller
    Thales Broadcast & Multimedia AG, Turgi
  We present the first RF measurements of the IOT based 300 kW 500 MHz amplifier for the Diamond Light Source. Four 80 kW IOTs are combined using a waveguide combiner to achieve the RF requirement of up to 300 kW for each of three superconducting cavities for the main storage ring. The IOTs are protected by a full power circulator and a 300 kW ferrite RF load. This is the first time IOTs will be used for a synchrotron light source. This paper gives an overview of the design of the Thales amplifiers and IOTs with commissioning results including measurements of key components and overall RF performance following factory tests and the installation of the first unit  
WPAT029 The RF Experimental Program in the Fermilab MUCOOL Test Area linac, electron, target, site 2104
  • J. Norem
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  • A. Bross, A. Moretti, Z. Qian
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  • R.P. Johnson
    Muons, Inc, Batavia
  • D. Li, M.S. Zisman
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  • R.A. Rimmer
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  • R. Sandstrom
    CUI, Geneva
  • Y. Torun
    IIT, Chicago, Illinois
  Funding: DOE

The rf R&D program for high gradient, low frequency cavities to be used in muon cooling systems is underway in the Fermilab Muon Test Area. Cavities at 805 and 201 MHz are used for tests of conditioning techniques, surface modification and breakdown studies. This work has the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) as its immediate goal and efficient muon cooling systems for neutrino sources and muon colliders as the long term goal. We study breakdown, and dark current productions under a variety of conditions.

WOAD001 Super-B Factories luminosity, factory, lattice, vacuum 64
  • H. Koiso
    KEK, Ibaraki
  Energy-asymmetric electron-positron B factories, KEKB and PEP-II, have been operated at the luminosity frontiers and have delivered the integrated luminosities of a few hundreds of /fb to experiments. For further progress in particle physics, a luminosity of higher than 100/nb/s is strongly required, which means higher beam currents, smaller beta functions at the interaction point, larger beam-beam parameters, shorter bunch lengths, etc. This paper will review major upgrade plans of both machines toward SuperKEKB and Super PEP-II.  
WOAD002 Lepton Collider Operation with Constant Currents injection, luminosity, collimation, linac 149
  • U. Wienands
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: Work supported by US DOE under contract DE-AC03-76SF00515

Traditionally, electron-positron colliders have been operating in a top-off-and-coast fashion with a cycle time depending on the beam life time, typically on the order of an hour. Each top-off involves ramping detector systems in addition to the actual filling time. The loss in accumulated luminosity is typically 20-50%. During the last year, both B-Factories have commissioned a continuous-injection mode of operation in which beam is injected without ramping the detector, thus raising luminosity integration by constant operation at peak luminosity. Constant beam currents reduce thermal drift and trips caused by change in beam loading. To achieve this level of operation, special efforts were made to reduce the injection losses and also to implement special gating procedures in the detectors, minimizing dead time. Bunch-injection control decides which bunch to inject into next while maintaining small charge variation between bunches. Beam collimation can reduce injection noise but also cause an increase in background rates. A challenge can be determining beam lifetime, important to maintain tuning of the beams. The paper will discuss the special features of continuous injection in both KEKB and PEP-II.

WOPB002 Symmetries and Einstein vacuum, coupling, focusing, survey 217
  • M. Kobayashi
    KEK, Ibaraki
  After brief survey of influence of Einstein on current particle physics, fundamental symmetry between particles and antipaticles will be discussed. Existence of antiparticles is an important outcome of special relativity and quantum mechanics and disappearance of antiparticles from the present universe is one of the mysteries in Big Bang cosmology based on the Einstein equation. Remarkable progress has been made recently in the studies on the violation of symmetry between particles and antiparticles with the use of a new type of accelerator. Some of their achievements will be reported.  
RPAE033 Commissioning Results from the BESSY II Femtoslicing Source laser, electron, polarization, radiation 2309
  • S. Khan, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, T. Quast
    BESSY GmbH, Berlin
  • R. Mitzner
    Universität Muenster, Physikalisches Institut, Muenster
  Funding: Funded by the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung and by the Land Berlin.

