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### proton

Paper Title Other Keywords Page
MOAA004 RHIC Operational Status luminosity, electron, polarization, ion 358

• T. Roser
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
Funding: Work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy.

As the first hadron accelerator and collider consisting of two independent superconducting rings RHIC has operated with a wide range of beam energies and particle species. Machine operation and performance will be reviewed that includes high luminosity gold-on-gold and copper-on-copper collisions at design beam energy (100 GeV/u), asymmetric deuteron-on-gold collisions as well as high energy polarized proton-proton collisions (100 GeV on 100 GeV). Plans for future upgrades of RHIC will also be discussed.

MOAA005 FNAL Tevatron Operational Status antiproton, luminosity, collider, electron 484

• D.P. McGinnis
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
Funding: Work supported by the Universities Research Assos., Inc., under contract DE-AC02-76CH03000 with the U.S. Dept. of Energy.

The Fermilab Tevatron Proton-Antiproton Collider is currently the world’s highest energy hadron collider. The luminosity of the Fermilab collider has been significantly increased with the Main Injector operating at its design goals. Further increases in luminosity have been the result of combining antiprotons from the Recycler and Accumulator storage rings. Recent commissioning of proton slip-stacking in the Main Injector has noticeably increased the antiproton accumulation rate. The increased stacking rate permits the sustained operation of using antiprotons from both the Accumulator and Recycler. Further increases in peak luminosity are expected from electron cooling in the Recycler and increased antiproton flux from the Antiproton Source.

MOPA005 Protection Against Accidental Beam Losses at the LHC beam-losses, monitoring, superconducting-magnet, dipole 492

• J. Wenninger, R. Schmidt
CERN, Geneva
Protection of the LHC against uncontrolled beam losses is of prime importance due to the very high stored beam energy. For nominal beam intensities, each of the two 7 TeV/c proton beams has a stored energy of 350 MJ threatening to damage accelerator equipment. At injection a number of passive beam absorbers must be correctly positioned and specific procedures have been proposed to ensure safe injection of high intensity. The LHC beam dump block being the only LHC element that can safety absorb the full LHC beam, it is essential that the beams are extracted unto the dump block in case of emergency. The failure time constants extend from 100 microseconds to few seconds depending on the equipment. Failures must be detected at a sufficiently early stage and transmitted to the beam interlock system that triggers the beam dumping system. To ensure safe operation the machine protection system uses a variety of systems to detect such failures. The strategy for protection of the LHC will be illustrated, with emphasis on new developments and studies that aim for an increased redundancy of the protection system.

MOPA006 Theory and Reality of Beam-Beam Effects at Hadron Colliders resonance, antiproton, beam-beam-effects, emittance 544

• Y. Alexahin
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
The beam-beam phenomena in hadron colliders is just as rich as in e+e- machines: orbit and focusing perturbations, excitation of nonlinear resonances, coherent tuneshifts. Moreover, the absence of radiation damping and long duration of a store permit even high-order (and correspondingly weak) resonances to manifest themselves presenting a major challenge for both theoretical analysis and machine operation. The recent progress in understanding of and coping with the beam-beam effects at hadron colliders, primarily at the Tevatron, is discussed.

MOPC001 Final Results from the Novel Multiturn Extraction Studies at CERN Proton Synchrotron extraction, resonance, octupole, septum 117

• M. Giovannozzi, R. Cappi, S.S. Gilardoni, M. Martini, E. Métral, R.R. Steerenberg
CERN, Geneva
• A.-S. Müller
FZK, Karlsruhe
Recently a novel approach to perform multi-turn extraction was proposed based on beam splitting in the transverse phase space by means of trapping inside stable islands. An experimental campaign was launched since the year 2002 to assess the feasibility of such an extraction scheme at the CERN Proton Synchrotron. During the year 2004 run, a high-intensity single-bunch beam was successfully split and the generated beamlets separated without any measurable losses. The latest experimental results are presented and discussed in details in this paper. These achievements represent a substantial step forward with respect to what achieved in previous years, as only a low-intensity bunch could be split without losses. Furthermore, this opens the possibility of using such a technique for routine operation with the high-intensity proton beams required for the planned CERN Neutrino to Gran Sasso Project.

MPPE003 Monte Carlo Simulations of Thin Internal Target Scattering In CELSIUS target, simulation, scattering, electron

• Y.-N. Rao
TRIUMF, Vancouver
TSL, Uppsala
In the practical operation of the storage ring CELSIUS with the hydrogen pellet target, we simetimes observe a cooling phenomenon in the longitudinal phase space, that is, the circulating beam's phase space gets shrunk instead of blown up. This phenomenon occurs independently on the electron cooling. In this paper, we aim to investigate and interpret this phenomenon as well as the beam lifetime in the presence of hydrogen pellet target with and without rf and with and without electron cooling in CELSIUS using Monte Carlo simulations.

MPPE021 Non-Linear Beam Transport System for the LENS 7 MeV Proton Beam octupole, target, beam-transport, quadrupole 1704

• W.P. Jones, D.V. Baxter, V.P. Derenchuk, T. Rinckel, K. A. Solberg
IUCF, Bloomington, Indiana
Funding: This work has been supported by the National Science Foundation under grants DMR-0220560 and DMR–0320627, by the Indiana 21st Century Science and Technology Fund, and by the Department of Defense.

A beam transport system has been designed to carry a high-intensity low-emittance proton beam from the exit of the RFQ-DTL acceleration system of the Indiana University Low Energy Neutron System (LENS)* to the neutron production target. The goal of the design was to provide a beam of uniform density over a 3cm by 3cm area at the target. Two octupole magnets** are employed in the beam line to provide the necessary beam phase space manipulations to achieve this goal. First order calculations were done using TRANSPORT and second order calculations have been performed using TURTLE. Second order simulations have been done using both a Gaussian beam distribution and a particle set generated by calculations of beam transport through the RFQ-DTL using PARMILA. Comparison of the design characteristics with initial measurements from the LENS commissioning process will be made.

*V.P. Derenchuk et al., "The LENS 7 MeV, 10mA proton Linac," these proceedings. **E. Kashy & B. Sherrill, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, B26 (1987) p. 610.

MPPE035 Transfers from High Power Hadron Linacs to Synchrotrons linac, SNS, injection, acceleration 2375

• G.P. Jackson
Hbar Technologies, LLC, West Chicago, Illinois
The Fermilab Proton Driver is an example of a high power H- linear accelerator proposed as a new source of high brightness protons for the Main Injector synchrotron. Because of the elevated radioactive activation of accelerator components associated with beam losses during injection and acceleration, extra attention must be paid to RF manipulations wherein small losses were once deemed acceptable. Especially when injecting into existing synchrotrons from upgraded injectors, instabilities and beam loading make loss free manipulations especially problematic. This paper discusses some options for reducing the losses associated with common longitudinal beam manipulations.

MPPE048 Beam Based Alignment of the LHC Transfer Line Collimators alignment, beam-losses, injection, simulation 3034

• V. Kain, H. Burkhardt, B. Goddard, S. Redaelli
CERN, Geneva
At LHC injection energy the aperture available in the transfer lines and in the LHC is small and the intensities of the injected beams are an order of magnitude above the damage level. The setting of protection elements such as the transfer line collimators is therefore very critical; mechanical and optical tolerances must be taken into account to define the nominal setting. Being able to measure and control the collinearity of the collimator jaws with the beam relaxes the requirement on the settings considerably. A method to measure angular misalignment of the collimator jaws in the transfer line based on a transmission measurement is discussed. Simulations have been made and are compared with the results of an alignment test performed with beam during the 2004 commissioning of the transfer line TI 8.

MPPE049 Sensitivity Study for Evaluating the Extracted Beam Parameters of the LLUMC Proton Therapy Synchrotron optics, emittance, synchrotron, target 3046

• G.H. Gillespie, W. Hill
G.H. Gillespie Associates, Inc., Del Mar, California
• G. Coutrakon, J. Hubbard, E. Sanders
LLU/MC, Loma Linda, California
The MINOS nonlinear constrained optimization program, working in concert with the beam optics code TRANSPORT, has been shown in recent work to provide a fast, efficient and reliable procedure for determining the parameters of the beam extracted from the LLUMC proton therapy synchrotron. MINOS and TRANSPORT work together as Modules of the Particle Beam Optics Laboratory (PBO Lab) software. The software was used to determine the parameters of the beam extracted from the synchrotron accelerator that best fit the extensive wire scanner profile data used to monitor the LLUMC proton therapy beamlines. In this paper additional constraints and optimizer variables are utilized with the procedure, in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the best fit extracted beam parameters to various assumptions. The methods used will be described and selected results from the study presented.

MPPP015 Operational Performance of a Bunch by Bunch Digital Damper in the Fermilab Main Injector antiproton, damping, injection, diagnostics 1440

UCL, London
• B. Ashmanskas, G.W. Foster, S. U. Hansen, A. Marchionni, D.J. Nicklaus, A. Semenov, D. Wildman
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
• H. Kang
Stanford University, Stanford, Califormia
We have implemented a transverse and longitudinal bunch by bunch digital damper system in the Fermilab Main Injector, using a single digital board for all 3 coordinates. The system has been commissioned over the last year, and is now operational in all MI cycles, damping beam bunched at both 53MHz and 2.5MHz. We describe the performance of this system both for collider operations and high-intensity running for the NuMI project.

MPPP042 Landau Damping of the Weak Head-Tail Instability at Tevatron damping, octupole, betatron, injection 2714

• P.M. Ivanov, Y. Alexahin, J. Annala, V. Lebedev, V.D. Shiltsev
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
Landau damping of the head-tail modes in Tevatron beam with the help of octupole-generated betatron tune spreads permits to reduce chromaticity from 15-20 units to zero thus significantly improving the beam lifetime. The octupole strengths have been experimentally optimized at different stages of the Tevatron operation, from proton injection to collision. Predictions of the analytical Landau damping model are compared with the experimental results.

MPPP043 Betatron Tune Spread Generation and Differential Chromaticity Control by Octupole at Tevatron octupole, betatron, antiproton, injection 2756

• P.M. Ivanov, Y. Alexahin, J. Annala, V. Lebedev
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
Application of octupoles for Landau damping of the unstable head-tail modes requires careful consideration at their combination into separate families to insure maximum effectiveness and avoid degradation of the dynamic aperture due to the non-linear magnetic fields. Existing octupolar magnets around the machine have been arranged into four functional families with individual power supplies. Two of these families generate betatron tune spreads in the vertical and horizontal planes whereas the other two control the differential chromaticity between the proton and antiproton helices. The calculated effect on tunes and chromaticity is compared with direct measurements. Analytical formulas for betatron tune spectral density functions are presented.

MPPT006 The Extraction Kicker System of the RCS in J-PARC kicker, vacuum, extraction, impedance 1009

• J. Kamiya, T. Takayanagi
JAERI/J-PARC, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken
• T. Kawakubo, S. Murasugi, E. Nakamura
KEK, Ibaraki
The kicker magnet plays a role of extracting the proton beam which is accelerated up to 3GeV by the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron in J-PARC. The kicker system is required the fast rise time of the magnetic field because the interval between the beam bunches is only 349nsec. The kicker magnet is the distributed type. The findings in our measurements revealed that the delay time in the magnet is about 180nsec. The power supply has the pulse forming network system, which consists of co-axial cables whose characteristic impedance is 10 ohm. We accomplished the current rise time of 80 nsec quickness. Therefore we had a good prospect of the fast rise time of the magnetic field. The characteristic impedance of the kicker magnet was also measured. The value was close to 10 ohm. There will be no large mismatching between the power supply and the magnet. This pulse magnet is installed in the vacuum chamber to prevent the electric discharge. Outgas from the components has the adverse effects the vacuum in the accelerator. We have reduced the outgas rate from the ferrite core and aluminum plates which construct the magnet by backing them at appropriate temperature.

MPPT014 Design Concept for AGS Injection Kicker Upgrade to 2 GeV kicker, injection, impedance, simulation 1380

• G.D. Wait, R.B. Armenta, M.J. Barnes, E.W. Blackmore, O. Hadary
TRIUMF, Vancouver
• L. Ahrens, C.J. Gardner, W. Zhang
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
Funding: Canada Foundation for Innovation, U.S. Dept of Energy.

The present AGS injection kickers at A5 location were designed for 1.5 GeV proton injection. Recent high intensity runs have pushed the transfer kinetic energy to 1.94 GeV, but with an imperfect matching in transverse phase space. Space charge forces result in both fast and slow beam size growth and beam loss as the size exceeds the AGS aperture. A proposed increase in the AGS injection energy to 2 GeV with adequate kick strength would greatly reduce the beam losses making it possible to increase the intensity from 70 TP (70 * 1012 protons/s) to 100 TP. R&D studies are being undertaken by TRIUMF, in collaboration with BNL, to design two new kicker magnets for the AGS A10 location to provide an additional kick of 1.5 mrad to 2 GeV protons. TRIUMF has proposed a design for a 12.5 W transmission line kicker magnet with rise and fall times of 100 ns, 3% to 97% and field uniformity of ±3% over 90% of the aperture, powered by matched 12.5 W pulse-forming lines. This paper describes the present status of a prototype design including the results of detailed 2D and 3D electromagnetic modeling of a transmission line kicker magnet and PSpice time domain analysis of the magnetic kick strength.

MPPT017 Design of Switching Magnet for 20-MeV Beamlines at PEFP vacuum, extraction, multipole, simulation 1575

• H.S. Suh, H.S. Han, S.-H. Jeong, Y.G. Jung, H.-S. Kang, H.-G. Lee, K.-H. Park, C. K. Ryu
PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk
Funding: Ministry of Science and Technology.

The PEFP(Proton Engineering Frontier Project) proton linac is designed to have two proton beam extraction lines at the 20-MeV and 100-MeV end. The 20-MeV extraction line is branched out into 5 beamlines by using the switching magnet. The magnet bends the proton beam by +20, +10, 0, -10, -20 degrees, respectively, and has an AC frequency of 5 Hz with a programmable ac power supply. It employs an H-shape, 0.45 T magnetic field, 0.5 m effective magnet length, 30x5 cm bore aperture. The pole shape is optimized for the field levels. Laminated steel of 0.5 mm is enough to suppress the eddy current effect in the yoke. This paper presents the magnet specification and primary design.

MPPT019 Magnet Design for the ISIS Second Target Station Proton Beam Line dipole, target, quadrupole, septum 1652

• C.M. Thomas, D.C. Faircloth, S.J.S. Jago
CCLRC/RAL/ISIS, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon
The ISIS facility, based at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, is an intense source of neutrons and muons for condensed matter research. The accelerator facility delivers an 800 MeV proton beam of 2.5x1013 protons per pulse at 50 Hz to the present target station. As part of a facility upgrade, it is planned to share the source with a second, 10 Hz, target station. The beam line supplying this target will extract from the existing target station beam line. Electromagnetic Finite Element Modelling techniques have been used to design the magnets required to meet the specified beam line optics. Kicker, septum, dipole, quadrupole, and steering magnets are covered. The magnet design process, involving 2D and 3D modelling, the calculation of ideal shims and chamfers, choice of steel, design of conducting coils, handling of heating issues and eddy current effects, is discussed.

MPPT046 Superconducting Helical Snake Magnet for the AGS dipole, resonance, magnet-design, acceleration 2935

• E. Willen, M. Anerella, J. Escallier, G. Ganetis, A. Ghosh, R.C. Gupta, M. Harrison, A.K. Jain, A.U. Luccio, W.W. MacKay, A. Marone, J.F. Muratore, S.R. Plate, T. Roser, N. Tsoupas, P. Wanderer
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
• M. Okamura
RIKEN, Saitama
Funding: DOE

A superconducting helical magnet has been built for polarized proton acceleration in the Brookhaven AGS. This "partial Snake" magnet will help to reduce the loss of polarization of the beam due to machine resonances. It is a 3 T magnet some 1940 mm in magnetic length in which the dipole field rotates with a pitch of 0.2053 degrees/mm for 1154 mm in the center and a pitch of 0.3920 degrees/mm for 393 mm in each end. The coil cross-section is made of two slotted cylinders containing superconductor. In order to minimize residual offsets and deflections of the beam on its orbit through the Snake, a careful balancing of the coil parameters was necessary. In addition to the main helical coils, a solenoid winding was built on the cold bore tube inside the main coils to compensate for the axial component of the field that is experienced by the beam when it is off-axis in this helical magnet. Also, two dipole corrector magnets were placed on the same tube with the solenoid. A low heat leak cryostat was built so that the magnet can operate in the AGS cooled by several cryocoolers. The design, construction and performance of this unique magnet will be summarized.

TOAA006 Development of Superconducting Combined Function Magnets for the Proton Transport Line for the J-PARC Neutrino Experiments dipole, quadrupole, alignment, target 495

• T. Nakamoto, Y. Ajima, Y. Fukui, N. Higashi, A. Ichikawa, N. Kimura, T. Kobayashi, Y. Makida, T. Ogitsu, H. Ohhata, T. Okamura, K. Sasaki, M. Takasaki, K. Tanaka, A. Terashima, T. Tomaru, A. Yamamoto
KEK, Ibaraki
• M. Anerella, J. Escallier, G. Ganetis, R.C. Gupta, M. Harrison, A.K. Jain, J.F. Muratore, B. Parker, P. Wanderer
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
• T. Fujii, E. Hashiguchi, T. Kanahara, T. Orikasa
Toshiba, Yokohama
• Y. Iwamoto
JAERI, Ibaraki-ken
• T. Obana
GUAS/AS, Ibaraki
A second generation of long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments has been proposed as one of the main projects at J-PARC jointly built by JAERI and KEK. Superconducting combined function magnets, SCFMs, will be utilized for the 50 GeV, 750 kW proton beam line for the neutrino experiment and an R&D program is in underway at KEK. The magnet is designed to provide a combined function of a dipole field of 2.6 T with a quadrupole field of 19 T/m in a coil aperture of 173.4 mm. A series of 28 magnets in the beam line will be operated DC in supercritical helium cooling below 5 K. A design feature of the SCFM is the left-right asymmetry of the coil cross section: current distributions for superimposed dipole- and quadrupole- fields are combined in a single layer coil. Another design feature is the adoption of glass-fiber reinforced phenolic plastic spacers to replace the conventional metallic collars. To evaluate this unique design, fabrication of full-scale prototype magnets is in progress at KEK and the first prototype will be tested at cold soon. This paper will report the development of the SCFMs.

TOAA007 SNS Injection and Extraction Devices injection, septum, extraction, kicker 553

• D. Raparia
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
Funding: SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge.

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a second generation pulsed neutron source (1.5 MW) and is presently in the sixth year of a seven-year construction cycle at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operation of the facility will begin in 2006. The most stringent requirement for the SNS accelerator complex is to allow hands-on maintenance. Operational experiences show that the most losses occur in the injection and extraction. SNS accumulator ring injection and extraction has been design with grate care to reduce uncontrolled losses. Injection systems consist of fast programmable kicker magnets and DC dump magnets to paint the beam in transverse phase space. Extraction systems consist of fast kicker magnets and a Lamberton magnet to extract beam in single turn. Paper will discuss design, construction and testing of these devices.

TPAP004 Mechanical Design for Robustness of the LHC Collimators injection, simulation, collimation, beam-losses 913

• A. Bertarelli, O. Aberle, R.W. Assmann, S. Calatroni, A. Dallocchio, T. Kurtyka, M. Mayer, R. Perret, S. Redaelli, G. Robert-Demolaize
CERN, Geneva
The functional specification of the LHC Collimators requires, for the start-up of the machine and the initial luminosity runs (Phase 1), a collimation system with maximum robustness against abnormal beam operating conditions. The most severe cases to be considered in the mechanical design are the asynchronous beam dump at 7 TeV and the 450 GeV injection error. To ensure that the collimator jaws survive such accident scenarios, low-Z materials were chosen, driving the design towards Graphite or Carbon/Carbon composites. Furthermore, in-depth thermo-mechanical simulations, both static and dynamic, were necessary.This paper presents the results of the numerical analyses performed for the 450 GeV accident case, along with the experimental results of the tests conducted on a collimator prototype in Cern TT40 transfer line, impacted by a 450 GeV beam of 3.1·1013 protons, with impact parameters from 1 to 5 mm.

TPAP006 Detecting Impacts of Proton Beams on the LHC Collimators with Vibration and Sound Measurements radiation, collimation, acceleration, beam-losses 1018

• S. Redaelli, O. Aberle, R.W. Assmann, A.M. Masi, G. Spiezia
CERN, Geneva
The 350 MJ stored energy of the 7 TeV LHC beams can seriously damage the beam line elements in case of accidental beam losses. Notably, the LHC collimators, which sit at 6 to 7 σs from the beam centre (1.2-1.4 mm), might be hit and possibly damaged in case of failures, with a consequent degradation of their cleaning performance. The experience from operating machines shows that an a-posteriori identification of the damaged collimators from the observed performance degradation is extremely challenging. Collimator tests with beam at the SPS have proven that the impact of 450 GeV proton beams at intensities from 1010 to 3x1013 can be detected by measuring the collimator vibrations. This was achieved by using high-resolution, radiation hard accelerometers and a microphone to record mechanical and sound vibrations of a LHC-like prototype collimator with impacting beams at different intensities and depth. A similar system could be also used in the LHC to detect collimators damaged by the beam.

TPAP007 LHC Collimation: Design and Results from Prototyping and Beam Tests collimation, impedance, insertion, beam-losses 1078

• R.W. Assmann, O. Aberle, G. Arduini, A. Bertarelli, H.-H. Braun, M. Brugger, H. Burkhardt, S. Calatroni, F. Caspers, E. Chiaveri, A. Dallocchio, B. Dehning, A. Ferrari, M. Gasior, A. Grudiev, E.B. Holzer, J.-B. Jeanneret, J.M. Jimenez, Y. Kadi, R. Losito, M. Magistris, A.M. Masi, M. Mayer, E. Métral, R. Perret, C. Rathjen, S. Redaelli, G. Robert-Demolaize, S. Roesler, M. Santana-Leitner, D. Schulte, P. Sievers, E. Tsoulou, H. Vincke, V. Vlachoudis, J. Wenninger
CERN, Geneva
• I. Baishev, I.L. Kurochkin
IHEP Protvino, Protvino, Moscow Region
• G. Spiezia
Naples University Federico II, Science and Technology Pole, Napoli
The problem of collimation and beam cleaning concerns one of the most challenging aspects of the LHC project. A collimation system must be designed, built, installed and commissioned with parameters that extend the present state-of-the-art by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Problems include robustness, cleaning efficiency, impedance and operational aspects. A strong design effort has been performed at CERN over the last two years. The system design has now been finalized for the two cleaning insertions. The adopted phased approach is described and the expected collimation performance is discussed. In parallel robust and precisely controllable collimators have been designed. Several LHC prototype collimators have been built and tested with the highest beam intensities that are presently available at CERN. The successful beam tests are presented, including beam-based setup procedures, a 2 MJ robustness test and measurements of the collimator-induced impedance. Finally, an outlook is presented on the challenges that are ahead in the coming years.

TPAP012 Luminosity Limit from Bound-Free Pair Production in the LHC ion, simulation, luminosity, dipole 1306

• J.M. Jowett, R. Bruce, S.S. Gilardoni
CERN, Geneva
The luminosity of the LHC as a lead-ion collider is known to be limited by the large cross-sections for electromagnetic processes in ultra-peripheral collisions. In particular, the process of bound-free e-e+ pair production creates secondary beams of Pb81+ ions emerging from the collision points and impinging on the vacuum envelope inside superconducting magnets. New Monte-Carlo simulations, exploiting recent implementations of the physics of ion interactions with matter, are helping us to quantify the relationships among luminosity, energy deposition in the magnet coils and signals on beam loss monitors with a view to predicting and alleviating the quench limit on luminosity.

TPAP013 The Performance of the New TCDQ System in the LHC Beam Dumping Region simulation, secondary-beams, dumping, monitoring 1324

• A. Presland, B. Goddard, W.J.M. Weterings
CERN, Geneva
The superconducting quadrupole magnet Q4 in IR6 and other downstream LHC machine elements risk destruction in the event of a beam dump that is not synchronised with the abort gap. In order to protect these elements, a single sided mobile graphite diluter block TCDQ, in combination with a two-sided secondary collimator TCS and an iron shield TCDQM, will be installed in front of Q4. This protection system should also intercept spurious particles in the beam abort gap to prevent quenches from occurring during regular beam aborts, and must also intercept the particles from the secondary halo during low beam lifetime without provoking quenches. The conceptual design of the TCDQ system is briefly presented, with the load conditions and performance criteria. The FLUKA energy deposition simulations are described, and the results discussed in the context of the expected performance levels for LHC operation.

TPAP014 Energy Deposition Studies for the Betatron Cleaning Insertion (IR7) of LHC insertion, simulation, collimation, quadrupole 1386

• M. Santana-Leitner, R.W. Assmann, A. Ferrari, M. Magistris, E. Tsoulou, V. Vlachoudis
CERN, Geneva
Two insertions (IR3, IR7) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are dedicated to beam cleaning with the design goals of absorbing part of the primary beam halo and of the secondary radiation. The tertiary halo which escapes the collimation system in IR7 may heat the cold magnets at unacceptable levels, if no additional absorber is used. In order to assess the energy deposition in sensitive components, extensive simulations were run with the Monte Carlo cascade code FLUKA. The straight section and the dispersion suppressors of IR7 were fully implemented. A modular approach in the geometry definition and an extensive use of user-written programs allowed the implementation of all magnets and collimators with high precision, including flanges, steel supports and magnetic field. This paper provides the number and location of additional absorbers needed to keep the energy deposition in the coils of the magnets below the quenching limit.

TPAP015 Commissioning of the LHC Beam Transfer Line TI 8 optics, instrumentation, extraction, injection 1461

• J.A. Uythoven, G. Arduini, B. Goddard, D. Jacquet, V. Kain, M. Lamont, V. Mertens, A. Spinks, J. Wenninger
CERN, Geneva
• Y.-C. Chao
Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
The first of the two LHC transfer lines was commissioned in autumn 2004. Beam reached an absorber block located some 2.5 km downstream of the SPS extraction point at the first shot, without the need of any threading. The hardware preparation and commissioning phase will be summarised, followed by a description of the beam tests and their results regarding optics and other line parameters, including the experience gained with beam instrumentation, the control system and the machine protection equipment.

TPAP016 Energy Calibration of the SPS with Proton and Lead Ion Beams sextupole, ion, quadrupole, alignment 1470

• J. Wenninger, G. Arduini, C. Arimatea, T. Bohl, P. Collier, K. Cornelis
CERN, Geneva
The momentum of the 450 GeV/c proton beam of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron was determined by a high precision measurement of the revolution frequencies of proton and lead ion beams. To minimize systematic errors the magnetic cycle of the SPS had to be rigorously identical for both beams, and corrections due to Earth tides had to be taken into account. This paper presents how the beam momentum was determined from the RF frequency for which the beams are centred in the machine sextupoles. The measured beam momentum is 449.16 ± 0.14 GeV/c for a nominal momentum of 450 GeV/c, and the accuracy is limited by systematic errors.

TPAP017 Beam Stability of the LHC Beam Transfer Line TI8 extraction, injection, septum, alignment 1523

• J. Wenninger, B. Goddard, V. Kain, J.A. Uythoven
CERN, Geneva
Injection of beam into the LHC at 450 GeV/c proceeds over two 2.7 km long transfer lines from the SPS. The small aperture of the LHC at injection imposes tight constraints on the stability of the beam transfer. The first transfer line TI8 was commissioned in the fall of 2004 with low intensity beam. Since the beam position monitor signal fluctuations were dominated by noise with low intensity beam, the beam stability could not be obtained from a simple comparison of consecutive trajectories. Instead model independent analysis (MIA) techniques as well as scraping on collimators were used to estimate the intrinsic stability of the transfer line. This paper presents the analysis methods and the resulting stability estimates.

TPAP021 A New Technique for Making Bright Proton Bunches using Barrier RF Systems emittance, simulation, collider, luminosity 1745

• C.M. Bhat
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
Funding: Work supported by the Universities Research Association, Inc., under contract DE-AC02-76CH03000 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

I describe here very promising schemes for producing high intensity low longitudinal emittance proton bunches for pp and ppbar high energy colliders. These methods are based on the use of wide-band barrier rf systems in the up-stream circular accelerators. The beam dynamics simulations clearly suggest that these schemes allow a wide range of bunch intensities and longitudinal emittances. In this paper I present the principle of these methods and results of multi-particle beam dynamics simulations applied to the Fermilab Tevatron. The feasibility of these methods to LHC pp collider will also be discussed. I also review a few other schemes which have been adopted and investigated at collider facilities.

TPAP026 Improving the Tevatron Collision Helix antiproton, luminosity, emittance, beam-beam-effects 1931

• R. Moore, Y. Alexahin, J.A. Johnstone, T. Sen
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
In the Tevatron, protons and pbars circulate in a single beam pipe, so electrostatic separators are used to create helical orbits that separate the two beams except at the two interaction points (IP). Increasing the separation outside of the IPs is desirable in order to decrease long range beam-beam effects during high energy physics (HEP) stores. We can increase separation by running the separators at higher gradients or by installing additional separators. We are pursuing both strategies in parallel. Here, we describe Tevatron operation with higher separator gradients and with new separators installed during a recent shutdown. We also describe possible future improvements.

TPAP032 Beam-beam Effects in the Tevatron Run II antiproton, emittance, luminosity, injection 2245

• V.D. Shiltsev, Y. Alexahin, V. Lebedev, P. Lebrun, R. Moore, T. Sen, A. Valishev, X. Zhang
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
Funding: Work supported by the Universities Research Assos., Inc., under contract DE-AC02-76CH03000 with the U.S. Dept. of Energy.

The Tevatron in Collider Run II (2001-present) is operating with many times higher beam intensities and luminosities than in previous Run I (1992-1995). Electromagnetic long-range and head-on interactions of high intensity proton and antiproton beams have been significant sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations. We present observations of the beam-beam phenomena in the Tevatron and results of relevant beam studies. We analyze the data and various methods employed in operations, predict the performance at upgraded beam parameters and luminosity and discuss possible improvements.

TPAP033 Tevatron Admittance Measurement emittance, antiproton, kicker, betatron 2306

• X. Zhang, V.D. Shiltsev, C.-Y. Tan
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
Funding: Work supported by the Universities Research Assos., Inc., under contract DE-AC02-76CH03000 with the U.S. Dept. of Energy.

We measured the Tevatron Beam Acceptance by the method of exciting the beam emittance growth with the beam tickling system with noise. The noise power was about 3Watt with 100Hz bandwidth and centered either in horizontal betatron frequency or vertical betatron frequency. We were able to blow the beam emittance fast while under control. From the point the beam emittance stop growing, we measured the beam acceptance of the Tevatron.

TPAP035 Energy Deposition Issues at 8 GeV H- Beam Collimation and Injection to the Fermilab Main Injector injection, kicker, collimation, quadrupole 2372

• A.I. Drozhdin, M.A. Kostin, N.V. Mokhov
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
The energy deposition and radiation issues at 8 GeV H- beam collimation in the beam transfer line and at stripping injection to the Fermilab Main Injector are analyzed. Detailed calculations with the STRUCT and MARS15 codes are performed on heating of collimators, stripping foils and other critical components, as well as on beam line and accelerator element radioactivation both at normal operation and accidental beam loss. Extraction of the unstripped part of the beam to the external beam dump and loss of the excited-state Ho atoms in the Main Injector are also studied.

TPAP036 Fitting the Luminosity Decay in the Tevatron luminosity, antiproton 2434

• E.S. McCrory, V.D. Shiltsev, A.J. Slaughter, A. Xiao
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
Funding: Operated by Universities Research Association Inc. under Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH03000 with the United States Department of Energy.

This paper explores the various ways in which the decay of the luminosity in the Tevatron have been fit. The standard assumptions of a fixed-lifetime exponential decay are only appropriate for very short time intervals. A "1/time" funcional form fits rather well, and is supported by analytical derivations. A more complex form, assuming a time-varying lifetime, produces excellent results. Changes in the luminosity can be factored into two phenomena: The luminosity burn-off rate, and the burn-off rate from non-luminosity effects. The luminous and the non-luminous burn rate are shown for stores in the Tevatron.

TPAP037 Monte Carlo of Tevatron Operations, Including the Recycler antiproton, luminosity, emittance, electron 2479

• E.S. McCrory
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
Funding: Operated by Universities Research Association Inc. under Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH03000 with the United States Department of Energy.

A Monte Carlo model, which was originally developed for "Run I" of the Tevatron Collider, has been enhanced in many ways, most notably, to incorporate the effect of the Recycler Ring. This model takes into account reasonable random fluctuations in the performance of the Collider, and normal interruptions in operation of each accelerator due to downtime. Optimization of the integrated luminosity delivered to the experiments is based on when to end the store and how to deal with the anitprotons. Preliminary results show that a 20% gain in integrated luminosity in the Collider results from using the Recycler for one-third of the anitprotons in each store. As electron cooling becomes operative in the Recycler, Collider performance improves by as much as a factor of two.

TPAP038 Characterizing Luminosity Evolution in the Tevatron luminosity, emittance, beam-beam-effects, antiproton 2536

• E.S. McCrory, V.D. Shiltsev
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
Funding: Operated by Universities Research Association Inc. under Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH03000 with the United States Department of Energy.

We derive an approximate form of a luminosity evolution in a high intensity hadron collider taking into account the most important phenomena of intrabeam scattering (IBS), beam burn-up due to luminosity and beam-beam effects. It is well known that an exponential decay does not describe luminosity evolution very well unless the lifetime is allowed to vary with time. However, a "1/time" evolution, which this derivation shows is a good approximation, fits data from the Tevatron well.

TPAP044 Observations of Snake Resonance in RHIC resonance, polarization, betatron, injection 2839

• M. Bai, H. Huang, W. Mac Kay, V. Ptitsyn, T. Roser, S. Tepikian
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
• S.-Y. Lee, F. Lin
IUCF, Bloomington, Indiana
Funding: The work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy.

Siberian snakes now become essential in the polarized proton acceleration. With proper configuration of Siberian snakes, the spin precession tune of the beam becomes $\frac{1}{2}$ which avoids all the spin depolarizing resonance. However, the enhancement of the perturbations on the spin motion can still occur when the betatron tune is near some low order fractional numbers, called snake resonances, and the beam can be depolarized when passing through the resonance. The snake resonances have been confirmed in the spin tracking calculations, and observed in RHIC with polarized proton beam. Equipped with two full Siberian snakes in each ring, RHIC provides us a perfect facility for snake resonance studies. This paper presents latest experimental results. New insights are also discussed.

TPAP047 Killing the Electron Cloud Effect in the LHC Arcs electron, dipole, vacuum, emittance 2971

• P.M. McIntyre, A. Sattarov
Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas
A getter/electrode assembly has been devised to suppress the regeneration mechanism of the electron cloud effect in the arc dipoles of LHC. The assembly consists of a copper foil electrode, supported through an insulating layer on a stainless steel skid, which would rest upon the flat bottom of the beam screen. The electrode is coated with NEG to provide effective pumping of all non-inert gases from the vacuum. Pumping should be enhanced by electron bombardment. By biasing the electrode ~+100 V secondary electrons produced on the surface would be fully re-absorbed, killing the regeneration mechanism. The NEG surface can be regenerated by passing a current through the electrode to heat it to ~240 C. The heat transfer (radiant + conductive) to the beam screen during regeneration is estimated ~10 W/m, within limits to maintain the beam screen at nominal 20 K temperature during regeneration. The entire assembly has been designed so that installation does not require modification of any hardware currently being built for the LHC arcs. The electrode assembly would occupy 1 mm in the vertical aperture of the beam screen.

TPAP048 Optimization of the Phase Advance Between RHIC Interaction Points resonance, quadrupole, lattice, luminosity 3031

• R. Tomas
CELLS, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès)
• W. Fischer
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
Funding: U.S. department of Energy.

We consider the scenario of having two identical Interaction Points (IPs) in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The strengths of beam-beam resonances strongly depend on the phase advance between these two IPs and therefore certain phase advances could improve beam lifetime and luminosity. We compute the dynamic aperture as function of the phase advance between these IPs to find the optimum settings. The beam-beam interaction is treated in the weak-strong approximation and a complete non-linear model of the lattice is used. For the current RHIC proton working point (0.69,0.685) the design lattice is found to have the optimum phase advance. However this is not the case for other working points.

TPAP058 Beam-Beam Simulations for Double-Gaussian Beams emittance, simulation, luminosity, electron 3405

• C. Montag, I. Ben-Zvi, V. Litvinenko, N. Malitsky
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
Funding: Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy.

Electron cooling together with intra-beam scattering results in a transverse distribution that can best be described by a sum of two Gaussians, one for the high-density core and one for the tails of the distribution. Simulation studies are being performed to understand the beam-beam interaction of these double-Gaussian beams. Here we report the effect of low-frequency random tune modulations on diffusion in double-Gaussian beams and compare the effects to those in beam-beam interactions with regular Gaussian beams and identical tuneshift parameters.

TPAT038 Chaos in Time-Dependent Space-Charge Potentials space-charge, emittance, linac 2515

• G.T. Betzel, C.L. Bohn, I.V. Sideris
Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois
We consider a spherically symmetric, homologously breathing, space-charge-dominated beam bunch in the spirit of the particle-core model. The question we ask is: How does the time dependence influence the population of chaotic orbits? The static beam has zero chaotic orbits; the equation of particle motion is integrable up to quadrature. This is generally not true once the bunch is set into oscillation. We quantify the population of chaotic orbits as a function of space charge and oscillation amplitude (mismatch). We also apply a newly developed measure of chaos, one that distinguishes between regular, sticky, and wildly chaotic orbits, to characterize the phase space in detail. We then introduce colored noise into the system and show how its presence modifies the dynamics. One finding is that, despite the presence of a sizeable population of chaotic orbits, halo formation in the homologously breathing beam is much less prevalent than in an envelope-matched counterpart wherein an internal collective mode is excited.

TPAT055 On Start to End Simulation and Modeling Issues of the Megawatt Proton Beam Facility at PSI simulation, space-charge, cyclotron, injection 3319

• A. Adelmann, S.R.A. Adam, H. Fitze, R. Geus, M. Humbel, L. Stingelin
PSI, Villigen
At the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) we routinely extract a one megawatt (CW) proton beam out of our 590 MeV Ring Cyclotron. In the frame of the ongoing upgrade program, large scale simulations have been undertaken in order to provide a sound basis to assess the behaviour of very intense beams in cyclotrons. The challenges and attempts towards massive parallel three dimensional start-to- end simulations will be discussed. The used state of the art numerical tools (mapping techniques, time integration, parallel FFT and finite element based multigrid Poisson solver) and their parallel implementation will be discussed. Results will be presented in the area of: space charge dominated beam transport including neighbouring turns, eigenmode analysis to obtain accurate electromagnetic fields in large the rf cavities and higher order mode interaction between the electromagnetic fields and the particle beam. For the problems investigated so far a good agreement between theory i.e. calculations and measurements is obtained.

TPAT057 Observations of UHF Oscillations in the IPNS RCS Proton Bunch quadrupole, acceleration, synchrotron, extraction 3375

• J.C. Dooling, F.R. Brumwell, G.E. McMichael, S. Wang
ANL, Argonne, Illinois
Funding: This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract no. W-31-109-ENG-38.

The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) accelerates 3.2x 1012 protons from 50 MeV to 450 MeV in a single bunch (h=1) at 30 Hz. The rf frequency varies from 2.21 MHz to 5.14 MHz during the 14.2 ms acceleration interval. To maintain stability of the bunch, phase modulation is introduced to the rf at approximately twice the synchrotron frequency (synchrotron tune is 0.0014). This phase modulation causes a parametric quadrupole oscillation to develop in the bunch, and as this occurs, the bunch spectrum shows a significant increase in high frequency content. Without phase modulation, the beam experiences an instability which results in the loss of a large fraction of the charge 2-4 ms prior to extraction. It is unclear if the stability imparted to the beam by phase modulation comes from the quadrupole oscillation or from the high frequency excitation. A longitudinal tracking code is presently being modified to include amplitude and phase modulation of the bunch. The numerical analysis will be used to compare growth rates with those observed in the machine. The results of this analysis will be important as we introduce second harmonic rf with a new third cavity in the RCS later in 2005.

TPAT065 Damping Transverse Instabilities in the Tevatron Using AC Chromaticity simulation, synchrotron, sextupole, damping 3665

• V.H. Ranjbar
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
Funding: Operated by Universities Research Association Inc. under Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH03000 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

Several papers*,** have suggested possibility of using varying chromaticity to damp the head-tail instability. We test this by cycling the chromaticity sextupole magnets in the Tevatron near the synchrotron frequency to see if the head-tail stability threshold is increased. Further we compare the turn-by-turn evolution of a bunch slice in the presence of varying chromaticity to a model previously developed.