At the BESSY II storage ring, a source of sub-100 fs x-ray pulses with tunable polarization and excellent signal-to-background ratio has been constructed in 2004. This source is based on laser-induced energy modulation ("femtoslicing") and subsequent angular separation of the short-pulse x-rays emitted by an elliptical undulator. The paper reviews the layout of the source and reports on new insights and experimental results obtained while commissioning the source for user operation.

RPAP011 Technical Development of Profile Measurement for the Soft X-Ray Via Compton Backward Scattering electron, laser, scattering, quadrupole 1260
  • T. Saito, Y. Hama, K. Hidume, S. Minamiguchi, A. Oshima, D. Ueyama, M. Washio
    RISE, Tokyo
  • H. Hayano, J.U. Urakawa
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • S. Kashiwagi
    ISIR, Osaka
  • R. Kuroda
    AIST, Tsukuba, Ibaraki
  A compact X-ray source is called for such various fields as material development, biological science, and medical treatment. At Waseda University, we have already succeeded to generate the soft X-ray of the wavelength within so-called water window region (250-500eV) via Compton backward scattering between 1047nm Nd:YLF laser and 4.2MeV high quality electron beam. Although this method equips some useful characters, e.g. high intensity, short pulse, energy variableness, etc, the X-ray generating system is compact enough to fit in tabletop size. In the next step, there rises two principal tasks, that is, to make the soft X-ray intensity higher, and to progress X-ray profile measurement techniques as preliminary experiments for biomicroscopy. Specifically, we utilize two-pass amp for the former, and irradiate X-ray to a resist film which is previously exposed by UV lamp or get images with X-ray CCD for the latter. In this conference, we will show the experimental results and some future plans.  
RPAP045 Development of Laser-Induced Fluorescence Diagnostic for the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment ion, ion-source, laser, diagnostics 2878
  • M. Chung, R.C. Davidson, P. Efthimion, E.P. Gilson, R. M. Majeski, E. Startsev
    PPPL, Princeton, New Jersey
  Funding: Research Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) is a cylindrical Paul trap whose purpose is to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of intense charged particle beam propagation in alternating-gradient magnetic transport systems. For the in-situ measurement of the transverse ion density profile in the PTSX device, which is essential for the study of beam mismatch and halo particle production, a laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic system is being developed. Instead of cesium, which has been used in the initial phase of the PTSX experiment, barium has been selected as the preferred ion for the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic. The installation of the barium ion source and the characterization of the tunable dye laser system are discussed. The design of the collection optics with an intensified CCD camera system is also discussed. Finally, initial test results using the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic will be presented.