*W.-H. Cheng, A. M. Sessler, and J. S. Wurtele, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4565 (1997). **T. Nakamura in Proceedings of the 1995 IEEE Particle Accelerator Conference (IEEE, Dallas, 1995), Vol. 5, p. 3100.

TPAT094 Luminescence Beam Profile Monitor for the RHIC Polarized Hydrogen Jet Polarimeter target, polarization, ion, monitoring 4293

• N.P. Luciano, Y. Makdisi, A.N. Nass, P. Thieberger, D. Trbojevic, A. Zelenski
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
Funding: Work performed under Contract Number DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the auspicies of the US Deparment of Energy.

This is the second polarized proton run in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) with a new polarized proton jet target used to provide accurate polarization measurements. The interactions between the stored polarized protons with the polarized jet target will produce, in addition to polarization, optical signals due to exited states of Hydrogen or other molecules, ions, or atoms. Additional lenses, optical window, optical analyzer, and the CCD camera are added to the system to allow transfer and detection of optical signals from the interaction chamber. Oxygen or other elements (impurities) could be mixed within the jet target and affect the accuracy of the polarization measurements. It is important to have continuous information of the jet content without affecting the polarization measurements. The optical signals coming from the exited states of molecules, ions, and atoms from the polarized proton beam interaction with the jet will provide that. In addition, the beam profile might be obtained.

TPAT095 Beam Induced Pressure Rise at RHIC electron, ion, background, luminosity 4308

• S.Y. Zhang, J.G. Alessi, M. Bai, M. Blaskiewicz, P. Cameron, K.A. Drees, W. Fischer, J. Gullotta, P. He, H.-C. Hseuh, H. Huang, U. Iriso, R.C. Lee, V. Litvinenko, W.W. MacKay, T. Nicoletti, B. Oerter, S. Peggs, F.C. Pilat, V. Ptitsyn, T. Roser, T. Satogata, L. Smart, L. Snydstrup, P. Thieberger, D. Trbojevic, L. Wang, J. Wei, K. Zeno
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
Beam induced pressure rise in RHIC warm sections is currently one of the machine intensity and luminosity limits. This pressure rise is mainly due to electron cloud effects. The RHIC warm section electron cloud is associated with longer bunch spacings compared with other machines, and is distributed non-uniformly around the ring. In addition to the countermeasures for normal electron cloud, such as the NEG coated pipe, solenoids, beam scrubbing, bunch gaps, and larger bunch spacing, other studies and beam tests toward the understanding and counteracting RHIC warm electron cloud are of interest. These include the ion desorption studies and the test of anti-grazing ridges. For high bunch intensities and the shortest bunch spacings, pressure rises at certain locations in the cryogenic region have been observed during the past two runs. Beam studies are planned for the current 2005 run and the results will be reported.

Work performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy.

TPAT099 Main Parameters of ILC-Tevatron Based Lepton-Hadron and Photon-Hadron Colliders electron, collider, luminosity, photon 4335

• S. Sultansoy
Gazi University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Ankara
• O. Cakir, A.K. Ciftci
Ankara University, Faculty of Sciences, Tandogan/Ankara
• E. Recepoglu
Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Ankara
• O. Yavas
Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Tandogan, Ankara
Funding: Ankara University.

The construction of the ILC tangential to Tevatron ring will give opportunity to investigate electron-proton, positron-proton, electron-antiproton, positron-antiproton interactions at 1 TeV center of mass energy. The analysis of the lepton-hadron collisions in these energy region is very important both for understanding of strong interaction dynamics and for adequate interpretation of future LHC and VLHC data. In addition, ILC-Tevatron collider will provide a possibility to realize photon-hadron collisions in the same energy region using Compton backscattered laser photon of ILC electron beam. Main parameters of these colliders are estimated and their physics search potential is briefly discussed.

TOAD002 Novel Tune Diagnostics for the Tevatron antiproton, pick-up, betatron, injection 140

• C.-Y. Tan
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
The Tevatron collides protons and antiprotons in the same beam pipe. This poses a challenge in the measurement of tunes for both species simultanously because of the possibility of signal contamination from the other species. On top of this, since both beams are in the same beam pipe, tunes of individual bunches are also important because tune shifts from the beam-beam effect affects each bunch differently. Three different tune diagnostics used in the Tevatron will be discussed in this paper: 1.7GHz Schottky pickups, 21.4 MHz Schottky pickups and 27 kHz baseband pickups. These pickups look at the tune spectrum at different frequency bands and provide useful physics information for each frequency regime.

TOAD003 Development of the Beam Diagnostics System for the J-PARC Rapid-Cycling Synchrotron injection, vacuum, linac, beam-losses 299

• N. Hayashi, S.H. Hiroki, J. Kishiro, Y.T. Teruyama, R. Toyokawa
JAERI/J-PARC, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken
• D.A. Arakawa, S. Lee, T. Miura, T. Toyama
KEK, Ibaraki
Development of the beam diagnostics system for the J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) Rapid-Cycling Synchrotron is described. The system consists of Beam Position Monitor (BPM), Beam Loss Monitor (BLM), Current monitors (DCCT, SCT, MCT, FCT, WCM), Tune meter system, 324MHz-BPM, Profile monitor, and Halo monitor. BPM electrode is electro-static type and its electronics is designed for both COD and turn-by-turn measurements. Five current monitors have different time constants in order to cover wide frequency range. The tune meter is consisted of RFKO and the beam pick-up electrode. For the continuous injected beam monitoring, 324MHz-BPM detects Linac frequency. Two types of profile monitor are multi-wire for low intensity tuning and the residual gas monitor for non-destructive measurement.

TOPC004 Tevatron Beam Position Monitor Upgrade pick-up, antiproton, injection, controls 410

• S.A. Wolbers, B. Banerjee, B. Barker, S. Bledsoe, T. Boes, M. Bowden, G.I. Cancelo, G. Duerling, B. Forster, B. Haynes, B. Hendricks, T. Kasza, R.K. Kutschke, R. Mahlum, M.A. Martens, M. Mengel, M. Olsen, V. Pavlicek, T. Pham, L. Piccoli, J. Steimel, K. Treptow, M. Votava, R.C. Webber, B. West, D. Zhang
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
Funding: Operated by Universities Research Association Inc. under Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH03000 with the United States Department of Energy.

The Tevatron Beam Position Monitor (BPM) readout electronics and software have been upgraded to improve measurement precision, functionality and reliability. The original system, designed and built in the early 1980s, became inadequate for current and future operations of the Tevatron. The upgraded system consists of 960 channels of new electronics to process analog signals from 240 BPMs, new front-end software, new online and controls software, and modified applications to take advantage of the improved measurements and support the new functionality. The new system reads signals from both ends of the existing directional stripline pickups to provide simultaneous proton and antiproton position measurements. Measurements using the new system are presented that demonstrate its improved resolution and overall performance.

TOPC005 Transverse Emittance Blow-Up Due to the Operation of Wire Scanners, Analytical Predictions and Measurements emittance, scattering, simulation, betatron 437

• F. Roncarolo, B. Dehning
CERN, Geneva
Wire Scanner monitors are used in the CERN accelerators to measure the transverse beam size. In the SPS and the LHC they will serve as calibration devices for other emittance monitors. The PSB, PS and SPS are equipped with scanners which move through the beam a 30 um wire, with a speed that can vary between 0.4 to 20 m/s. During each scan, the beam suffers an emittance blow up, due to multiple Coulomb scattering of the beam protons on the lattice nuclei of the wire material. The effect depends on the particles' energy, the betatron function at the monitor location and on the wire characteristics (material, diameter and speed). In this paper we will present a comparison of the analytically predicted emittance increase caused by the instruments and a number of experimental measurements. For the small LHC beams the relative emittance blow-up can exceed a few 10e-2.

TPPE003 Analysis of Multigrid Extraction Plasma Meniscus Formation plasma, electron, ion, extraction 862

• M. Cavenago
• V. Antoni, F. Sattin
• A. Tanga
MPI/IPP, Garching
Funding: INFN-LNL, CNR-RFX.

Effects of plasma meniscus on the emittance in negative ion source proposed for spallation sources or neutral beam injectors (NBI) for tokamaks are particularly interesting to study with fluid models because: 1) at least three different charged fluid can be recognised: the thermalized and fully magnetized electrons; the slightly magnetized and roughly thermalized positive ions; the negative ions, typically formed within few cm from meniscus; 2) different implementation of the magnetic filter system need to be compared; 3) optimization of electron dump and outlet electrode strongly depends on plasma meniscus contact point. With reasonable assumption on system geometry, 2D and 3D charged fluid quation for the selfconsistent electrostatic field can be written and effect of grid aperture is investigated. Moreover, these equations are easily implemented into a multiphysics general purpose program. Preliminary results are described, and compared to existing codes.

TPPE005 50keV, 50mA Pulsed Proton Injector for PEFP ion, ion-source, extraction, rfq 964

• I.-S. Hong, Y.-S. Cho, S.-H. Han
KAERI, Daejon
Funding: This work is supported by the 21C Frontier R&D program in the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Korean government.

Duoplasmatron type ion source with 50keV proton beam has been constructed and stably operated as the injector for Proton Engineering Frontier Project(PEFP). In DC operation, the beam current of 50mA with 50kV extraction voltage is routinely obtained. However, the pulsed operation mode of the ion source also has been considered to reduce beam induced damage at the entrance of RFQ. A high voltage pulse switch is connected between accelerating electrode and ground electrode for this purpose. The detailed scheme on the focusing of the pulsed proton beam with space charge compensation is in progress. Beam profile and current in front of RFQ will be measured by DCCT and optical measuring tools.

TPPE023 Development and Performance of a Proton and Deuteron ECR Ion Source ion-source, ion, emittance, simulation

• K. Dunkel, F. Kremer, C. Piel, J. Plitzko
A 5mA proton and deuteron rf source is under development at ACCEL. This source will provide the front end of our superconducting proton/deuteron linear accelerator. The design of the source is based on the proven AECL design of a 100 mA proton source. The paper will describe the design of the source and the layout of the test bench currently set up at ACCEL to characterize the source. Results of the beam dynamic simulations performed to optimize the source geometry based on KOBRA 3D will be presented and compared with first measurement results.

TPPP010 Photon-Nucleon Collider Based on LHC and CLIC luminosity, electron, collider, photon 1207

• H. Aksakal, A.K. Ciftci
Ankara University, Faculty of Sciences, Tandogan/Ankara
• D. Schulte, F. Zimmermann
CERN, Geneva
We describe the scheme of a photon-nucleon collider where high-energy photons generated by Compton back-scattering off a CLIC electron beam, at either 75 GeV or 1.5 TeV, are collided with protons or ions stored in the LHC. Different design constraints for such a collider are discussed and the achievable luminosity performance is estimated.

TPPP022 The eRHIC Ring-Ring Collider Design electron, ion, polarization, luminosity 1766

• F. Wang, M. Farkhondeh, W.A. Franklin, W. Graves, R. Milner, C. Tschalaer, D. Wang, A. Zolfaghari, T. Zwart, J. van der Laan
MIT, Middleton, Massachusetts
• D.P. Barber
DESY, Hamburg
• J. Beebe-Wang, A. Deshpande, V. Litvinenko, W.W. MacKay, C. Montag, S. Ozaki, B. Parker, S. Peggs, V. Ptitsyn, T. Roser, S. Tepikian, D. Trbojevic
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
The eRHIC ring-ring collider is the main design option of the future lepton-ion collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We report the revisions of the ring-ring collider design features to the baseline design presented in the eRHIC Zeroth Design Report (ZDR). These revisions have been made during the past year. They include changes of the interaction region which are required from the modifications in the design of the main detector. They also include changes in the lepton storage ring for high current operations as a result of better understandings of beam-beam interaction effects. The updated collider luminosity and beam parameters also take into account a more accurate picture of current and future operational aspects of RHIC.

TPPP040 Front-End Design Studies for a Muon Collider collider, target, simulation, dipole 2610

• R.C. Fernow, J.C. Gallardo
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
Funding: Work supported by U.S. Department of Energy.

Using muons instead of electrons is a promising approach to designing a lepton-lepton collider with energies beyond that available at the proposed ILC. At this time a self-consistent design of a high-luminosity muon collider has not been completed. However, a lot of progress has been made in simulating cooling and parts of other systems that could play a role in an eventual collider design. In this paper we look at front-end system designs that begin with a single pion bunch produced from a high power mercury target. We present ICOOL simulation results for phase rotation, charge separation, and pre-cooling of the muon beams. A design is presented for a single-frequency phase rotation system that can transmit 0.47 muons per incident proton on the target. A bent solenoid can be used for high-efficiency separation of the positive and negative muon beams.

TPPP043 ERL Based Electron-Ion Collider eRHIC electron, luminosity, ion, collider 2768

• V. Litvinenko, L. Ahrens, M. Bai, J. Beebe-Wang, I. Ben-Zvi, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, R. Calaga, X.Y. Chang, A.V. Fedotov, W. Fischer, D. Kayran, J. Kewisch, W.W. MacKay, C. Montag, B. Parker, S. Peggs, V. Ptitsyn, T. Roser, A. Ruggiero, T. Satogata, B. Surrow, S. Tepikian, D. Trbojevic, V. Yakimenko, S.Y. Zhang
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
• A. Deshpande
Stony Brook University, Stony Brook
• M. Farkhondeh
MIT, Middleton, Massachusetts
Funding: Work performed under Contract Number DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the auspices of the US Department of Energy.

We present the designs of a future polarized electron-hadron collider, eRHIC* based on a high current super-conducting energy-recovery linac (ERL) with energy of electrons up to 20 GeV. We plan to operate eRHIC in both dedicated (electron-hadrons only) and parallel(with the main hadron-hadron collisions) modes. The eRHIC has very large tunability range of c.m. energies while maintaining very high luminosity up to 1034 cm-2 s-1 per nucleon. Two of the most attractive features of this scheme are full spin transparency of the ERL at all operational energies and the capability to support up to four interaction points. We present two main layouts of the eRHIC, the expected beam and luminosity parameter, and discuss the potential limitation of its performance.

*http://www.agsrhichome.bnl.gov/eRHIC/, Appendix A: Linac-Ring Option.

TPPP047 New and Efficient Neutrino Factory Front-End Design target, factory, bunching, linac 2986

• J.C. Gallardo, J.S. Berg, R.C. Fernow, H.G. Kirk, R. Palmer
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
• D.V. Neuffer
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
• K. Paul
Muons, Inc, Batavia
Funding: Work supported by U.S. Department of Energy.

As part of the APS Joint Study on the Future of Neutrino Physics* we have carried out detailed studies of the Neutrino Factory front-end. A major goal of the new study was to achieve equal performance to our earlier feasibility studies** at reduced cost. The optimal channel design is described in this paper. New innovations included an adiabatic buncher for phase rotation and a simplified cooling channel with LiH absorbers. The linear channel is 295 m long and produces 0.17 muons per proton on target into the assumed accelerator transverse acceptance of 30 mm and longitudinal acceptance of 150 mm.

*APS Multi-Divisional Study of the Physics of Neutrinos, http://www.aps.org/neutrino/. **S.Ozaki, R.B.Palmer, M.Zisman and J.C.Gallardo, edts., Tech. Rep., BNL-52623 (2001), http://www.cap.bnl.gov/mumu/studyii/FS2-report.html.

TPPP049 eRHIC Detector Design Studies - Implications and Constraints on the ep(A) Interaction-Region Design electron, interaction-region, scattering, luminosity 3043

• B. Surrow
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
• A. Deshpande
Stony Brook University, Stony Brook
• J. Pasukonis
MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts
An electron-proton/ion collider facility (eRHIC) is under consideration at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This high energy, high intensity polarized electron/positron beam facility to collide with the existing RHIC heavy ion and polarized proton beam would significantly enhance the exploration of fundamental aspects of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the underlying quantum field theory of strong interactions. The design of a new optimized detector is closely coupled to the design of the interaction region and thus to the machine development work in general. A GEANT-based detector simulation framework has been developed to study various processes at eRHIC taking into consideration the impact of machine elements inside the detector volume and the synchrotron radiation fan generated by the electron/positron beam. The GEANT-based detector simulation framework called ELECTRA will be presented followed by a discussion of constraints and implications on the interaction region design.

TPPT003 Development of a Normal Conducting CH-DTL linac, diagnostics, impedance, injection 883

• G. Clemente, H. Podlech, U. Ratzinger, R. Tiede
IAP, Frankfurt-am-Main
• L. Groening
• S. Minaev
ITEP, Moscow
Funding: GSI, EU (CARE, contract number RII3-CT-2003-506395).

The normal conducting "Crossbar H-Type" (CH) accelerating structure is a good candidate for pulsed, high intensity linac application, covering the energy range from 3 to 100 MeV. H Mode cavities are outstanding in the low-beta range with respect to shunt impedance, high acceleration fields, and compact design, That's why we propose to base the 70 ma, 70 MeV, 352 MHz proton linan for GSI FAIR project on that structure. The actual design consists of 11 CH-DTL's for a total length of around 25 m. Latest results from beam dynamics optimisation will be discussed. Moreover, this paper describes the CH-DTL cavity design with enphasis on the optimisation with MacroWave Studio (single cell cross section, as well as multi cell cavity simulation), and on the achieved progress in the development of mechanical design concepts. A stainless steel multicell model cavity is presently fabricated by our institute in collaboration with GSI, in order to investigate manufacturing and assembly details. Based on this experience, the design of a CH prototipe power cavity will be optimised.

TPPT014 Induction System for a Proton Bunch Acceleration in Synchrotron induction, acceleration, power-supply, synchrotron 1398

• K. Torikai, Y.A. Arakida, J. Kishiro, T. Kono, E. Nakamura, Y. Shimosaki, K. Takayama, T. Toyama, M. Wake
KEK, Ibaraki
Funding: The project is officially supported by Grant-In-Aid for Creative Scientific Research (KAKENHI 15GS0217, 5 years term).

An induction cavity capable of operating at a repetition rate of 1MHz with a 50% duty has been built and employed for the first induction acceleration of a proton bunch from 500MeV to 8GeV in the KEK-PS.* In this experiment, an acceleration voltage of 4.7kV and an repetition frequency of 667kHz-882kHz were required. The installed induction device consists of three induction cells, each of which can generate a bipolar induction voltage of a maximum output voltage of 2 kV with a flat-top of 300ns and a 25ns rising/falling time. Electrical characteristics of the cavity itself, such as inductance, capacitance, and resistance, have been evaluated in three independent ways: (1) excitation due to a small signal from a network analyzer, (2) excitation by a proton beam as a primary driver, (3) excitation with a actual pulse modulator in an entire system. This paper will compare these results as well as theoretical design values. A general design procedure for an induction acceleration cavity will be given.

*K.Takayama et al., submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. http://www.arxiv.org/pdf/physics/0412006.

TPPT017 Fabrication and Test of the Drift Tubes for PEFP 20 MeV DTL vacuum, electron, alignment, site 1552

• Y.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Cho, H.-J. Kwon, M.-Y. Park
KAERI, Daejon
Funding: This work is supported by the 21C Frontier R&D program in the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Korean government.

Drift tubes of PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) 20MeV DTL contain electro-quadrupole magnet composed of commercial enamel wire cooled with water coolant. Those were fabricated through the process of brazing, assembling, electron-beam welding, and post-machining. During the e-beam welding, temperature increase was kept under 50 degree to protect the EQM wire from thermal damage. We performed several tests such as vacuum leak test, hydraulic test, and electrical test. EQM properties such as effective length, magnetic saturation, and offset between magnetic center and geometric center of DT were measured and recorded also.

TPPT018 Tuning of 20MeV PEFP DTL target, insertion, simulation, klystron 1598

• M.-Y. Park, Y.-S. Cho, H.-S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, K.T. Seol, Y.G. Song
KAERI, Daejon
Funding: This work is supported by the 21C Frontier R&D program in the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Korean government.

The PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) 20 MeV DTL have been constructing in KAERI site. The tuning goals for PEFP DTL are achieving the tank frequency as ± 5 kHz of designed resonant frequency and 1% of field profile through a tank. To tune the tank frequency 8 low power slug tuners per tank are fabricated and the tuning range is ±125 kHz per a tuner. Post couplers with tap to stabilize the field against the perturbation also are fabricated and will be installed every 3rd (1st tank) and 2nd (2,3,4th tank) drift tubes. We set up the bead perturbation measurement equipment as measuring the phase shift of a tank using network analyzer and LabView program. We are finalizing the tuning procedures and also the data calculation program. In this presentation we will show the overall features of the PEFP DTL tuning and discuss the measurement results.