RPAP046 Real-Time Beam Loss Monitor Display Using FPGA Technology beam-losses, synchrotron, monitoring, linac 2914
  • M.R.W. North, A.H. Kershaw
    CCLRC/RAL/ISIS, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon
  This paper outlines the design of a Real-time Beam Loss Monitor Display for the ISIS Synchrotron based at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (Oxon, UK). Beam loss is monitored using 39 argon filled ionisation chambers positioned around the synchrotron, the levels of which are sampled four times in each cycle. The new BLM display acquires the signals and displays four histograms, each relating to an individual sample period; the data acquisition and signal processing required to build the display fields are completed within each machine cycle (50 Hz). Attributes of the new system include setting limits for individual monitors; displaying over-limit detection, and freezing the display field when a beam trip has occurred. The design is based around a reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array, interfacing to a desktop monitor via the VGA standard. Results gained using simulated monitor signals have proven the system.  
RPAT002 Production of Inorganic Thin Scintillating Films for Ion Beam Monitoring Devices proton, monitoring, ion, diagnostics 808
  • M. Re, G.A.P. Cirrone, L. Cosentino, G. Cuttone, P. Finocchiaro, P.A. Lojacono
    INFN/LNS, Catania
  • A. Hermanne, H. Thienpont, J. Van Erps, M. Vervaeke, B. Volckaerts, P. Vynck
    VUB, Brussels
  • Y.J. Ma
    CIAE, Beijing
  In this work we present the development of beam monitoring devices consisting of thin CsI(Tl) films deposited on Aluminium support layers. The light emitted by the scintillating layer during the beam irradiation is measured by a CCD-camera. In a first prototype a thin Aluminium support layer of 6 micron allows the ion beam to easily pass through without significant energy loss and scattering effects. Therefore it turns out to be a non-destructive monitoring device to characterize on-line beam shape and beam position without interfering with the rest of the irradiation process. A second device consists of an Aluminium support layer which is thick enough to completely stop the impinging ions allowing to monitor at the same time the beam profile and the beam current intensity. Some samples have been coated by a 100 Å protective layer to prevent the film damage by atmosphere exposition. In this contribution we present our experimental results obtained by irradiating the samples with proton beams at 8.3 and 62 MeV. We also propose some innovative applications of these beam monitoring devices in different nuclear sectors such as cancer proton therapy and high intensity beam accelerators.  
RPAT082 Coherent Transition Radiation To Measure the SLAC Electron Bunch Length electron, radiation, alignment, laser 4102
  • P. Muggli
    USC, Los Angeles, California
  • C.D. Barnes, M.J. Hogan, P. Krejcik, R. Siemann, D.R. Walz
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb
    DESY, Hamburg
  Funding: Work supported by U.S. DOE.

Ultrashort electron bunches are now available at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and are use mainly to produce short bursts of x-rays in a magnetic undulator and for plasma wakefield acceleration experiments. The shortest bunches have an rms longitudinal width of 10 microns, and a peak current of about 30 kA. Methods to measure such short bunch lengths include electro-optic modulation of a short laser pulse in a nonlinear crystal and coherent transition (CTR) autocorrelation. The transition radiation spectrum emitted by the bunches when traversing a 1 micron thin titanium foil is coherent for wavelengths longer that the bunch length and extends into the millimeter wavelength range. A CTR far-infrared autocorrelator was used to measure the bunch length as a function of the accelerator. The results obtained with this autocorrelator are the only measurements of the SLAC ultra-short bunches to date. Experimental results, as well as the limitations of the measurements and the future improvements to the autocorrelator will be presented.

ROAB001 DARHT-II Long-Pulse Beam-Dynamics Experiments induction, electron, vacuum, ion 19
  • C. Ekdahl, E.O. Abeyta, R. Bartsch, L. Caudill, K.-C.D. Chan, D. Dalmas, S. Eversole, R.J. Gallegos, J. Harrison, M. Holzscheiter, E. Jacquez, J. Johnson, B.T. McCuistian, N. Montoya, S. Nath, K. Nielsen, D. Oro, L. Rodriguez, P. Rodriguez, L.J. Rowton, M. Sanchez, R. Scarpetti, M. Schauer, D. Simmons, H.V. Smith, J. Studebaker, G. Sullivan, C. Swinney, R. Temple
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
  • H. Bender, W. Broste, C. Carlson, G. Durtschi, D. Frayer, D. Johnson, K. Jones, A. Meidinger, K.J. Moy, R. Sturgess, A. Tipton, C.-Y. Tom
    Bechtel Nevada, Los Alamos, New Mexico
  • R.J. Briggs
    SAIC, Alamo, California
  • Y.-J. Chen, T.L. Houck
    LLNL, Livermore, California
  • S. Eylon, W.M. Fawley, E. Henestroza, S. Yu
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  • T.P. Hughes, C. Mostrom, Y. Tang
    ATK-MR, Albuquerque, New Mexico
  • M.E. Schulze
    GA, San Diego, California
  Funding: This work was supported by the U.S. National Nuclear Security Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy under contract W-7405-ENG-36.

When completed, the DARHT-II linear induction accelerator (LIA) will produce a 2-kA, 18-MeV electron beam with more than 1500-ns current/energy "flat-top." In initial tests DARHT-II has already accelerated beams with current pulse lengths from 500-ns to 1200-ns full-width at half maximum (FWHM) with more than1.2-kA, 12.5-MeV peak current and energy. Experiments are now underway with a ~2000-ns pulse length, but reduced current and energy. These pulse lengths are all significantly longer than any other multi-MeV LIA, and they define a novel regime for high-current beam dynamics, especially with regard to beam stability. Although the initial tests demonstrated absence of BBU, the pulse lengths were too short to test the predicted protection against ion-hose instability. The present experiments are designed to resolve these and other beam-dynamics issues with a ~2000-ns pulse length beam.

RPPE068 A Magnetostrictive Tuning System for Particle Accelerators vacuum, radio-frequency, monitoring, synchrotron 3762
  • C.-Y. Tai, J. Cormier, W. J. Espinola, Z. Han, C.H. Joshi, A. Mavanur, L.M. Racz
    Energen, Inc., Lowell, Massachusetts
  • E. Daly, G.K. Davis
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  • K.W. Shepard
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: This work is supported by DOE SBIR Program DE-FG02-03ER83648.

Energen, Inc. has designed, built, and demonstrated several fast and slow tuners based on its magnetostrictive actuators and stepper motor. These tuners are designed for Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities, which are important structures in particle accelerators that support a wide spectrum of disciplines, including nuclear and high-energy physics and free electron lasers (FEL). In the past two years, Energen’s work has focused on magnetostrictive fast tuners for microphonics and Lorentz detuning compensation on elliptical-cell and spoke-loaded cavities, including the capability for real-time closed-loop control. These tuners were custom designed to meet specific requirements, which included a few to 100 micron stroke range, hundreds to kilohertz operation frequency, and cryogenic temperature operation in vacuum or liquid helium. These tuners have been tested in house and at different laboratories, such as DESY, Argonne National Lab, and Jefferson Lab. Some recent results are presented in this paper.

RPPP001 Commissioning and First Measurements on the CTF3 Chicane linac, quadrupole, emittance, vacuum 785
  • A. Ghigo, D. Alesini, G. Benedetti, C. Biscari, M. Castellano, A. Drago, D. Filippetto, F. Marcellini, C. Milardi, B. Preger, M. Serio, F. Sgamma, A. Stella, M. Zobov
    INFN/LNF, Frascati (Roma)
  • R. Corsini, T. Lefevre, F. Tecker
    CERN, Geneva
  The transfer line between the linac and the first recombination ring (Delay Loop) of the CTF3 project hs been installed at CERN in spring-summer 2004. In the transfer line a magnetic chicane is used to tune the length of the bunches coming from the linac in order to minimize the Coherent Synchrotron Radiation contribution to the beam energy spread in the recombination system. The first measurements of the beam parameters at several linac and stretcher settings are described. We report the compression curve as a function of the optical parameter R56 representing the dependence of the longitudinal position of a particle on its energy, obtained by measuring the bunch length with a 3 GHz RF deflector.  
RPPT037 Technique for the Generation of Attosecond X-Ray Pulses Using an FEL laser, electron, undulator, radiation 2506
  • G. Penn, A. Zholents
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  Funding: This work was supported by the Office of Science, High Energy Physics, U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098.

We describe a technique for the generation of an isolated burst of X-ray radiation with a duration of ~100 attoseconds in a free electron laser (FEL) employing self-amplified spontaneous emission. Our scheme relies on an initial interaction of the electron beam with an ultra-short laser pulse in a one-period wiggler followed by compression in a dispersive section. The result of this interaction is to create a sub-femtosecond slice of the electron beam with enhanced growth rates for FEL amplification. After many gain lengths through the FEL undulator, the X-ray output from this slice dominates the radiation of the entire bunch. We consider the impact of various effects on the efficiency of this technique. Different configurations are considered in order to realize various timing structures for the resulting radiation.