TPPT022 The Structure of the High Frequency Focusing Cells in Linear Ion Accelerators focusing, quadrupole, ion, acceleration 1796

• V.A. Bomko, O.F. Dyachenko, A.P. Kobets, E.D. Marynina, Z.O. Ptukhina, S.S. Tishkin, B.V. Zajtsev
NSC/KIPT, Kharkov
The versions of the high frequency quadrupole doublets (RFQD) for proton and heavy ion linear accelerators are discussed. Advantages of focusing of this type over magnetic quadrupoles lie in the simplicity of the structure and high efficiency and reliability of focusing. In the multi-gap structures, focusing periods contain a sequence of focusing and accelerating cells. The elaborated technique of the local cell adjustment provides the high acceleration rate. Various RFQD versions for the specific peculiarities of accelerating structures are discussed. Application of the RF-quadrupole doublets in the spoke cavity, CCDTL and Crossbar structures will allow the application of superconductive cavities for proton acceleration in the range of intermediate energies of 5-100 MeV. In the interdigital H-structures, the application of RFQDs will allow to increase the efficiency of ion beam focusing and to expand the energy range of the ions being accelerated over 10 MeV/u.

• J.E. Dey, I. Kourbanis
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
Funding: Operated by Universities Research Association, Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-76CH03000.

Recently In-Phase and Quadrature (I&Q) was added to both the 53 MHz Feedback and Feedforward Beam Loading Compensation for Slip Stacking in the Fermilab Main Injector. With 53 MHz Feedback, we can now turn the 18 Radio Frequency (RF) Stations off down to below 100 V. In using I&Q on Feedforward, beam loading compensation to the beam on both the upper and lower frequencies of Slip Stacking can be applied as we slip the beam. I&Q theory will be discussed.

TPPT028 Design of a New Main Injector Cavity for the Fermilab Proton Driver Era simulation, coupling, acceleration, impedance 2015

• V. Wu, A.Z. Chen, Z. Qian, D. Wildman
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
Funding: Operated by Universities Research Association, Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-76CH03000.

In the design report of the Fermilab Proton Driver [1],* the Main Injector (MI) needs to be upgraded to a 2 MW machine. For the Main Injector radiofrequency (rf) upgrade, R&D efforts are launched to design and build a new rf system. This paper presents the new cavity design study for the rf system. The cavity is simulated with the design code Mafia [2].**

**Proton Driver Study II, FERMILAB-TM-2169, May 2002, edited by G.W. Foster, W. Chou and E. Malamud. **Computer Simulation Technology, MAFIA 4, December 1996.

TPPT058 First Tests of the Superconducting CH-Structure simulation, pick-up, resonance, coupling 3414

• H. Podlech, H. Deitinghoff, H. Klein, H. Liebermann, U. Ratzinger, A.C. Sauer, R. Tiede
IAP, Frankfurt-am-Main
Funding: GSI, BMBF contr. No. 06F134I, EU contr. No. EFDA/99-507ERB5005, CT990061 and RII3-CT-2003-506395.

The Crossbar-H-type CH-structure is a new H-mode drift tube-structure operating in the H11-mode. Due to its mechanical rigidity room temperature as well as superconducting cavities can be realized. The superconducting CH-structure has been developed at the IAP in Frankfurt, Germany. To prove the promising results obtained by simulations a 19-cell, 352 MHz (beta=0.1) prototype cavity has been designed and built. This is the first superconducting low energy multi-cell cavity. We present the first cold tests of the cavity which have been performed in the cryogenic laboratory in Frankfurt.

TPPT059 Improvement of the Blade Tuner Design for Superconducting RF Cavities linac, linear-collider, collider, superconducting-RF 3456

• C. Pagani, A. Bosotti, P. Michelato, N. Panzeri, P. Pierini
INFN/LASA, Segrate (MI)
Funding: This work is partially supported by the European Community-Research Infrastructure Activity under the FP6 "Structuring the European Research Area" programme (CARE, contract number RII3-CT-2003-506395).

As of today, no complete technological solution exists for a cold tuning system fulfilling the requirements envisaged for the International Linear Collider, based on the superconducting RF technology. We present here the design improvements for the blade tuner, a coaxial device, which can provide both the slow structure tuning and the fast tuning capabilities needed for Lorentz Force Detuning (LFD) compensation and microphonics stabilitization (by means of the integration with a piezoelectric system). The system has been originally built by INFN and installed and tested at DESY on the superstructures, since it is located around the cavity helium vessel and does not require longitudinal clearance. Its design here is parametrically reviewed in terms of the requirements for higher accelerating fields and of the mechanical integration with a piezoelectric based system for the LFD and microphonics compensation.

TPPT061 Prototyping of a 352 MHz, beta=0.17 Superconducting Coaxial Half Wave Resonator linac, ion, heavy-ion, vacuum 3547

• A. Facco, F. Scarpa, D. Zenere
• V. Zviagintsev
TRIUMF, Vancouver
We have designed a 352 MHz superconducting coaxial half wave resonator with beta=0.17. The cavity has a mechanical design similar to the LNL beta=0.31 one developed in 2004. It is very compact (232 mm real-estate length) and it is equipped with a side tuner not exposed to liquid helium, to make it insensitive to pressure fluctuations. Operation is foreseen at 4.2 K. The beta=0.17 cavity fills the gap from 5 to ~25 MeV between the LNL proton RFQ, under construction, and and the existing beta=0.31 half wave resonator. This allows a 5¸100 MeV proton linac working at 352 MHz with 2 types of coaxial HWR cavities with large velocity acceptance, thus able to accelerate also other ion species (e.g. deuterons). A similar scheme was previously proposed for Spoke resonators; the aim of the HWR choice is compactness and cost reduction. The beta=0.17 cavity is presently under construction in the SPES R&D program at LNL; first test results are expected by the end of 2005.

TPPT079 Performance Overview of the Production Superconducting RF Cavities for the Spallation Neutron Source Linac SNS, linac, insertion, controls 4048

• J.P. Ozelis, J.R. Delayen, J. Mammosser
Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
Funding: Work supported by U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-84ER40150.

As part of its efforts for the SNS construction project, Jefferson Lab has produced 23 cryomodules for the superconducting linac. These modules contained 81 industrially produced multicell Nb accelerating cavities. Each of these cavities was individually tested before assembly into a cryomodule to verify that they achieved the required performance. This ensemble of cavities represents the 3rd largest set of production superconducting cavities fabricated and tested to date. The timely qualification testing of such a collection of cavities offers both challenges and opportunities. Their performance can be characterized by achieved gradient at the required Qo, achieved peak surface field, onset of field emission, and observations of multipacting. Possible correlations between cavity performance and process parameters, only really meaningful in the framework of a large scale production effort, will also be presented. In light of the potential adoption of these cavities for projects such as the Rare Isotope Accelerator or Fermilab Proton Driver, such an analysis is crucial to their success.

TOPA007 Proton Acceleration and High-Energy Density Physics from Laser Foil Interactions target, acceleration, ion, electron 573

• P.A. Norreys
CCLRC/RAL, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon
• F.N. Beg
UCSD, La Jolla, California
• A.E. Dangor, K.M. Krushelnick, M. Wei
Imperial College of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, London
• M. Tatarakis
,
• M. Zepf
Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland
Intense laser plasma interactions have long been shown to be a source of very energetic ions - from the first experiments in the 1970's. However, there has been a recent revival of interest in the production of protons and ions from the such plasmas - primarily from the observation of collimated beams of protons and heavier ions which were observed at the rear thin foil targets irradiated by ultra-high intensity laser pulses (such that I > 1018 W/cm2). These ion beams have unique properties which may make them suitable for a variety of applications such as for probing high density plasmas, for fast ignition in inertial confinement fusion, as an ion source for subsequent acceleration stages in a particle accelerator or potentially for medical applications. Recent experimental results will be reviewed and the potential for such future applications will be highlighted.

WPAE008 Redesign of a Low Energy Probe Head emittance, simulation, injection, cyclotron 1105

• Y.-N. Rao, G.H. Mackenzie, T.C. Ries
TRIUMF, Vancouver
The present situation of the low energy probe L·102 in TRIUMF cyctron is that the thickness of finger 5 is uniform in the radial direction and its weight which amounts to ~447 g is affecting its re-circulating ball mechanism and causing it to fall below the median plane over its range of movement (13.890 to 161.515 inch). We first made simulations to determine the optimum thickness of the probe head vs the radial length so as to reduce its weight. And then, we compared the simulation results with experimental measurements made. Finally, we calculated the temperature rise caused by the beam power dumped on the probe, and figured out the maximum beam current that can be dumped on the finger.

WPAE012 Gamma-Ray Irradiation Experiments of Collimator Key Components for the 3GeV-RCS of J-PARC radiation, beam-losses, vacuum, synchrotron 1309

• M. Kinsho, F. Masukawa, N. Ogiwara, O. Takeda, K. Yamamoto
JAERI/J-PARC, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken
• J. Kusano
Japan Atomic Energy Institute, Linac Laboratory, Tokai-Mura
The turbo molecular pump and the stepping motor which can be operated exposed to high radiation has been under development at JAERI for use in the 3GeV-RCS of the J-PARC. In order to determine the extent of radiation damage to those instruments, gamma-ray irradiation testing was performed at JAERI. It was succeed that the turbo molecular pump and stepping motor could operate properly when given an absorption dose more than 15 MGy in a gamma-ray irradiation environment.

WPAE020 A Large Diameter Entrance Window for the LHC Beam Dump Line vacuum, simulation, shielding, dumping 1698

• A. Presland, B. Goddard, J.M. Jimenez, D.R. Ramos, R. Veness
CERN, Geneva
The graphite LHC beam dump block TDE has to absorb the full LHC beam intensity at 7 TeV. The TDE vessel will be filled with inert gas at atmospheric pressure, and requires a large diameter entrance window for vacuum separation from the beam dumping transfer line. The swept LHC beam must traverse this window without damage for regular operation of the beam dump dilution system. For dilution failures, the entrance window must survive most of the accident cases, and must not fail catastrophically in the event of damage. The conceptual design of the entrance window is presented, together with the load conditions and performance criteria. The FLUKA energy deposition simulations and ANSYS stress calculations are described, and the results discussed.

WPAE028 Radiation Issues in the Fermilab Booster Magnets booster, radiation, beam-losses, vacuum 2041

• E. Prebys
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
Funding: Department of Energy.

The demands of the Fermilab neutrino program will require the 30 year old Fermilab 8 GeV Booster to deliver higher intensities than it ever has. Total proton throughput is limited by radiation damage and activation due to beam loss in the Booster tunnel. Of particular concern is the insulation in the 96 combined function lattice magnets. This poster describes a study of the potential radiation damage to these magnets from extended running at the planned intensities.

WPAE029 Tevatron Beam-beam Compensation Project Progress electron, antiproton, gun, emittance 2083

• V.D. Shiltsev, R.J. Hively, V. Kamerdzhiev, A. Klebaner, G.F. Kuznetsov, A. Martinez, H. Pfeffer, G.W. Saewert, A. Semenov, D. Wolff, X. Zhang
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
• K. Bishofberger
UCLA, Los Angeles, California
• I. Bogdanov, E. Kashtanov, S. Kozub, V. Sytnik, L. Tkachenko
IHEP Protvino, Protvino, Moscow Region
• A.V. Kuzmin, M.A. Tiunov
BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk
• F. Zimmermann
CERN, Geneva
Funding: Work supported by the Universities Research Assos., Inc., under contract DE-AC02-76CH03000 with the U.S. Dept. of Energy.

The 2nd Tevatron electron lens (TEL2) is under the final phase of development and prepare for the installation in the Tevatron. In this report, we will describe the system and the main upgrades from the TEL1. We will also show the magnetic field measurement results, beam testing and plan for installation. The special operation consideration of the TEL2 under high radiation dose will also be discussed.

• M. Fuerstner, I. Brunner, D. Forkel-Wirth, S. Mayer, H.G. Menzel, H. Vincke
CERN, Geneva
• I. Floret
Ecole d'ingénieurs de Genève, Genève
Alanine and Radio-Photo-Luminescence (RPL) dosimeters are used to monitor radiation doses occurring inside the tunnels of all CERN accelerators including the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). They are placed close to radiation sensitive machine components like cables or insulation of magnet coils to predict their remaining lifetime. The dosimeters are exposed to mixed high-energy radiation fields. However, up to now both dosimeter types are calibrated to 60Co-photons only. In order to study the response of RPL and alanine dosimeters to mixed particle fields like those occurring at CERN’s accelerators, an irradiation campaign at the CERN-EC High-Energy Reference field Facility (CERF-field) was performed. Moreover, the dosimeters were first time calibrated to a proton radiation field of a constant momentum of 24 GeV/c. In addition to the experiment FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations were carried out, which provide information concerning the energy deposition and the radiation field at the dosimeter locations.

WPAE053 Neutronics Assessments for a RIA Fragmentation Line Beam Dump Concept multipole, radiation, heavy-ion, ion 3227

• J.L. Boles, L. Ahle, S. Reyes, W. Stein
LLNL, Livermore, California
Funding: Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

Heavy ion and radiation transport calculations are in progress for conceptual beam dump designs for the fragmentation line of the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). Using the computer code PHITS, a preliminary design of a motor-driven rotating wheel beam dump and adjacent downstream multipole has been modeled. Selected results of these calculations are given, including neutron and proton flux in the wheel, absorbed dose and displacements per atom in the hub materials, and heating from prompt radiation and from decay heat in the multipole.

WPAE060 Programmable Power Supply for AC Switching Magnet of Proton Accelerator power-supply, simulation, extraction, linac 3508

• S.-H. Jeong, H.S. Han, Y.G. Jung, H.-S. Kang, H.-G. Lee, K.-H. Park, C. K. Ryu, H.S. Suh
PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk
• H.H. Lee
UU, Gyeongju
Funding: Ministry of Science and Technology.

The 100-MeV PEFP proton linac has two proton beam extraction lines for user’ experiment. Each extraction line has 5 beamlines and has 5 Hz operating frequency. An AC switching magnet is used to distribute the proton beam to the 5 beamlines, An AC switching magnet is powered by PWM-controlled bipolar switching-mode converters. This converter is designed to operate at ±350A, 5 Hz programmable step output. The power supply is employed IGBT module and has controlled by a DSP (Digital Signal Process). This paper describes the design and test results of the power supply.

WPAE064 "Fast-Slow" Beam Chopping for Next Generation High Power Proton Drivers linac, impedance, Spallation-Neutron-Source, beam-losses 3635

• M.A. Clarke-Gayther
CCLRC/RAL/ASTeC, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon
Funding: Work supported by CCLRC/RAL/ASTeC and by the European Community-Research Infrastructure Activity under the FP6 "Structuring the European Research Area" programme (CARE, contract number RII3-CT-2003-506395).

A description is given of two "state of the art" high voltage pulse generator systems, designed to address the requirements of a fast beam chopping scheme for next generation high power proton drivers.[1] Measurements of output waveform and timing stability, for fast transition short duration, and slower transition long duration pulse generators, are presented.

[1]M. A. Clarke-Gayther, "A Fast Beam Chopper for Next Generation High Power Proton Drivers," Proc. of the ninth European Particle Accelerator Conference (EPAC), Lucerne, Switzerland, 5-9 July, 2004, p. 1449-145.

WPAT005 A New Tuning Module for Resonant Coupling Structures coupling, linac, klystron, booster 973

• V.G. Vaccaro
Naples University Federico II, Mathematical, Physical and Natural Sciences Faculty, Napoli
• T. Clauser, A. Rainò, V. Variale
INFN-Bari, Bari
• A. D'Elia
Naples University Federico II and INFN, Napoli
• C. De Martinis, D. Giove
INFN-Milano, Milano
• M.R. Masullo
INFN-Napoli, Napoli
• M. Mauri
INFN/LASA, Segrate (MI)
In order to have efficient particle acceleration it is fundamental that the particles experience, in the accelerating gap, field amplitudes as uniform and as high as possible from gap to gap. Because of the unavoidable fabrication errors, an accelerating structure, when assembled, exhibits field values lower than the nominal ones and/or not uniform. All the usual procedures developed in order to adjust the parameter deviations responsible of the malfunction of these structures, are based on field amplitude measurements, by using the bead pull technique, which is a very invasive technique. In this paper the philosophy is reversed: it is assumed that all the information can be got by Sounding the Modes of the whole System (SMS) and correct the deviation of each frequency mode from its nominal value by means of an appropriate tuning of the cavities: resorting to a perturbative technique applied to a circuit model representing this kind of structures, it is possible to calculate the amount of tuning to give to the cavities. It will be shown that a very good equalization and maximization of the fields in the cavities can be achieved by using this technique.

WPAT008 Recent Status of RF Source in J-PARC Linac klystron, linac, power-supply, site 1123

• E. Chishiro, T. Hori, H. Suzuki, M. Yamazaki
JAERI, Ibaraki-ken
• S. Anami, S. Fukuda, Y. Fukui, M. Kawamura, S. Yamaguchi, M. Yoshida
KEK, Ibaraki
The construction of the J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) linac is under going. RF sources for the low beta linac section use 324-MHz klystrons and after the evaluation of seven prototype tubes, mass production of 20 tubes are conducted. These will be installed in the linac building from April 2005. Performances of the 324-MHz klystrons are described in this paper. The prototype klystron of 972-MHz klystron, which is planed to be installed in high beta linac section, oscillated strongly without any drive rf power, and it had been investigated to solve it. Though it was doubted to be a diode oscillation at first, recent experiment showed the drift-tube oscillation and we succeeded in stopping oscillation by deforming the integrated cavity and detuning. After this experiment, we built a new tube and started to test it. This experiment is written in this paper. Other status of construction related to the rf sources is also shown in this paper.

WPAT012 Status and Test Results of HPRF System for PEFP rfq, klystron, pick-up, ion-source 1288

• K.T. Seol, Y.-S. Cho, H.-S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, M.-Y. Park, Y.G. Song
KAERI, Daejon
Funding: This work is supported by the 21C Frontier R&D program in the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Korean government.

The PEFP 20MeV proton accelerator is composed of 3MeV RFQ and 20MeV DTL and two sets of 1MW, 350MHz RF system are required for each accelerating structure. The high power RF system for 3MeV RFQ was already installed and operated to drive the RFQ. The klystron was tested up to 600kW itself and operated in pulse routinely. The HPRF system for 20MeV DTL which consists of 4 tanks was installed, and the RF test for 4 tanks has been carried out. The ridge-loaded power coupler was designed and installed to drive RFQ and DTL. In this paper, the status and test results of the RF system for 20MeV proton accelerator are discussed.

WPAT014 Sequence Control System of 1-MW CW Klystron for the PEFP klystron, power-supply, rfq, ion 1401

• B.R. Park, J. Choi, M.-H. Chun, Y.J. Han, M.H. Jeong, S.-C. Kim, J.S. Yang, I.H. Yu
PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk
Funding: Work support by the PEFP(Proton Engineering Frontier Project), Korea.

Sequence control system of 1-MW CW klystron for the PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) has been developed in order to drive the 1-MW klystron amplifier. The system is able to control several power supplies and many environment conditions. The hardware of sequence control and the interlock system are based on the Allen-Bradley's SLC500 Program Logic Controller (PLC). Also the system can be controlled by a touch screen at local mode or Ethernet network with high level HMI at remote mode.

WPAT015 The Digital Feedback RF Control System of the RFQ and DTL1 for 100 MeV Proton Linac of PEFP feedback, rfq, linac, resonance 1443

• I.H. Yu, Y.J. Han, H.-S. Kang, D.T. Kim, S.-C. Kim, I.-S. Park, J.C. Yoon
PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk
• Y.-S. Cho, H.-J. Kwon, K.T. Seol
KAERI, Daejon
Funding: Work supported by the PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project), Korea

The 100 MeV Proton linear accelerator (Linac) for the PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) will include 1 RFQ and 1 DTL1 at 350 MHz as well as 7 DTL2 cavities at 700 MHz. The low level RF system with the digital feedback RF control provides the field control to accelerate a 20mA proton beam from 50 keV to 20 MeV with a RFQ and a DTL1 at 350M Hz. The FPGA-based digital feedback RF control system has been built and is used to control cavity field amplitude within ± 1% and relative phase within ± 1°. The fast digital processing is networked to the EPICS-based control system with an embedded processor (Blackfin). In this paper, the detailed description of the digital feedback RF control system will be described with the performance test results.

WPAT019 Beam Tests of a New Digital Beam Control System for the CERN LEIR Accelerator acceleration, pick-up, booster, injection 1649

• M.-E. Angoletta, J. Bento, A. Blas, A. Findlay, P. Matuszkiewicz, F. Pedersen, A. Salom.Sarasqueta
CERN, Geneva
• J. DeLong
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
We are developing a digital beam control and cavity servo system for controlling the RF acceleration in CERN’s Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR), a major component in the LHC lead ion injector chain. As the LEIR ring will only start during summer 2005, we have tested a simplified prototype of the system with low intensity beams on the CERN PS Booster (PSB). The hardware and software have been developed within the framework of a CERN-BNL collaboration. This fully digital beam control system is contained in VME mother boards which can accommodate several daughter boards. The fast signal processing is implemented in Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), while the slower signal processing and communication with the software layer above is implemented in programmable Digital Signal Processors (DSPs). The objectives of the tests with beam in the PSB are to verify the multiple DSP and FPGA architecture, the sampling rates and data flows and the feedback loop dynamics. An additional goal is to integrate a number of highly complex intelligent VME modules with many sub-functions in the CERN controls environment to provide adequate signal acquisition, control and diagnostics to operate the system.

WPAT024 First Results from the Use of Dual Harmonic Acceleration on the ISIS Synchrotron synchrotron, acceleration, beam-losses, injection 1871

• A. Seville, D. Bayley, R.G. Bendall, M.G. Glover, A. Morris, J.W.G. Thomason
CCLRC/RAL/ISIS, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon
• D.J. Adams, I.S.K. Gardner, C.M. Warsop
CCLRC/RAL/ASTeC, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon
The ISIS facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK is currently the most intense pulsed, spallation, neutron source. The accelerator consists of a 70 MeV H- Linac and an 800 MeV, 50 Hz, rapid cycling, proton Synchrotron. The synchrotron beam intensity is 2.5x1013 protons per pulse, corresponding to a mean current of 200 μA. The synchrotron beam is accelerated using six, ferrite loaded, RF cavities with harmonic number 2. Four additional, harmonic number 4, cavities have been installed to increase the beam bunching factor with the potential of raising the operating current to 300 μA. This paper reports on the hardware commissioning and the first beam tests.

WPAT037 LANSCE RF System Refurbishment klystron, linac, SNS, diagnostics 2476

• D. Rees, G. Bolme, S.I. Kwon, J.T.M. Lyles, M.T. Lynch, M. Prokop, W. Reass, P.J. Tallerico
LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is in the planning phase of a refurbishment project that will sustain reliable facility operations well into the next decade. The LANSCE accelerator was constructed in the late 1960s and early 1970s and is a national user facility that provides pulsed protons and spallation neutrons for defense and civilian research and applications. We will be replacing all the 201 MHz RF systems and a substantial fraction of the 805 MHz RF systems and high voltage systems. The current 44 LANSCE 805 MHz, 1.25 MW klystrons have an average in-service time in excess of 110,000 hours. All 44 must be in service to operate the accelerator. There are only 9 spares left. The klystrons receive their DC power from the power system originally installed in 1960. Although this power system has been extremely reliable, gas analysis of the insulating oil is indicating age related degradation that will need attention in the next few years. This paper will provide the design details of the new RF and high voltage systems.

WPAT050 High Power Phase Shifter resonance, linac, klystron, power-supply 3123

• I. Terechkine, G.W. Foster, I.G. Gonin, T.K. Khabiboulline, A. Makarov, N. Solyak, D. Wildman
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
One of the approaches to power distribution system of a superconducting proton linac that is under discussion at Fermilab requires development of a fast-action, megawatt-range phase shifter. Using two phase shifters with a waveguide hybrid junction can allow independent control of phase and amplitude of RF power at the input of each superconducting cavity of the linac. This promises significant saving in number of klystrons and modulators required for the accelerator. A prototype of a waveguide version of a phase shifter that uses Yttrium-Iron Garnet (YIG) blocks was developed and tested. This report presents design concept of the device and main results of simulation and proof-of-principle tests.

WPAT052 Present Status of RF System for Medical Proton Synchrotron synchrotron, acceleration, feedback, impedance 3185

• Z. Fang, K. Egawa, K. Endo, S. Yamanaka
KEK, Ibaraki
• Y. Cho, T. Fusato, T. Hirashima
DKK, Kanagawa
The 200MeV proton synchrotron of circumference of 9.54m is being developed for medical radiotherapy. The rf system has been carried out with a wide bandwidth of frequency sweeping from 2.0MHz to 17.8MHz. The rf cavity is designed of a compact dimension and a high acceleration gradient. The high power test of the rf system has been successfully performed and maximal acceleration gradient of 60kV/m has been achieved. The experiments with feedback control system are being studied by using a dummy beam signal. In this paper, the recent progress of the rf system and test results will be presented in detail.

WPAT064 Low Level RF Control System of J-PARC Synchrotrons synchrotron, beam-loading, feedback, linac 3624

• F. Tamura
JAERI/LINAC, Ibaraki-ken
• S. Anami, E. Ezura, K. Hara, C. Ohmori, A. Takagi, M. Yoshii
KEK, Ibaraki
• M. Nomura, A. Schnase, M. Yamamoto
JAERI, Ibaraki-ken
We present the concept and the design of the low level RF (LLRF) control system of the J-PARC synchrotrons. The J-PARC synchrotrons are the rapid cycling 3-GeV synchrotron (RCS) and the 50-GeV main ring (MR) which require very precise and stable LLRF control systems to accelerate the ultra-high proton beam current. The LLRF system of the synchrotron is a full-digital system based on the direct digital synthesis (DDS). The functions of the system are (1) the multi-harmonic RF generation for the acceleration and the longitudinal bunch shaping, (2) the feedbacks for stabilizing the beam, (3) the feedforward for compensating the heavy beam loading, and (4) other miscellaneous functions such as the synchronization and chopper timing. The LLRF system of the RCS is now under construction. We present the details of the system. Also, we show preliminary results of performance tests of the control modules.

WPAT071 R&D Status of the 700 MHz, 1MW Klystron for PEFP klystron, cathode, gun, coupling 3850

• S.-H. Kim, B.H. Chung, K.-H. Chung, J.-S. Hong, J.-H. Jeon, sk. Ko, K. Lee, sj. Noh
KAPRA, Cheorwon
Funding: This study is supported by Proton Engineering Frontier Project at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute.

KAPRA (Korea Accelerator and Plasma Research Association) are undertaking the first phase R&D for the 1 MW, CW 700 MHz klystron, which is targeting the future stage of the PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) accelerator at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). The objectives of the first phase R&D are 1) setting up all infra structures/procedures for the design and fabrication, 2) developing a prototype klystron for proofs of principles, and 3) making a performance test of the prototype at a reduced duty. The second phase R&D is supposed to cover full power, CW operation and reliability issues. In this paper, a summary of R&D Status during the first phase for PEFP 1 MW, 700 MHz klystron is reported.

WOAB005 The Status of Turkic Accelerator Complex Proposal factory, linac, luminosity, electron 449

• S. Sultansoy, M. Yilmaz
Gazi University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Ankara
• O. Cakir, A.K. Ciftci, E. Recepoglu, O. Yavas
Ankara University, Faculty of Sciences, Tandogan/Ankara
Recently, the Turkic Accelerator Complex (TAC) is proposed as a regional facility for accelerator based fundamental and applied research. The complex will include linac on ring type electron-positron collider as a phi, charm and tau factory, linac based free electron laser (FEL), ring based third generation syncrothron radiation (SR) source and a few GeV proton accelerator. Preliminary estimations show that hundred inverse femto barn integral luminosity per year can be achieved for factory options. The FEL facility is planned to obtain laser beam between IR and soft X-ray region. In addition, SR facility will produce photon beams in UV and X-ray region. The proton accelerator will give opportunity to produce muon and neutron beams for applied research. The current status of the conceptual study of the complex is presented.

WOAC002 Chromatically Corrected Imaging Systems for Charged-Particle Radiography dipole, quadrupole, sextupole, multipole 225

• B. Blind, A.J. Jason
LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
In proton radiography, imaging with systems consisting of quadrupole magnets is an established technique for viewing the material distribution and composition of objects, either statically or during fast events such as explosions. With the most favorable magnet configuration, the –I lens, chromatic aberrations generally dominate the image blur. Image resolution can be improved, and largely decoupled from the input-beam parameters, by using a second-order achromatic bend with some additional higher-order aberration correction. The aberration-correction approach is discussed. For a given resolution, such a bend allows use of much lower-energy imaging particles than a –I lens. Each bend design represents a set of equivalent systems; an 800-MeV proton design and its equivalent 40-MeV electron system are presented. The electron system is useful for imaging small objects. Magnet errors in the achromatic bends must be tightly controlled to preserve image quality, but not beyond feasibility of present technology. System performance is verified by particle tracking. Configurations alternative to the canonical achromatic bend are also discussed.

RPAP013 Characteristic Experimentations of Degrader and Scatterer at MC-50 Cyclotron cyclotron, target, simulation, monitoring 1356

• S.-K. Lee, B.H. Choi, K. R. Kim, LHR. Lee, B.-S. Park
KAERI, Daejon
Funding: This work is a part of the "Proton Engineering Frontier Project" which is sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Korea under "21C Frontier R&D Program."

Building proton beam user facilities, especially deciding beam energy level, depends on the attached proton accelerator and users' needs. To adjust beam energy level, two methods are generally used. One is to directly adjust the beam in the accelerator. The other is to adjust beam energy after extracting from the accelerator. Degrader/Scatterer System has been installed in the MC-50 Cyclotron to adjust energy level of the beam used for various application fields. Its degrader and scatterer are made of Al foils and Au foils, respectively. Al thickness are 2, 1, 0.5, 0.3, 0.2, 0.1, 0.05, 0.03, 0.02, 0.01mm and Au thickness are 0.2, 0.1, 0.05, 0.03, 0.02, 0.01mm, respectively. In this study, suitable beam condition was adjusted through overlapping Al/Au foils of various thickness through simulation results. After that, LET(Linear Energy Transfer) value was indirectly acquired by measuring the bragg peak of the external beam through PMMA plastic Phantom and profile was measured by film dosimetry.

RPAP014 Uniform Irradiation Systems Using a Rotatable Stage for Test Facilities of PEFP target, simulation, dipole, cyclotron 1383

• B.-S. Park, B.H. Choi, K. R. Kim, S.-K. Lee
KAERI, Daejon
Funding: This work is a part of the "Proton Engineering Frontier Project" which is sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Korea under '21C Frontier R&D Program."

A new irradiation facility has been developed using not only electric magnets but also a rotatable stage. Generally, the scanning method using magnet has been widely used in most of facilities. However, in this study another new methods have been developed: Three scanning method using rotatable stage have been proved to make uniform irradiation-as large as 20 cm in diameter with more than 90% uniformity. The mechanical wobbler system makes the same effect as the wobbler system. And the beam is swept along the spiral path with a fixed and variable angular frequency during the scanning in two spiral scanning systems, respectively.

RPAP020 Fixed Field Alternating Gradient Accelerators (FFAG) for Fast Hadron Cancer Therapy resonance, ion, acceleration, cyclotron 1667

• E. Keil
CERN, Geneva
• A. Sessler
LBNL, Berkeley, California
• D. Trbojevic
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
Funding: * AMS supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF0009

Cancer accelerator therapy continues to be ever more prevalent with new facilities being constructed at a rapid rate. Some of these facilities are synchrotrons, but many are cyclotrons and, of these, a number are FFAG cyclotrons. The therapy method of "spot scanning” requires many pulses per second (typically 200 Hz), which can be accomplished with a cyclotron (in contrast with a synchrotron). We briefly review commercial scaling FFAG machines and then discuss recent work on non-scaling FFAGs, which may offer the possibility of reduced physical aperture and a large dynamic aperture. However, a variation of tune with energy implies the crossing of resonances during the acceleration process. A design can be developed such as to avoid intrinsic resonances, although imperfection resonances must still be crossed. Parameters of two machines are presented; a 250 MeV proton therapy accelerator and a 400 MeV carbon therapy machine.

• F.E. Merrill, C.L. Morris
LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
• K. Folkman, F. Harmon, A.W. Hunt, B. King
ISU, Pocatello, Idaho
The technique of charged particle radiography has been developed and proven with 800 MeV protons at LANSCE and 24 GeV protons at the AGS. Recent work at Los Alamos National Laboratory in collaboration with the Idaho Accelerator Center has extended this diagnostic technique to electron radiography through the development of an inexpensive and portable electron radiography system. This system has been designed to use 30 MeV electrons to radiograph thin static and dynamic systems. The system consists of a compact 30 MeV pulsed electron linear accelerator coupled to a quadrupole lens magnifier constructed from permanent magnet quadrupoles. The design features and operational characteristics of this radiography system are presented as well as the radiographic performance parameters.

RPAP022 A Study of Storage Ring Requirements for an Explosive Detection System Using NRA Method storage-ring, target, emittance, lattice 1790

• T.-S. F. Wang, J. T. Kwan
LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
Funding: US Department of Energy

The technical feasibility of an explosives detection system based on the nuclear resonance absorption (NRA) of gamma rays in nitrogen-rich materials was demonstrated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 1993 by using an RFQ proton accelerator and a tomographic imaging prototype.* The study is being continued recently to examine deployment of such an active interrogation system in realistic scenarios. The approach is to use a cyclotron and electron-cooling-equipped storage rings(s) to provide the high quality and high current proton beam needed in a practical application. In this work, we investigate the storage ring requirements for a variant of the airport luggage inspection system considered in the earlier LANL experiments. Estimations are carried out based on the required inspection throughput, the gamma ray yield, the proton beam emittance growth due to scattering with the photon-production target, beam current limit in the storage ring, and the electron cooling rate. Studies using scaling and reasonable parameter values indicate that it is possible to use no more than a few storage rings in a practical NRA luggage inspection system.

*R. E. Morgado et al., SPIE Conf. Proc. 2092, International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, 1993, p. 503.

RPAP032 Hardware Tracking Related to Compact Medical Pulse Synchrotron dipole, synchrotron, quadrupole, acceleration 2260

• K. Endo, K. Egawa, Z. Fang
KEK, Ibaraki
• S. Yamanaka
NIRS, Chiba-shi
A compact 200 MeV proton synchrotron for the radiotherapy is being developed. Dipole and quadrupole magnets were already manufactured and are ready to measure their field properties under the pulse excitation. Preliminary field measurement was already done on the prototype dipole. Small RF cavity with a wide bandwidth (2~18 MHz) was successfully developed. Concerning to the simultaneous pulse operation of these components, there are some issues to be solved beforehand. These are the tracking between dipole field and the quadruple field gradient, the RF frequency generation sensing the dipole current (or field), the sextupole field correction of the dipole and etc. These issues studied experimentally using the dipole current will be presented in conjunction with the progress of the development.

RPAP037 Study of the Dynamics in a Linac Booster for Proton Therapy in the 30-62 MeV Energy Range linac, cyclotron, booster, coupling 2494

• V.G. Vaccaro
Naples University Federico II and INFN, Napoli
• T. Clauser, A. Rainò
Bari University, Science Faculty, Bari
• C. De Martinis, D. Giove, M. Mauri
INFN/LASA, Segrate (MI)
• S. Lanzone
Naples University Federico II, Napoli
• M.R. Masullo
INFN-Napoli, Napoli
• V. Variale
INFN-Bari, Bari
Funding: Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (Naples, Milan and Bari).

Recent results in accelerator physics have shown the feasibility of a coupling scheme between a cyclotron and a linac for proton acceleration. Cyclotrons with energies up to 30 MeV, mainly devoted to radioisotopes production, are available in a large number of medical centres. These two evidences have suggested the idea to study and design a linac booster able to increase the initial proton energy up to the values required for the treatment of tumors, like the ocular ones. Among the challenges in such a project one of the main ones is related to meet the requirement of having sufficient mean current for therapy from a given injection current coming from the cyclotron. In this paper we will review the rationale of the project in order to optimize the transmittance and to minimize the duty-cycle. In this frame we will discuss the basic design of a compact 3GHz linac with a new approach to the cavities used in a SCL (Side Coupled Linac) structure.

RPAP043 Beam-Based Alignment in the RHIC eCooling Solenoids ion, alignment, quadrupole, electron 2771

• P. Cameron, I. Ben-Zvi, W.C. Dawson, J. Kewisch, V. Litvinenko, Y. Luo, W.W. MacKay, C. Montag, J. Niedziela, V. Ptitsyn, T. Satogata, C. Schultheiss, V. Yakimenko
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
Funding: U.S. DOE.

Accurate alignment of the electron and ion beams in the RHIC electron cooling solenoids is crucial for well-optimized cooling. Because of the greatly differing rigidities of the electron and ion beams, to achieve the specified alignment accuracy it is required that transverse magnetic fields resulting from imperfections in solenoid fabrication be down by five orders of magnitude relative to the pure solenoid fields. Shimming the solenoid field to this accuracy might be accomplished by survey techniques prior to operation with beam, or by methods of beam-based alignment. We report on the details of a method of beam-based alignment, as well as the results of preliminary measurements with the ion beam at RHIC

RPAT002 Production of Inorganic Thin Scintillating Films for Ion Beam Monitoring Devices monitoring, ion, diagnostics, background 808

• M. Re, G.A.P. Cirrone, L. Cosentino, G. Cuttone, P. Finocchiaro, P.A. Lojacono
INFN/LNS, Catania
• A. Hermanne, H. Thienpont, J. Van Erps, M. Vervaeke, B. Volckaerts, P. Vynck
VUB, Brussels
• Y.J. Ma
CIAE, Beijing
In this work we present the development of beam monitoring devices consisting of thin CsI(Tl) films deposited on Aluminium support layers. The light emitted by the scintillating layer during the beam irradiation is measured by a CCD-camera. In a first prototype a thin Aluminium support layer of 6 micron allows the ion beam to easily pass through without significant energy loss and scattering effects. Therefore it turns out to be a non-destructive monitoring device to characterize on-line beam shape and beam position without interfering with the rest of the irradiation process. A second device consists of an Aluminium support layer which is thick enough to completely stop the impinging ions allowing to monitor at the same time the beam profile and the beam current intensity. Some samples have been coated by a 100 Å protective layer to prevent the film damage by atmosphere exposition. In this contribution we present our experimental results obtained by irradiating the samples with proton beams at 8.3 and 62 MeV. We also propose some innovative applications of these beam monitoring devices in different nuclear sectors such as cancer proton therapy and high intensity beam accelerators.

RPAT005 Beam Diagnostics for the J-PARC Main Ring Synchrotron beam-losses, electron, pick-up, target 958

• T. Toyama, D.A. Arakawa, Y. Hashimoto, S. Lee, T. Miura, S. Muto
KEK, Ibaraki
• N. Hayashi, J. Kishiro, R. Toyokawa
JAERI/J-PARC, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken
Beam diagnostics: beam intensity monitors (DCCT, SCT, FCT, WCM), beam position monitors (ESM), beam loss monitors (proportional chamber, air ion chamber), beam profile monitors (secondary electron emission, gas-sheet) have been designed, tested, and will be installed for the Main Ring synchrotron of J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex). This paper describes the basic design principle and specification of each monitor, with a stress on how to cope with high power beam (average circulation current of ~12 A) and low beam loss operation (less than 1 W/m except a collimator region). Some results of preliminary performance test using present beams and a radiation source will be reported.

RPAT006 Design and Initial Tests of a Gas Scattering Energy Monitor in the PEFP RFQ and DTL scattering, energy-calibration, rfq, linac 997

• S.-H. Han, Y.-S. Cho
KAERI, Daejon
Funding: This work is supported by the 21C Frontier R&D program in the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Korean government.

We have developed a gas scattering energy monitor to measure the energy spectrum of the proton beam at the end of 3MeV RFQ and 20MeV DTL for the low energy part of the PEFP(Proton Engineering Frontier Project). The energy monitor is comprised of a Xe scattering chamber, two collimators to reduce the beam intensity, and a surface barrier detector for measuring the proton energy. In order to measure the beam current simultaneously, a faraday cup is incorporated into the energy monitor. The calculated flux attenuation through the 0.2 mm diameter collimator is 3·10-4 and the energy loss is 28 keV. We report on design details and multiple gas scattering of proton beams in Xe gas by using a SRIM code.