RPPT058 Kaon Monitoring Using the MiniBooNE Little Muon Counter kaon, secondary-beams, electron, permanent-magnet 3435
  • T.L. Hart
    Colorado University at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado
  The Little Muon Counter (LMC) is a permanent magnet spectrometer designed to constrain electron neutrino backgrounds to the MiniBooNE experiment's neutrino oscillation signal. Electron neutrinos from kaon decay are a background to the MiniBooNE signal mode of the oscillation of muon neutrinos to electron neutrinos. MiniBooNE uses collisions of 8 GeV protons from the Fermilab Booster accelerator on a beryllium target to generate a secondary beam of pions and kaons that decay to produce a neutrino beam. The LMC constrains the kaon content of the meson beam, and thus the electron neutrinos from kaon decays, through momenta measurements of muons originating from decays of secondary beam kaons and pions. The LMC, located 7 degrees off-axis from the secondary beam, can distinguish pionic muons from kaonic muons kinematically. A description of the LMC components; analysis milestones including track momenta, muon identification penetration depth, track projection plots, and event displays; and the status of the LMC are presented.  
RPPT059 Spectrum from the Proposed BNL Very Long Baseline Neutrino Facility target, proton, alignment, simulation 3476
  • S.A. Kahn, M. Diwan
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: The work was performed with the support of the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

This paper calculates the neutrino flux that would be seen at the far detector location from the proposed BNL Very Long Baseline Neutrino Facility. The far detector is assumed to be located at an underground facility in South Dakota 2540 km from BNL. The neutrino beam facility uses a 1 MW upgraded AGS to provide an intense proton beam on the target and a magnetic horn to focus the secondary pion beam. The paper will examine the sensitivity of the neutrino flux at the far detector to the positioning of the horn and target so as to establish alignment tolerances for the neutrino system.

FPAP020 Close-Coupling R-Matrix Approach to Simulating Ion-Atom Collisions for Accelerator Applications electron, target, coupling, simulation 1685
  • P. Stoltz, A. Prideaux
    Tech-X, Boulder, Colorado
  Funding: Funded by DOE under grant # DE-FG02-02ER83553.

We have implemented an R-matrix close coupling approach to calculate capture, ionization, stripping and excitation cross-sections for 0.5 to 8.0 MeV K+ incident on Ar. This is relevant to the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory. These cross sections are used to model accelerator particle dynamics where background gasses can interfere with beam quality. This code is a semi-classical approach that uses quantum mechanics to describe the particle interactions and uses classical mechanics to describe the nuclei trajectories. We compare a hydrogenic approximation for K+ with a pseudo-potential approach. Further we are developing a variational approach to quickly determine the best pseudo-potential parameters. Since many R-Matrix computationalists use this pseudo-potential approach, this approach will be useful for helping generate cross sections for any collision system.

FPAP026 Multispecies Weibel Instability for Intense Ion Beam Propagation Through Background Plasma plasma, ion, electron, heavy-ion 1952
  • R.C. Davidson, S.R. Hudson, I. Kaganovich, H. Qin, E. Startsev
    PPPL, Princeton, New Jersey
  Funding: Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

In application of heavy ion beams to high energy density physics and fusion, background plasma is utilized to neutralize the beam space charge during drift compression and/or final focus of the ion beam. It is important to minimize the deleterious effects of collective instabilities on beam quality associated with beam-plasma interactions. Plasma electrons tend to neutralize both the space charge and current of the beam ions. It is shown that the presence of the return current greatly modifies the electromagnetic Weibel instability (also called the filamentation instability), i.e., the growth rate of the filamentation instability greatly increases if the background ions are much lighter than the beam ions and the plasma density is comparable to the ion beam density. This may preclude using underdense plasma of light gases in heavy ion beam applications. It is also shown that the return current may be subject to the fast electrostatic two-stream instability.