RPAT007 Status of Beam Diagnostic Systems for the PEFP diagnostics, instrumentation, pick-up, linac 1090

• J.H. Park, J.Y. Huang, W.H. Hwang, Y.W. Parc, S.J. Park
PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk
• Y.-S. Cho, B.H. Choi, S.-H. Han
KAERI, Daejon
Funding: Supported by the PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project).

A proton linear accelerator is currently the construction at the KAERI (Korea Atomic Research Institute) to the PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) in Korea. We are accomplished the technique development of beam diagnostic system to be currently the construction. We treat beam diagnostics for the high power proton linear accelerator. Prototype beam position & phase monitor (BPPM) electronics was made and tested successfully in one of the beam diagnostic systems. The beam position monitor pickup electrode is a capacitive type (electrostatic type) which has a button form. Button form electrode, in common use around electron synchrotrons and storage rings, are a variant of the electrode with small button form (e.g., sub mm diameter). However, we are designed button form electrode to measure beam position of proton beam. The BCM (Beam Current Monitor) is developed Tuned CT (Current Transformer) for collaborate with Bergoz Instruments. This paper describes the status of beam diagnostic systems for the PEFP.

RPAT008 Prototype Digital Beam Position and Phase Monitor for the 100-MeV Proton Linac of PEFP linac, monitoring, instrumentation, SNS 1120

• I.H. Yu, D.T. Kim, S.-C. Kim, I.-S. Park, S.J. Park
PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk
• Y.-S. Cho
KAERI, Daejon
Funding: Work supported by the PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project), Korea.

The PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) at the KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) is building a high-power proton linear accelerator aiming to generate 100-MeV proton beams with 20-mA peak current (pulse width and max. repetition rate of 1 ms and 120 Hz respectively). We are developing a prototype digital BPPM (Beam Position and Phase Monitor) for the PEFP linac utilizing the digital technology with field programmable gate array (FPGA). The RF input signals are down converted to 10 MHz and sampled at 40 MHz with 14-bit ADC to produce I and Q data streams. The system is designed to provide a position and phase resolution of 0.1% and 0.1? RMS respectively. The fast digital processing is networked to the EPICS-based control system with an embedded processor (Blackfin). In this paper, the detailed description of the prototype digital beam position and phase monitor will be described with the performance test results.

RPAT009 FPGA-Based Instrumentation for the Fermilab Antiproton Source antiproton, diagnostics, instrumentation, controls 1159

• B. Ashmanskas, S. U. Hansen, T. Kiper, D.W. Peterson
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
We have designed and built low-cost, low-power, ethernet-based circuit boards to apply DSP techniques to several instrumentation upgrades in the Fermilab Antiproton Source. Commodity integrated circuits such as direct digital synthesizers, D/A and A/D converters, and quadrature demodulators enable digital manipulation of RF waveforms. A low cost FPGA implements a variety of signal processing algorithms in a manner that is easily adapted to new applications. An embedded microcontroller provides FPGA configuration, control of data acquisition, and command-line interface. A small commercial daughter board provides an ethernet-based TCP/IP interface between the microcontroller and the Fermilab accelerator control network. The board is packaged as a standard NIM module. Applications include Low Level RF control for the Debuncher, readout of transfer-line Beam Position Monitors, and narrow-band spectral analysis of diagnostic signals from Schottky pickups.

RPAT011 Digital Signal Processing the Tevatron BPM Signals pick-up, antiproton, closed-orbit, controls 1242

• G.I. Cancelo, E. James, S.A. Wolbers
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
Funding: Fermilab

The Beam Position Monitor (BPM) readout system at Fermilab’s Tevatron has been updated and is currently being commissioned. The new BPMs use new analog and digital hardware to achieve better beam position measurement resolution. The new system reads signals from both ends of the existing directional stripline pickups to provide simultaneous proton and antiproton position measurements. The signals provided by the two ends of the BPM pickups processed by analog band-pass filters and sampled by 14-bit ADCs at 74.3MHz. A crucial part of this work has been the design of digital filters that process the signal. This paper describes the digital processing and estimation techniques used to optimize the beam position measurement. The BPM electronics must operate in narrow-band and wide-band modes to enable measurements of closed-orbit and turn-by-turn positions. The filtering and timing conditions of the signals are tuned accordingly for the operational modes. The analysis and the optimized result for each mode is presented.

RPAT013 Signal Processing for Longitudinal Parameters of the Tevatron Beam antiproton, emittance, pick-up, synchrotron 1362

• S. Pordes, J.L. Crisp, B.J. Fellenz, R.H. Flora, A. Para, A.V. Tollestrup
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
Funding: Operated by Universities Research Association Inc. under Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH03000 with the United States Department of Energy.

The time profiles of the bunches in the Tevatron are obtained by sampling the output of a resistive wall current monitor with a 5GS/s, 2GHz bandwidth, Lecroy 6200 oscilloscope. The techniques for removing the effect of cable dispersion and for extending the dynamic range of the data by splitting the signal and using two input channels at different gains are described. The algorithms for taking these data in the time domain and deriving the momentum spread and longitudinal emittance are also given.

RPAT015 First Results of a Digital Beam Phase Monitor at the Tevatron antiproton, synchrotron, controls, injection 1428

• J.-P. Carneiro, S. U. Hansen, A. Ibrahim, V.D. Shiltsev, J. Steimel, R.C. Webber
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
A digital Beam Phase Monitor has been installed on the Tevatron ring. This device will be mainly use to diagnose the energy oscillations of each of the 36 × 36 protons and antiprotons bunches as well as to study the transient beam loading. The first results obtained from the Beam Phase Monitor will be presented on the paper.

RPAT017 Using Time Separation of Signals to Obtain Independent Proton and Antiproton Beam Position Measurements Around the Tevatron antiproton, acceleration, injection, closed-orbit 1557

• R.C. Webber
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
Funding: Fermilab is operated by Universities Research Association Inc. under Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH03000 with the United States Department of Energy.

Independent position measurement of the counter-circulating proton and antiproton beams in the Tevatron presents a challenge to upgrading the Tevatron Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system. The inherent directionality of the Tevatron BPM pickup design provides 26dB isolation between signals from the two beams. At the present typical 10:1 proton-to-antiproton bunch intensity ratio, this isolation alone is insufficient to support millimeter accuracy antiproton beam position measurements due to interfering proton signals. An accurate and manageable solution to the interfering signal problem is required for antiproton measurements now and, as machine improvements lead to increased antiproton intensity, will facilitate future elimination of antiproton bias on proton beam position measurements. This paper discusses the possibilities and complications of using time separation of the two beam signals at the numerous Tevatron BPM locations and given the dynamic longitudinal conditions of Tevatron operation. Results of measurements results using one such method are presented.

RPAT018 Simultaneous Position Measurements of Protons and Anti-Protons in the Tevatron injection, antiproton, pick-up, closed-orbit 1613

• R.K. Kutschke, J. Steimel, R.C. Webber, S.A. Wolbers
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
Fermilab has embarked upon a program to upgrade the electronics of the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system that measures the transverse position of the beams inside the Tevatron collider. The new system improves on the current system in precision, accuracy and reliability. A new feature in the upgraded system is the ability, when both protons and anti-protons are present in the Tevatron, make simultaneous measurements of the closed orbit position of both beam species. The method chosen for achieving the simultaneous measurement is an algorithm that deconvolutes the imperfect directionality of the BPM pickups from the raw measurements. This paper will discuss the algorithm, the calibration of the parameters used by the algorithm and the robustness of the algorithm. It will also present results from the upgraded system which demonstrate that the system meets the requirements set out at the start of the upgrade project.

RPAT019 Use of a Reconfigurable VME Module To Measure Beam Energy at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring linac, injection, storage-ring, pick-up 1658

• R. Merl, T. Spickermann
LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
Funding: U.S. Department of Energy.

Custom instrumentation has been developed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center to measure the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) beam energy. The PSR accumulates up to 4x1013 protons from the linear accelerator for delivery to a spallation neutron source. The energy of the beam injected into the PSR must be adjusted so that the revolution frequency matches the ring buncher frequency, otherwise a large momentum spread will cause increased losses in high-dispersion areas. Errors in injected beam energy appear as deviations from the ideal revolution frequency. A low-cost, custom, reconfigurable VME module has been adapted to calculate the PSR revolution frequency in real-time. The module connects directly to an analog wall current monitor output and uses analog signal conditioning electronics, an analog to digital converter, field programmable gate arrays, and an embedded floating-point digital signal processor to calculate the revolution frequency. This is an improvement over the previously used method of manually measuring the frequency with an oscilloscope. Accelerator physicists can now simply observe the PSR frequency, which is dependent on beam energy, on a control room display.

LA-UR-04-8661.

RPAT035 Development of an Optical Transition Radiation Detector for Profile Monitoring of Antiproton and Proton Beams at FNAL target, antiproton, radiation, injection 2381

• V.E. Scarpine, C.W. Lindenmeyer, G. R. Tassotto
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
• A.H. Lumpkin
ANL, Argonne, Illinois
Funding: Work Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-CH03000 and by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38.

Optical transition radiation (OTR) detectors are being developed at Fermi National Acceleratory Laboratory (FNAL) as part of the collider Run II upgrade program and as part of the NuMI primary beamline. These detectors are designed to measure 150 GeV antiprotons as well as 120 GeV proton beams over a large range of intensities. Design and development of an OTR detector capable of measuring beam in both directions down to beam intensities of ~5·109 particles for nominal beam sizes is presented. Applications of these OTR detectors as an on-line emittance monitor for both antiproton transfers and reverse-injected protons, as a Tevatron injection profile monitor, and as a high-intensity beam profile monitor for NuMI are discussed. In addition, different types of OTR foils are being evaluated for operation over the intensity range of ~5·109 to over 1·1013 particles per pulse and these are described.

RPAT036 Measurement of the Intensity of the Beam in the Abort Gap at the Tevatron Utilizing Synchrotron Light synchrotron, radiation, collider, synchrotron-radiation 2440

• R. Thurman-Keup, E. Lorman, T. Meyer, S. Pordes
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
• S. De Santis
LBNL, Berkeley, California
Funding: Operated by Universities Research Association Inc. under Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH03000 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

The beam bunches in the Tevatron are arranged to provide gaps in time for the abort kickers to ramp to full field. The presence of even a small fraction (few 10-4)of the beam in the abort gaps can induce quenches of the superconducting magnets and inflict severe radiation damage on the silicon detectors of the experiments. Techniques for calibrating and measuring the intensity of the beam in the abort gap using synchrotron light and a gated photomultiplier tube are described. Measurements of the evolution and longitudinal profile of the beam in the abort gap are presented.

RPAT038 Diagnostic for Electron Clouds Trapped in Quadrupoles electron, quadrupole, simulation, diagnostics 2547

• R.J. Macek, A. A. Browman
TechSource, Santa Fe, New Mexico
Funding: Work supported by a DOE SBIR Phase I grant DE-FG02-04ER84105.

Simulations have indicated that electron clouds generated by beam-induced multipactor can be trapped in the mirror-like fields of magnetic quadrupoles and thereby contribute significantly to the electron cloud buildup in high intensity accelerators and storage rings. This could be the most important source of electrons driving the two-stream (e-p) instability at the Los Alamos PSR and may also play a significant role in electron cloud effects at some of the new high intensity accelerator projects. We will describe the physics design and optimization of an electron-sweeping detector designed to measure the trapped electrons at various times after the beam pulse has passed. The instrument can also serve as an electro-magnetically shielded detector providing a signal obtained from electrons striking the wall during the passage of beam bunches.

RPAT039 Feasibility Study of Using an Electron Beam for Profile Measurements in the SNS Accumulator Ring electron, SNS, simulation, vacuum 2586

• A.V. Aleksandrov, S. Assadi, S.M. Cousineau, V.V. Danilov, S. Henderson, M.A. Plum
ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
• P.V. Logatchev, A.A. Starostenko
BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Funding: SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy.

The design goal for the SNS ring is to accumulate 2·1014 protons per 1ms pulse at a 60Hz repetition rate. Achieving the design beam intensity with acceptable losses is a challenging task, which could be tackled more easily if reliable measurements of the beam profile in the ring are available. The high power density of the beam precludes the use of conventional wire scanners or harps and therefore non-interceptive types of profiles measurements are required. The electron beam probe method was suggested for measuring profiles in high power beams. In this method, deflection of a low energy electron beam by the collective field of the high intensity beam is measured. The charge density in the high intensity beam can be restored under certain conditions or estimated by various mathematical techniques. We studied the feasibility of using the electron beam probe for the SNS accumulator ring using computer simulations of the diagnostic setup. A realistic electron gun model and realistic proton beam distributions were used in the simulations. Several profile calculation techniques were explored and the results are reported in this paper.

RPAT042 Emittance Scanner Optimization for Low Energy Ion Beams emittance, ion, scattering, SNS 2705

• M.P. Stockli, R.F. Welton
ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
Funding: SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Ion beam emittances are normally measured as two-dimensional distributions of the beam current fraction within a window dx centered at position coordinate x and a window dx’ centered at trajectory angle x’. Unthresholded rms emittances evaluated from experimental data are very sensitive to noise, bias, and other undesired signals. Undesired signals occur when particles from outside the measured window dx*dx’ contribute to the signal from the particles within the measured window. Increasing the window size increases the desired signal while most undesired contributions remain unchanged. However, the decreasing resolution causes an error in the emittance results, especially in the rms emittance. Using theoretical distributions we will present the tradeoff between resolution and accuracy.

RPAT043 Developments of the Calibration Tools for Beam Position Monitor at J-PARC Linac linac, quadrupole, beam-losses, beam-transport 2777

• S. Sato, H. Akikawa, T. Tomisawa, A. Ueno
JAERI/LINAC, Ibaraki-ken
• Z. Igarashi, M. Ikegami, N. Kamikubota, S. Lee, T. Toyama
KEK, Ibaraki
In the J-PARC LINAC, there are mainly two requirements for the beam based calibration of beam position monitors (BPMs). One is that BPMs need to be calibrated with the accuracy of about a hundred micro-meters to minimize beam loss for the world highest class of proton intensity. The other is that about a hundred of BPMs need to be calibrated consistently. To achieve these requirements, the calibration tool are being developed with experiences on real beam in a MEBT line set for the DTL commissioning. Tools for simulating the beam trajectory using transport matrix (e.g. T3D) are being developed as well. The calibrated beam positions measured by BPMs are used in the simulation for tuning the beam. Implementation of the calibration tools on the same platform (e.g. SAD) with the simulation tools is important for higher usability during commissioning of whole J-PARC. In this paper, details of these developments around BPMs are to be reported.

RPAT044 Segmented Foil SEM Grids at Fermilab beam-losses, target, booster, instrumentation 2821

• S.E. Kopp, D. Indurthy, Z. Pavlovich, M. Proga, R.M. Zwaska
The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas
• B.B. Baller, S.C. Childress, R. Ford, D. Harris, C.L.K. Kendziora, C.D. Moore, G. R. Tassotto
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
Segmented Secondary Emission Monitors (SEM's) will be used to monitor the extracted 120 GeV proton beam for the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The SEM's are constructed from 5 micrometer thick Ti foils. The chambers have 10 cm beam aperture, and the foils are designed to result in 4·10-6 fractional beam loss when inserted in the beam. The foil strips have dynamic tensioning to withstand the heating from the 400kW proton beam. Results from prototype beam tests as well as from commissioning in the NuMI line will be presented.

RPAT045 Beam Phase Detection for Proton Therapy Accelerators cyclotron, pick-up, acceleration, feedback

• B. A. Aminov, M. G. Getta, S. K. Kolesov, N. Pupeter
CRE, Wuppertal
• A. Geisler, T. Stephani, J. H. Timmer
The industrial application of proton cyclotrons for medical applications has become one of the important contributions of accelerator physics during the last years. This paper describes an advanced vector demodulating technique used for non-destructive measurements of beam intensity and beam phase over 360°. A computer controlled I/Q-based phase detector with a very large dynamic range of 70 dB permits the monitoring of beam intensity, phase and eventually energy for wide range of beam currents down to –130 dBm. In order to avoid interference from the fundamental cyclotron frequency the phase detection is performed at the second harmonic frequency. A digital low pass filter with adjustable bandwidth and steepness is implemented to improve accuracy. With a sensitivity of the capacitive pickup in the beam line of 30 nV per nA of proton beam current at 250 MeV, accurate phase and intensity measurements can be performed with beam currents down to 3.3 nA.

ROAB007 Pulsed Power Applications in High Intensity Proton Rings kicker, pulsed-power, extraction, impedance 568

• W. Zhang, J. Sandberg
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
• R.I. Cutler
ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
• L. Ducimetière, T. Fowler, V. Mertens
CERN, Geneva
• T. Kawakubo, Y. Shirakabe
KEK, Ibaraki
Funding: Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy.

The pulsed power technology has been applied in particle accelerators and storage rings for over four decades. It is most commonly used in injection, extraction, beam manipulation, source, and focusing systems. These systems belong to the class of repetitive pulsed power. In this presentation, we review and discuss the history, present status, and future challenge of pulsed power applications in high intensity proton accelerators and storage rings.

ROAD002 Remote Handling in High-Power Proton Facilities target, SNS, vacuum, shielding 174

• G.R. Murdoch
ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
Design for remote handling of highly activated accelerator components is becoming more prevalent as proton facilities are designed and constructed to provide ever-increasing beam powers. During operation of these facilities it is expected that many components will become activated, consequently mechanical engineering design work must address this issue if components are to be maintained by traditional hands-on methods. These design issues are not new and operating proton facilities around the world have gone through the same process to varying degrees. In this paper we discuss the design and design philosophy of remote handling of active accelerator components, using as examples designs which have been proven at operating facilities, as well as new approaches which are being incorporated into accelerator facilities under construction, such as the Spallation Neutron Source and J-PARC.

SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge.

• H.G. Kirk, H. Ludewig, L.F. Mausner, N. Simos, P. Thieberger
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
• Y. Hayato, K. Yoshimura
KEK, Ibaraki
• K.T. McDonald
PU, Princeton, New Jersey
• J. Sheppard
SLAC, Menlo Park, California
• L.P. Trung
Stony Brook University, Stony Brook
Funding: U.S. DOE.

The long term survivability of materials which can be used either for high-intensity targets or for the environment surrounding the target can be greatly influenced by how the physical properties of the material are altered by radiation damage. We have irradiated several candidate materials and report here on physical properties before and after irradiation.

ROPB010 Self-Consistent Electron-Cloud Simulation for Long Proton Bunches electron, simulation, lattice, dipole 722

• A.P. Shishlo, S.M. Cousineau, V.V. Danilov, S. Henderson, J.A. Holmes, Y. Sato
ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
• S.-Y. Lee
IUCF, Bloomington, Indiana
• R.J. Macek
LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
Funding: SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge.

The results of numerical electron-cloud simulations for long-bunch proton beams in accumulator rings are presented and compared with data from the Proton Storage Ring at LANL. The frequency spectra and growth rate of proton-bunch transverse instabilities are studied as functions of the RF cavity voltage, external magnetic fields, beam pipe surface properties, and other factors. We used the recently developed electron-cloud module in the ORBIT code. The model includes a fully self-consistent coupled treatment of the "proton bunch – electron-cloud" dynamics and the multipacting process with a realistic secondary emission surface model. Realistic lattices and proton bunch distributions are used. The efficiency of electron-cloud instability suppression has also been studied using a new ORBIT model.

RPPE001 The CARE Accelerator R&D Programme in Europe electron, acceleration, linac, hadron 749

• O. Napoly, R. Aleksan, A. Devred
CEA/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette
• A. Den Ouden
Twente University, Laser Physics and Non-Linear Optics Group, Enschede
• R. Garoby, R. Losito, L. Rinolfi, F. Ruggiero, W. Scandale, D. Schulte, M. Vretenar
CERN, Geneva
• T. Garvey, F. Richard
LAL, Orsay
• A. Ghigo
INFN/LNF, Frascati (Roma)
• E. Gschwendtner
CUI, Geneva
• H. Mais, D. Proch
DESY, Hamburg
INFN-Napoli, Napoli
Funding: This work is supported by the European Community-Research Infrastructure Activity under the FP6 “Structuring the European Research Area” programme (CARE, contract number RII3-CT-2003-506395).

CARE, an ambitious and coordinated programme of accelerator research and developments oriented towards HEP projects, has been launched in January 2004 by the main European laboratories and the European Commission within the 6th Framework Programme. This programme aims at improving existing infrastructures dedicated to future projects such as linear colliders, upgrades of hadron colliders and high intensity proton drivers. An important part of this programme is devoted to advancing the performance of the superconducting technology, both in the fields of RF cavities for electron and proton acceleration and of high field magnets, as well as to developing high intensity electron and proton injectors. We describe the R&D plans of the four main R&D activities and report on the results and progress obtained so far.

RPPE018 Material Damage Test with 450 GeV LHC-Type Beam target, simulation, hadron, injection 1607

• V. Kain, J. Ramillon, R. Schmidt, K.V. Vorderwinkler, J. Wenninger
CERN, Geneva
The design of LHC protection elements is based on assumptions on damage levels, which are derived from simulations. A dedicated experiment was prepared and carried out to cross-check the validity of this approach by trying to damage material in a controlled way with beam. The impact of a 450 GeV beam extracted from the SPS on a specially designed high-Z target with a simple geometry, comprising several typical materials used for LHC equipment, was simulated. The beam intensities for the test were chosen to exceed the damage limits of parts of the target. Results of the simulations are presented and compared with test results.

RPPE022 Machine Protection System for Concurrent Operation of RHIC and BLIP controls, linac, radiation, monitoring 1754

• M. Wilinski, S. Bellavia, J. Glenn, L.F. Mausner, K.L. Unger
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
Funding: Work performed under Contract Number DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy.

The Brookhaven 200 MeV linac is a multipurpose machine used to inject low intensity polarized protons ultimately ending up in RHIC as well as to inject high intensity protons to BLIP, a medical isotope production facility. If high intensity protons were injected to RHIC by mistake, administrative radiation limits could be exceeded or sensitive electronics could be damaged. In the past, the changeover from polarized proton to high intensity proton operation has been a lengthy process, thereby never allowing the two programs to run simultaneously. To remedy this situation and allow for concurrent operation of RHIC and BLIP, an active interlock system has been designed to monitor current levels in the AGS using two current transformers with fail safe circuitry and associated electronics to inhibit beam to RHIC if high intensity is detected.

RPPE026 Operating Experience with Meson Production Targets at TRIUMF target, radiation, alignment, beam-losses 1919

• E.W. Blackmore, A.S. Dowling, R. Ruegg, M.C. Stenning
TRIUMF, Vancouver
High power targets are now required for operation at beam powers in excess of 1 MW for spallation neutron sources and neutrino factories. TRIUMF has been operating beryllium and graphite meson production targets for many years. Although the proton beam power of 100 kW at 500 MeV is lower, the beam densities and fluences are higher than most operating solid targets as other accelerators use rotating targets or larger beam spots. The beam size on the TRIUMF targets is maintained at 0.15 cm2 and this beam density leads to proton fluences of 1·1023 protons/cm2 per year. The beryllium targets are rectangular rods immersed in a water-cooled stainless steel jacket. The pyrolytic graphite targets consist of pie-shaped segments bonded to a water-cooled copper saddle. Operating experience shows that the graphite targets suffer thermal damage above beam currents of 120 uA but will operate for long periods at 100 uA. The beryllium targets can operate to 200 uA and appear to survive radiation damage beyond 10 dpa although some targets have failed due to structural damage. This paper will describe the operating experience with these targets and present some thermal and radiation calculations.

RPPE031 Target and Horn Cooling for the Very Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment target, radiation, focusing, simulation 2209

• S. Bellavia, S.A. Kahn, H.G. Kirk, H. Ludewig, D. Raparia, N. Simos
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
Funding: This work is performed under the auspices of the US DOE.

Thermodynamic studies have been performed for the beam target and focusing horn system to be used in a very long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. A 2mm rms beam spot with power deposition of over 18 KW presents challenging material and engineering solutions to this project. Given that the amount of heat transferred by radiation alone from the target to the horn is quite small, the primary mechanism is heat removal by forced convection in the annular space between the target and the horn. The key elements are the operating temperature of the target, the temperature of the cooling fluid and the heat generation rate in the volume of the target that needs to be removed. These working parameters establish the mass flow rate and velocity of the coolant necessary to remove the generated heat. Several cooling options were explored using a carbon-carbon target and aluminum horn. Detailed analysis, trade studies and simulations were performed for cooling the horn and target with gaseous helium as well as water.

RPPE033 Engineering the SNS RTBT/Target Interface for Remote Handling vacuum, SNS, shielding, target 2278

• M. Holding, C.M. Hammons, B.R. Lang, G.R. Murdoch, K.G. Potter, R.T. Roseberry
ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
The SNS facility is designed for a 1.4MW 1.0GeV proton beam and the interface region of this beam with the Hg spallation target will be highly activated. This installation is located about fifteen feet below the access floor and the activity levels in the RTBT/Target interface are sufficiently high to warrant the application of Remote Handling techniques. The installed components are manufactured from radiation hard materials with serviceability beyond the lifetime of the machine, and all connections and mechanisms have been simplified to allow remote handling. The application of pneumatics to facilitate the assembly of major components and to the operation of moveable diagnostics has produced some unique design solutions.

RPPP002 RF Sources of Super-Conducting Test Facility (STF) at KEK klystron, linac, feedback, linear-collider 796

• S. Fukuda, H. Hayano
KEK, Ibaraki
After the ITRP’s technical choice, KEK tried to seek the contribution for the international linear collider and made the plan of super-conducting test facility (STF) in KEK. The STF comprised of phase-I and phase-II; former is the plan for two years from FY2005 and aimed for the quick construction of test facility to evaluate the 4-35MV/m cavity structures and 4-45 MV/m cavity structures with a beam. Phase-II is the next plan of the test facility to extend the several 17m cryomodules. In this paper, general description of the STF is made at first, and rf source plan is shown.

RPPT059 Spectrum from the Proposed BNL Very Long Baseline Neutrino Facility target, alignment, simulation, background 3476

• S.A. Kahn, M. Diwan
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
Funding: The work was performed with the support of the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

This paper calculates the neutrino flux that would be seen at the far detector location from the proposed BNL Very Long Baseline Neutrino Facility. The far detector is assumed to be located at an underground facility in South Dakota 2540 km from BNL. The neutrino beam facility uses a 1 MW upgraded AGS to provide an intense proton beam on the target and a magnetic horn to focus the secondary pion beam. The paper will examine the sensitivity of the neutrino flux at the far detector to the positioning of the horn and target so as to establish alignment tolerances for the neutrino system.

RPPT060 The MuCool Test Area at Fermilab linac, shielding, radiation, target 3482

• C. Johnstone, A. Bross, I. Rakhno
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
Funding: Work supported by the US Dept. of Energy under contract No. DE-AC02-76CH03000

A new experimental area designed to develop, test and verify muon ionization cooling using the 400- MeV Fermilab Linac proton beam began construction in spring, 2002. This area will be used initially for cryogenic tests of liquid-hydrogen absorbers for the MUCOOL R&D program and, later, for high-power beam tests of these absorbers and other prototype muon-cooling apparatus. The experimental scenarios being developed for muon facilities involve collection, capture, and cooling of large-emittance, high-intensity muon beams–~1013 muons at a repetition rate of 15Hz, so that conclusive tests of the apparatus require full Linac beam, or 1.6 x 1013 p at 15 Hz. To support the muon cooling facility, a new primary beamline will divert beam from the Linac to the test facility. Located southwest of Wilson Hall between the Linac berm and parking lot, implementation of the facility and associated beamline takes advantage of civil construction and resources that remain from the 400-MeV Linac Upgrade Project. The design concept for the MuCool facility is taken from an earlier proposal, but modifications to the existing proposal were necessary to accommodate high-intensity beam, cryogenics, and the increased scale of the cooling experiments.

RPPT065 Beam Loss Estimates and Control for the BNL Neutrino Facility injection, beam-losses, emittance, linac 3647

• W.-T. Weng, J. Beebe-Wang, Y.Y. Lee, D. Raparia, N. Tsoupas, J. Wei, S.Y. Zhang
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
Funding: This work is performed under the auspices of the US DOE.

BNL plans to upgrade the AGS proton beam from the current 0.14 MW to higher than 1.0 MW for a very long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. This increase in beam power is mainly due to the faster repetition rate of the AGS by a new 1.5 GeV superconductiong linac as injector, replacing the existing booster. The requirement for low beam loss is very important both to protect the beam component, and to make the hands-on maintenance possible. In this report, the design considerations for achieving high intensity and low loss will be presented. We start by specifying the beam loss limit at every physical process followed by the proper design and parameters for realising the required goals. The process considered in this paper include the emittance growth in the linac, the H- injection, the transition crossing, the ecectron cloud effect, the coherent instabilities, and the extraction losses. Collimation and shielding are also presented.

RPPT067 A High-Power Target Experiment target, factory, synchrotron, interaction-region 3745

• H.G. Kirk, S.A. Kahn, H. Ludewig, R. Palmer, V. Samulyak, N. Simos, T. Tsang
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
• J.R.J. Bennett
CCLRC/RAL/ASTeC, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon
• T.W. Bradshaw, P. Drumm, T.R. Edgecock, Y. Ivanyushenkov
CCLRC/RAL, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon
• I. Efthymiopoulos, A. Fabich, H. Haseroth, F. Haug, J. Lettry
CERN, Geneva
• T.A. Gabriel, V.B. Graves, J.R. Haines, P.T. Spampinato
ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
• Y. Hayato, K. Yoshimura
KEK, Ibaraki
• K.T. McDonald
PU, Princeton, New Jersey
Funding: U.S. Department of Energy.

We describe an experiment designed as a proof-of-principle test for a target system capable of converting a 4 MW proton beam into a high-intensity muon beam suitable for incorporation into either a neutrino factory complex or a muon collider. The target system is based on exposing a free mercury jet to an intense proton beam in the presence of a high strength solenoidal field.

RPPT072 Ion Chamber Arrays for the NuMI Beam at Fermilab target, hadron, ion, focusing 3892

• D. Indurthy, R. Keisler, S.E. Kopp, S. Mendoza, Z. Pavlovich, M. Proga, R.M. Zwaska
The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas
• M.B. Bishai, M. Diwan, B. Viren
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
• A.R. Erwin, H.P. Ping, C.V. Velissaris
• D. Harris, A. Marchionni, G. Morfin
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
• J. McDonald, D. Naples, D. Northacker
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
The NuMI beamline and the MINOS experiment will study at a long baseline the possible oscillation of muon neutrinos and provide a precision measurement of the oscillation parameters. Neutrinos are produced from charged pion decays, where the pions are produced from interaction of the 120 GeV FNAL Main Injector proton beam with a graphite target. Ion chamber arrays have been built to monitor the resulting muons from pion decays, as well as remnant hadrons at the end of the NuMI decay pipe. The arrays of ion chambers measure both the intensity and lateral profile of the muon and hadron beams, allowing studies of sytematics of the neutrino beam. We will describe the design, construction, and precise calibration of the ion chamber arrays. Initial data from commissioning of the beam line and experience from long-term operations will be presented.

ROPA003 Present Status of the J-PARC Control System linac, rfq, synchrotron, power-supply 302

• T. Katoh, K.  Furukawa, N. Kamikubota, H. Nakagawa, J.-I. Odagiri, G.S. Shen, Y. Takeuchi, N. Yamamoto, M. Yoshii
KEK, Ibaraki
• H. Sakaki, H. Sako, H. Takahashi, F. Tamura, H. Yoshikawa
JAERI, Ibaraki-ken
Construction of the J-PARC control system is in progress and the present status is reported. The control system is based on EPICS tool-kit used in KEKB and other accelerator control systems at KEK. The control hardware and network system for Linac and RCS(Rapid Cycling Synchrotron) have been installed and software is under development now. The operation of Linac is expected in next year. The test of the first part of the accelerator complex; e.g. ion source, RFQ and the first DTL(20 MeV) were done at KEK site. Development of various software such as device drivers for the new equipment, device support routines, and some application programs for operators were also developed.

ROPA006 Terascale Beam-Beam Simulations for Tevatron, RHIC and LHC emittance, simulation, antiproton, injection 535

• J. Qiang
LBNL, Berkeley, California
Funding: This work was supported by a SciDAC project in accelerator physics which is supported by the US DOE/SC Office of High Energy Physics and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research.

In this paper, we report on recent advances in terascale simulations of the beam-beam effects in Tevatron, RHIC and LHC. Computational methods for self-consistent calculation of the beam-beam forces are reviewed. Applications to the studies of the multiple bunch beam-beam interactions in the Tevatron and the RHIC will be presented. The study of emittance growth due to the beam-beam interactions in the LHC will also be presented.

ROPC002 J-PARC Commissioning Results linac, injection, synchrotron, rfq 220

• K. Hasegawa
JAERI, Ibaraki-ken
The J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex)comprises a 400-MeV linac, a 3-GeV rapid-cycling synchrotron (RCS), a 50-GeV main ring synchrotron (MR) and experimental facilities. A peak current of 30 mA was accelerated up to 20 MeV of the DTL beam commissioning at the KEK site. The buildings and conventional facilities will be completed in succession in the Japanese Fiscal Year 2005, when the installation of the accelerator components will be actually started at Tokai site. The beam commissioning of the 181 MeV linac will be started in September, 2006, followed by the RCS and MR beam commissioning. To achieve the high beam power with low beam loss, the J-PARC accelerators are based on many newly developed technologies; pi-mode stabilizing loops in the RFQ, RF choppers in the medium energy beam transport, magnetic alloy loaded RF cavities in the synchrotrons, etc. The recent results of the developments of these new technologies, the present construction status and the commissioning schedule will be presented.

ROPC007 Status of the Proton Engineering Frontier Project rfq, linac, klystron, beam-transport 576

• B.H. Choi
KAERI, Daejon
Funding: This work is supported by the 21C Frontier R&D program in the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Korean government.

The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) approved and launched by the Korean government in July 2002 includes a 100MeV proton linear accelerator development and a program for its utilization. The first phase of the project, running from 2002 to 2005, was the design of a 100MeV proton linear accelerator and a part of development to 20 MeV. This consists of a 50 keV proton injector, a 3 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and a 20MeV drift tube linac (DTL). The 50 keV injector and the 3 MeV RFQ has been installed and tested, and the 20 MeV DTL is being assembled and tuned for beam tests. At the same time, the utilization programs using the proton beam have been planned, and some are now under way. The status and progress of the project are reported in detail.

FOAC001 High Intensity Muon Beam Facilities with FFAG betatron, luminosity, factory, simulation 29

• Y. Kuno
Osaka University, Osaka
A new highly intense muon source with narrow beam energy spread and high purity, based on a FFAG ring, is under development in Japan. It is called the PRISM project, which stands for Phase Rotated Intense Slow Muon source. The aimed beam intensity is about 1011-1012 muons per year, which is about 1000 or 1000 times that presently available. The muon beam energy is low, of 20 MeV in kinetic energy, for stopped muon experiments. In particular, high luminosity would be important, and narrow beam spread can be achieved by phase (bunch) rotation in the FFAG ring. It is expected to compress the beam energy spread from about 30% down to about 3 %. At Osaka university, the PRISM-FFAG ring is now under construction. The special requirements for the PRISM-FFAG ring, compared to other FFAG rings so far developed, is to have large acceptance dedicated for a muon beam, and high-gradient RF to complete phase rotation within a muon lifetime. In this presentation the present designs of PRISM and status of construction will be presented.

FOAC002 Status of Neutrino Factory Design and R&D factory, target, simulation, collider 209

• D. Li
LBNL, Berkeley, California
Funding: Work supported by the US Department of Energy under contract No. DE-AC0376SF00098

Neutrino physics has become increasingly interesting to the high-energy physics community, as it may provide clues to new physics beyond the standard model. The physics potential of a Neutrino Factory–a facility to produce high-energy, high-intensity, high-brightness neutrino beams from decays of muons stored in a muon storage ring–is thus very high. There has been a global R&D effort aimed at a Neutrino Factory design that meets the physics requirements and addresses the key technologies, such as targetry, muon ionization cooling and acceleration. Tremendous progress has been made in the past few years in many aspects of accelerator technology. In this paper, we will review recent worldwide progress toward a cost-effective Neutrino Factory design, with emphasis on the associated R&D programs under the auspices of the U.S. Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration.

FOAC003 New Concepts in FFAG Design for Secondary Beam Facilities and Other Applications cyclotron, ion, resonance, acceleration 261

UBC & TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia
Fixed Field Alternating Gradient accelerators offer much higher acceptances and repetition rates - and therefore higher beam intensities - than synchrotrons, at the cost of more complicated magnet and rf cavity designs. Perhaps because of the difficulty and expense anticipated, early studies never progressed beyond the stage of successful electron models, but in recent years, with improvements in magnet and rf design technology, FFAGs have become the focus of renewed attention. Two proton machines have now been built, and three more, plus a muon phase rotator, are under construction. In addition, more than 20 designs are under study for the acceleration of protons, heavy ions, electrons and muons, with applications as diverse as treating cancer, irradiating materials, driving subcritical reactors, boosting high-energy proton intensity, and producing neutrinos. Moreover, it has become apparent that FFAG designs need not be restricted to the traditional 'scaling' approach, in which the orbit shape, optics and tunes are kept fixed. Dropping this restriction has revealed a range of interesting new design possibilities. This paper will review the various approaches being taken.

FOAC004 The Numi Neutrino Beam At Fermilab target, booster, hadron, antiproton

• S.E. Kopp
The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas
The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) is a conventional neutrino beam facility which will use the intense 120 GeV proton beam from the Fermilab Main Injector accelerator. The facility is envisaged to service a variety experiments, in particular the already-constructed MINOS long baseline oscillation experiment, and the proposed NOvA experiment to observe muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillations. Summarized will be the design of the primary and secondary beam focusing systems, instrumentation to validate the neutrino beam intensity, direction, and energy spectrum, and considerations for coping with the 0.4 MWatt MI beam. The beam line will be commissioned December, 2004, through February, 2005, whereupon operations may begin. Data from the commissioning and experience from first operations will be presented. Further, the suitability of the facility for accepting beam from a proposed 2MW proton driver is discussed.

FPAE006 Optimization of AGS Polarized Proton Operation with the Warm Helical Snake extraction, resonance, dipole, simulation 1003

• J. Takano, M. Okamura
RIKEN, Saitama
• L. Ahrens, M. Bai, K.A. Brown, C.J. Gardner, J. Glenn, H. Huang, A.U. Luccio, W.W. MacKay, T. Roser, S. Tepikian, N. Tsoupas
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
• T. Hattori
RLNR, Tokyo
Funding: US DOE and RIKEN Japan.

A normal conducting helical dipole partial Siberian snake (Warm Snake) has been installed in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for overcoming all of imperfection depolarizing resonances and reducing the transverse coupling resonances caused by the solenoidal Siberian snake which had been operated in AGS before the last polarized run. The polarized proton beam has been accelerated successfully with the warm snake and the polarization at extraction of the AGS was increased to 50% as opposed to 40% with the solenoidal snake. The magnetic field and beam trajectory in the warm snake was calculated by using the OPERA-3D/TOSCA software. We present optimization of the warm snake with beam during RUN5.

FPAE010 Barrier RF System and Applications in Main Injector booster, injection, emittance, radiation 1189

• W. Chou, D. Wildman
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
• A. Takagi
KEK, Ibaraki
• H. Zheng
Funding: Work supported by the Universities Research Association, INC. under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy NO. DE-AC02-76CH03000 and by the US-Japan Collaboration in High Energy Physics.

A wideband RF system (the barrier RF) has been built and installed in the Fermilab Main Injector. The cavities are made of low Q Finemet cores. The modulators use high voltage fast solid-state switches. It can generate ±7 kV single square voltage pulses. It is used to stack two proton batches to double the bunch intensity for pbar production. The stacked high intensity beams have been successfully accelerated to 120 GeV with small losses. A new test to continuously stack 12 batches for the NuMI experiment is under way.

FPAE011 8 GeV H- Ions: Transport and Injection electron, radiation, injection, SNS 1222

• W. Chou, A.I. Drozhdin, C. Hill, M.A. Kostin, J.-F. Ostiguy, Z. Tang
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
• H.C. Bryant
UNM, Albuquerque, New Mexico
• R.J. Macek
LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
• G. Rees
CCLRC/RAL/ASTeC, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon
• P.S. Yoon
Rochester University, Rochester, New York
Funding: Work supported by the Universities Research Association, INC. under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy NO. DE-AC02-76CH03000.