FPAP028 Ion Beam Pulse Interaction with Background Plasma in a Solenoidal Magnetic Field ion, plasma, electron, target 2062
  • I. Kaganovich, R.C. Davidson, E. Startsev
    PPPL, Princeton, New Jersey
  Funding: Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

Background plasma can be used as an effective neutralization scheme to transport and compress intense ion beam pulses, and the application of a solenoidal magnetic field allows additional control and focusing of the beam pulse. Ion beam pulse propagation in a background plasma immersed in an applied solenoidal magnetic field has been studied both analytically and numerically with three different particle-in-cell codes (LSP, OOPIC-Pro and EDPIC) to cross-check the validity of the results. Very good charge and current neutralization is observed for high values of the solenoidal magnetic field.* However, for intermediate values of the solenoidal magnetic field, current neutralization is a complex process, and a sizable self-magnetic field is generated at the head of the beam. Collective wave excitations are also generated ahead of the beam pulse.

*I. D. Kaganovich, E. A. Startsev and R. C. Davidson, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, in press (2004).

FPAT057 A TCL/TK Widget for Display of MEDM Screens monitoring, photon 3393
  • R. Soliday
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38.

A new Tcl/Tk widget has been created to display MEDM screens inside a Tcl/Tk application. Tcl/Tk parses the MEDM input files and the appropriate widgets are created and linked to the associated process variables. One advantage of this approach is that an X-Windows emulator is not required to view and manipulate the MEDM screen under a Windows operating system. Another benefit is that the MEDM screen can now be tightly integrated into a scripting language to attach higher-level logic to various process variable manipulations. Further details and examples of the new widget will be discussed.

FPAT080 Simulations of Beam Injection and Extraction into Ion Sources ion, injection, plasma, simulation 4069
  • M. Cavenago
    INFN/LNL, Legnaro, Padova
  Funding: INFN-LNL

Charge breeding, consistiting of injecting singly charged ion into ECRIS(Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources) to extract an highly charged ion beam, is a promising technique for rare or radioactive ion beam. Efficiency and extracted beam temperature are dominated by the strong collisional diffusion of charged ion inside source. A computer code, named BEAM2ECR, written to simulate details of the injection, ionization, collision and extraction processes is described.* A model of injection plasma sheath and of source fringe field were recently added. Neutral injection is also supported, for comparison with other techniques, like gas feeding or metal vapor injection. Results, clearly favouring near axis injection for most cases are described. Code is written in C-language and possibility of concurrent execution over a Linux cluster was recently added.

*M. Cavenago, O. Kester, T. Lamy and P. Sortais, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 537 (2002).

FOAB005 Technology for Fissionable Materials Detection by Use of 100 MeV Variable Linac photon, electron, linac, simulation 446
  • S.P. Karasyov, A.N. Dovbnja, L. Eran, Y.P. Melnik, Y. Ran'iuk, I.N. Shlyakhov
    NSC/KIPT, Kharkov
  • A.J. Baratta
    Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania
  • N.M. Kiryukhin
    ATSU, Kiev
  • S.V. Trubnikov
    KhNU, Kharkov
  Funding: This project is funded by CRDF FSTM UKE2-5023-KH-04.

A new concept for a two-step facility to increase the accuracy/reliability of detecting heavily shielded fissionable materials (FM) in marine containers is presented. The facility will detect FM in two steps. An existing dual-view; dual-energy X-ray scanner, which is based on 7 MeV electron accelerator, will select the suspicious places inside container. The linac with variable energy (up to 100 MeV) will be used for the second step. The technology will detect fissionable nuclei by gamma induced fission reactions and delayed neutron registration. A little-known Ukrainian experimental data obtained in Chernobil’ clean-up program will be presented to ground proposed concept. The theoretical calculations of neutron fluxes scale these results to marine container size. Modified GEANT code for electron/gamma penetration and authors’ own software for neutron yield/penetration are used for these calculations. Available facilities (X-ray scanners; linac; detectors), which will be used for concept proof, are described. The results of the first experiments by use variable energy linac are cited.