Fermilab is working on the design of an 8 GeV superconducting RF H- linac called the Proton Driver. The energy of the H- beam is an order of magnitude higher than any existing H- beams. This brings up a number of new challenges to the transport, stripping and injection into the next machine (the Main Injector), such as blackbody radiation stripping, magnetic field and residual gas stripping, Stark states of hydrogen atoms, foil stripping efficiency, single and multiple Coulomb scattering, energy deposition, foil heating and stress, radiation activation, collimation, jitter correction, etc. This paper will give a summary of these studies.*

FPAE017 Observation of Longitudinal Diffusion and Cooling Due to Intrabeam Scattering at the Fermilab Recycler Ring emittance, antiproton, scattering, luminosity 1560

• M. Hu, S. Nagaitsev
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
The Fermilab Recycler Ring is a high vacuum fixed energy antiproton storage ring with both stochastic and electron cooling systems. In this note the technique for diffusion rate measurement, beam parameters and the analysis of data are presented, as well as the effect of intrabeam scattering on the operational considerations for the storage and cooling of the antiproton beam in the Recycler.

FPAE019 Booster 6-GeV Study booster, acceleration, beam-losses, linac 1637

• X. Yang, C.M. Ankenbrandt, J.R. Lackey, R.D. Padilla, W. Pellico
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
• J. Norem
ANL, Argonne, Illinois
Funding: Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Accelerator Division, Proton Source Department.

Since a wider aperture has been obtained along the Fermilab Booster beam line, this opens the opportunity for Booster running a higher intensity proton beam than ever before. Sooner or later, the available RF accelerating voltage will become a new limit for the beam intensity. Either by increasing the RF accelerating voltage or by reducing the accelerating rate can achieve the similar goal. The motivation for the 6-GeV study is to gain the relative accelerating voltage via a slower acceleration.

FPAE023 Direct Antiproton Deceleration in the Fermilab Proton Driver antiproton, simulation, synchrotron, H-minus 1817

• G.P. Jackson, S.D. Howe
Hbar Technologies, LLC, West Chicago, Illinois
The Fermilab Proton Driver is an 8 GeV kinetic energy H- linear accelerator proposed as a new source of high brightness protons for the Main Injector. The Recycler ring is an 8 GeV antiproton storage ring that resides in the same tunnel as the Main Injector. This paper describes a scenario wherein the current Main Injector proton injection kickers and Lambertson magnet are moved vertically into the Recycler ring to enable antiproton extraction toward the Proton Driver. By employing a pair of intermediate vertical bends at the appropriate vertical betatron phase advance, the vertical dispersion into the Proton Driver can be eliminated and direct antiproton deceleration made possible. Because the H- and antiproton beams have the same charge but opposite direction, matching of the Recycler lattice to the Proton Driver is required to accommodate the reversed effect of the focusing and defocusing quadrupoles.

FPAE024 Studies Performed in Preparation for the Spallation Neutron Source Accumulator Ring Commissioning injection, target, beam-losses, multipole 1859

• S.M. Cousineau, V.V. Danilov, S. Henderson, J.A. Holmes, M.A. Plum
ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
Funding: SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge.

The Spallation Neutron Source accumulator ring will compress 1.5?1014, 1 GeV protons from a 1 ms bunch train to a single 695 ns proton bunch for use in neutron spallation. Due to the high beam power, unprecedented control of beam loss will be required in order to control radiation and allow for hands-on maintenance in most areas of the ring. A number of detailed investigations have been performed to understand the primary sources of beam loss and to predict and mitigate problems associated with radiation hot spots in the ring. The ORBIT particle tracking code is used to perform realistic simulations of the beam accumulation in the ring, including detailed modeling of the injection system, transport through the measured magnet fields including higher order multipoles, and beam loss and collimation. In this paper we present the results of a number of studies performed in preparation for the 2006 commissioning of the accumulator ring.

FPAE032 ORIC Beam Energy Increase extraction, cyclotron, septum, ion 2257

• M.L. Mallory, J.B. Ball, D. Dowling, E. D. H. Hudson, R. S. L. Lord, A. Tatum
ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
Funding: Managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05=00OR 22725.

The detection of and solution to a beam interference problem in the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) extraction system has yielded a 20% increase in the proton beam energy. The beam from ORIC was designed to be extracted before the nu r equal one resonance. Most cyclotrons extract after the nu r equal one resonance, thus getting more usage of the magnetic field for energy acceleration. We have now determined that the electrostatic deflector septum interferes with the last accelerated orbit in ORIC, with the highest extraction efficiency obtained near the maximum nu r value. This nu r provides a rotation in the betatron oscillation amplitude that is about the same length as the electrostatic septum thus allowing the beam to jump over the interference problem with the septum. With a thinned septum we were able to tune the beam through the nu r equal one resonance and achieve a 20% increase in beam energy. This nu r greater than one extraction method may be desirable for very high field cyclotrons since it provides ten times the clearance at extraction compared to dee voltage gain, thus allowing the possibility of utilizing a magnetic extractor.

FPAE044 Test Results of the PEFP 3MeV RFQ Upgrade rfq, klystron, coupling, dipole 2842

• Y.-S. Cho, S.-H. Han, J.-H. Jang, H.-S. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, M.-Y. Park, K.T. Seol
KAERI, Daejon
Funding: This work is supported by the 21C Frontier R&D program in the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Korean government.

A 3MeV RFQ upgrade for 100MeV proton accelerator has been fabricated at PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project). The tuning of the cavity was carried out before and after the brazing to meet the condition that the quadrupole field profile is within 1% of design value and dipole component is less than 1% of quadrupole one. The ancillary system such as high power RF including klystron power supply and cooling system were already tested up to operating level. Therefore, the main issues of the tests were cavity conditioning up to full power level and low duty beam test. After the completion of the beam test of RFQ itself, the 20MeV DTL which has been tested independently will be carried out. In this paper, the test results of the PEFP 3MeV RFQ upgrade including high power conditioning and low duty beam acceleration are presented.

FPAE045 Design of the PEFP MEBT quadrupole, rfq, linac, extraction 2881

• J.-H. Jang, Y.-S. Cho, Y.-H. Kim, H.-J. Kwon
KAERI, Daejon
Funding: This work is supported by the 21C Frontier R&D program in the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Korean government.

A MEBT system of the PEFP(Proton Engineering Frontier Project) has to be installed after the 20MeV DTL where the beam will be supplied to the user group through a beam extraction system. Until now we don't have a plan to put in some matching devices between the RFQ and 20MeV DTL except using the four quadrupole magnets in the first DTL tank as transverse matching tools. The MEBT plays the key role to match the 20MeV output beam into the next accelerator in the longitudinal direction as well as transverse one. This report shows the basic concept and the design status of the system.

FPAE046 Initial Test of the PEFP 20MeV DTL vacuum, alignment, klystron, power-supply 2917

• H.-S. Kim, Y.-S. Cho, S.-H. Han, J.-H. Jang, Y.-H. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, M.-Y. Park, K.T. Seol
KAERI, Daejon
• Y.-S. Hwang
SNU, Seoul
Funding: This work is supported by the 21C Frontier R&D program in the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Korean government.

A conventional 20MeV drift tube linac (DTL) for the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) has been developed as a low energy section of 100MeV accelerator. The machine consists of four tanks with 152 cells supplied with 900kW RF power from 350MHz klystron through the ridge-loaded waveguide coupler. We assembled the fabricated accelerator components and aligned each part with care. We have also prepared the subsystems for the test of the DTL such as RF power delivery system, high voltage DC power supply, vacuum system, cooling system, measurements and control system and so on. The detailed description of the initial test setup and preliminary test results will be given in this paper.

FPAE047 Test Scheme Setup for the PEFP 20MeV DTL beam-losses, quadrupole, resonance, klystron 2965

• H.-S. Kim, Y.-S. Cho, Y.-H. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, K.T. Seol
KAERI, Daejon
• Y.-S. Hwang
SNU, Seoul
Funding: This work is supported by the 21C Frontier R&D program in the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Korean government.

A 100MeV proton accelerator is under development for the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP). The goal of the first stage of the project is to develop a 20MeV accelerator and the initial test of the 20MeV accelerator will be made. The DTL of 20 MeV accelerator consists of four tanks and will be driven with single klystron, which gives rise to some unique problems with regard to the way of independent resonance control for each tank. Some changes made in the LLRF for reducing phase or amplitude error of cavities affect all of four tanks simultaneously, for which it is not possible to use LLRF for individual control of phase and amplitude of each tank. For independent control of each tank, we are going to use the temperature control of the drift tubes as a frequency tuner. During the initial test of the DTL, the phase of each tank will be synchronized with the first tank phase, and beam based test will be performed as if all of tanks were single unit. The detailed description of the test scheme and the analysis results will be given in this paper.

FPAE048 Fabrication of the PEFP 3MeV RFQ Upgrade rfq, vacuum, quadrupole, coupling 3010

• H.-J. Kwon, Y.-S. Cho, J.-H. Jang, H.-S. Kim, Y.-H. Kim
KAERI, Daejon
Funding: This work is supported by the 21C Frontier R&D program in the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Korean government.

A 100MeV proton accelerator has been developed at PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) as a 21C Frontier Project. The goal of the first stage of the project is to develop a 20MeV accelerator. The 20MeV accelerator consists of ion source, LEBT, 3MeV RFQ and 20MeV DTL. The 3MeV RFQ was already installed and being tested. During preliminary test, some problems, such as the resonant frequency and field profile tuning, sharp edge in the vane end, inadequate RF seals have been found out. Therefore, it was decided to fabricate another RFQ. The RFQ upgrade includes some characteristics such as constant voltage profile, adoption of transition cell which are different from present one. In this paper, the fabrication of the PEFP 3MeV RFQ upgrade are presented.

FPAE050 Injector Linac for the BNL Super Neutrino Beam Project linac, quadrupole, SNS, insertion 3129

• D. Raparia, J.G. Alessi, A. Ruggiero, W.-T. Weng
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
Funding: This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE, Contract No. DE-AC02-98H10886.

BNL plans to upgrade the AGS proton beam from the current 0.14 MW to higher than 1.0 MW and beyond for such a neutrino facility. We have examined possible upgrades to the AGS complex that would meet the requirements of the proton beam for a 1.0 MW neutrino superbeam facility. We are proposing to replace part of the existing 200 MeV linac with coupled cavity structure from 116 MeV to 400 MeV and then add additional 1.1 GeV superconducting linac to reach a final energy of 1.5 GeV for direct H- injection into the AGS. We will present possible choices for the upgrade and our choice and its design.

FPAE051 Performance of a CW RFQ Injector for the IUCF Cyclotron cyclotron, rfq, ion-source, ion 3179

• V.P. Derenchuk, V. Anferov, G.W. East, D. Friesel, W.P. Jones
IUCF, Bloomington, Indiana
• R.W. Hamm
AccSys, Pleasanton, California
• J.W.  Staples
LBNL, Berkeley, California
Funding: The State of Indiana, Indiana University, and the DOE (Grant No DE-FG-02000ER62966) supported this work.

A 750 keV RFQ proton pre-injector was installed in place of a 600 keV Cockroft-Walton high voltage terminal for the IUCF k220 Cyclotron.* The pre-injector consists of a 20 keV microwave ion source and LEBT, a unique design 750 keV CW RFQ, and a short transfer beam line to the k15 injector cyclotron center region.** This pre-injector system was installed and commissioned in June of 2003 and is now in routine service as the sole injection system to the cyclotrons. This contribution will discuss the performance of the CW RFQ pre-injector and the transmission properties of the beam through the cyclotrons.

*D.L.Friesel, et al., App. of Acc. in Res. and Ind., eds. J.L. Duggan and I.L. Morgan, Denton, 651(2000). **V.P. Derenchuk, et al., 2003 Particle Accelerator Conference, Portland, OR, (2003), edited by A. Jackson and E. Lee.

FPAE052 The LENS 7 MeV, 10 mA Proton Linac rfq, target, linac, ion 3200

• V.P. Derenchuk, D.V. Baxter, A. Bogdanov, W.P. Jones, T. Rinckel, K. A. Solberg
IUCF, Bloomington, Indiana
Funding: This work has been supported by the National Science Foundation under grants DMR-0220560, and DMR-0320627, by the Indiana 21st Century Science and Technology Fund, and by the Department of Defense.

The Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) has constructed and placed in operation a Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS) using a 10 mA, 7 MeV proton beam incident on a beryllium target. The proton delivery system (PDS) consists of a 25 keV proton injector, an AccSys Technology, Inc. PL7 Linac* and a beam transport line with non-linear beam spreading.** The accelerator and beamline equipment used in this construction are refurbished and upgraded components from the IUCF CIS/Cooler synchrotron*** facility. After commissioning the beam current at 7 MeV will be 10 mA with a pulse width of up to 300 μs and > 1% duty factor. The PDS was constructed and commissioning started in 2004. First operating results will be described.

*D.L. Friesel and W. Hunt, Linac98, pp61-63. **W.P. Jones, et. al., "Non-Linear Beam Transport System for the LENS 7 MeV Proton Beam," this proceedings. ***D.L. Friesel, et. al., EPAC2000, pp. 539-541.

FPAE056 Review of a Spoke-Cavity Design Option for the RIA Driver Linac linac, beam-losses, simulation, acceleration 3360

• P.N. Ostroumov, K.W. Shepard
ANL, Argonne, Illinois
• J.R. Delayen
Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
Funding: This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38.

A design option for the 1.4 GV, multiple-charge-state driver linac required for the U.S. Rare Isotope Accelerator Project based on 345 MHz, 3-cell spoke-loaded cavities has been previously discussed.* This paper updates consideration of design options for the RIA driver, including recent results from numerically-modeling the multi-charge-state beam dynamics and also cold test results for prototype superconducting niobium 3-cell spoke-loaded cavities.

*"High-energy ion linacs based on superconducting spoke cavities," K.W. Shepard, P.N. Ostroumov, and J.R. Delayen, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6, 080101 (2003).

FPAE073 A Free Hg Jet System for Use in a High-Power Target Experiment target, diagnostics, laser, collider 3895

• P.T. Spampinato, T.A. Gabriel, V.B. Graves, M.J. Rennich
ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
• A. Fabich, H. Haseroth, J. Lettry
CERN, Geneva
• H.G. Kirk, N. Simos, T. Tsang
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
• K.T. McDonald
PU, Princeton, New Jersey
• P. Titus
MIT/PSFC, Cambridge, Massachusetts
Funding: Work funded by the U.S. Department Of Energy.

We describe a mercury jet system that is suitable for insertion into the 15cm diameter bore of a high-field solenoid magnet. The device features a hermetically sealed primary containment volume which is enclosed in a secondary containment system to insure isolation of mercury vapors from the remaining experimental environment. The jet diameter is 1-cm while the jet velocity will be up to 20 m/s. Optical diagnostics is incorporated into the target design to allow observation of the dispersal of the mercury as a result of interaction with a 24 GeV proton beam with up to 20 x 1012 ppp.

FPAP013 Emittance Growth Caused by Electron Cloud Below the “Fast TMCI” Threshold: Numerical Noise or True Physics? electron, emittance, simulation, synchrotron 1344

• E. Benedetto, E. Benedetto
Politecnico di Torino, Torino
• G. Franchetti
• K. Ohmi
KEK, Ibaraki
• D. Schulte, F. Zimmermann
CERN, Geneva
Simulations show a persisting slow emittance growth for electron cloud densities below the threshold of the fast Transverse Mode Coupling type instability, which could prove important for proton beams with negligible radiation damping, such as in the LHC. We report on a variety of studies performed to quantify the contributions to the simulated emittance growth from numerical noise in the PIC module and from an artificial resonance excitation due to the finite number of kicks per turn applied for modeling the cloud-bunch interaction.

FPAP014 Electron Cloud Measurements in the SPS in 2004 electron, simulation, vacuum, space-charge 1371

• D. Schulte, G. Arduini, V. Baglin, J.M. Jimenez, F. Zimmermann
CERN, Geneva
Novel measurements of the electron cloud have been performed in the SPS in 2004. In this machine the beam consists of a number of short bunch trains. By varying the distance between these trains it is possible to witness the survival of the electrons after the bunch passage. In this paper, results from simulations and experiments are compared.

FPAP016 Initial Self-Consistent 3-D Electron-Cloud Simulations of LHC Beam with the Code WARP+POSINST electron, simulation, ion, heavy-ion 1479

• J.-L. Vay, M.A. Furman
LBNL, Berkeley, California
• R.H. Cohen, A. Friedman, D.P. Grote
LLNL, Livermore, California
Funding: This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, LLNL and LBNL under contracts W-7405-Eng-48, and DE-AC03-76F00098.

We present initial results from the self-consistent beam-cloud dynamics simulations of a sample LHC beam, using a newly developed set of modeling capability based on a merger of the three-dimensional parallel Particle-In-Cell accelerator code WARP and the electron cloud code POSINST.*,** Although the storage ring model we use as a test bed to contain the beam is much simpler and shorter than the LHC, its lattice elements are realistically modeled, as is the beam and the electron cloud dynamics. The simulated mechanisms for generation and absorption of the electrons at the walls are based on previously validated models available in POSINST.***

*J.-L. Vay, these proceedings. **J.-L. Vay, Proc. "ECLOUD04," Napa (California), 2004. ***M.T.F. Pivi and M.A. Furman, Phys. Rev. STAB, PRSTAB/v6/i3/e034201.

FPAP031 Model of Electron Cloud Build Up with Secondary Ion-Electron Emission as a Source of Delayed Electrons electron, ion, vacuum, space-charge 2197

• V.G. Dudnikov, G. Dudnikova
BTG, New York
For explanation of anomaly long electron cloud surviving after the gap between bunches it was proposed beam particle leaking to the gap and anomaly high reflectivity of low energy electrons in collision with pipe wall. We will attract an attention to some other possibilities of efficient electron generation in the high vacuum environment and delay electron generation after gap between bunches. Model of electron cloud build up with secondary ion-electron emission as a source of delay electrons is presented and discussed. This model is used for explanation of bunched beam instability in Los Alamos PSR, prediction of e-cloud generation in SNS, and can be important for pressure rise in cold sections of RHIC. A fast desorbtion by ion of physically adsorbed molecules can explain a "first pulse Instability" observed in LA PSR

FPAT008 SDA-Based Diagnostic and Analysis Tools for Collider Run II collider, acceleration, diagnostics, controls 1099

• V. Papadimitriou, T.B. Bolshakov, P. Lebrun, S. Panacek, A.J. Slaughter, A. Xiao
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
Funding: Fermilab (Department of Energy).

Operating and improving the understanding of the Fermilab Accelerator Complex for the colliding beam experiments requires advanced software methods and tools. The Shot Data Acquisition and Analysis (SDA) has been developed to fulfill this need. Data is stored in a relational database, and is served to programs and users via Web-based tools. Summary tables are systematically generated during and after a store. These tables, the Supertable, and the Recomputed Emittances and Recomputed Intensity tables are discussed here. This information is also accesible in JAS3 (Java Analysis Studio version 3).

FPAT012 Tevatron Beam Lifetimes at Injection Using the Shot Data Analysis System antiproton, injection, beam-beam-effects, scattering 1279

• A. Xiao, T.B. Bolshakov, P. Lebrun, E.S. McCrory, V. Papadimitriou, A.J. Slaughter
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
The purpose of the Shot Data Acquisition and Analysis (SDA) system is to provide summary data on the Fermilab RunII accelerator complex and provide related software for detailed analyses. In this paper, we discuss such a specific analysis on Tevatron beam lifetimes at injection. These results are based on SDA data, tools and methodology. Beam lifetime is one of our most important diagnostics. An analysis of it can give information on intra beam scattering, aperture limitations, instabilities and most importantly beam-beam effects. Such an analysis gives us a better understanding of our machine, and will lead to an improved performance in the future.

FPAT031 High Energy Pulsed Power System for AGS Super Neutrino Focusing Horn target, power-supply, pulsed-power, simulation 2191

• W. Zhang, J. Sandberg, W.-T. Weng
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
Funding: Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy.

This paper present a preliminary design of a 300 kA, 2.5 Hz pulsed power system. This system will drive the focusing horn of proposed Brookhaven AGS Neutrino Super Beam Facility for Very Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiment. The peak output power of the horn pulsed power system will reach giga-watts, and the upgraded AGS will be capable of delivering 1 MW in beam power.

FPAT032 NuMI Proton Kicker Extraction Magnet Termination Resistor System kicker, impedance, radiation, extraction 2224

• S.R. Reeves, C.C. Jensen
Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
Funding: Fermilab is operated by Universities Research Association Inc. under Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH03000 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

The temperature stability of the kicker magnet termination resistor assembly directly affects the field flatness and amplitude stability of the kick. Comprehensive thermal enhancements were made to the existing Main Injector resistor assembly design to satisfy NuMI performance specifications. Additionally, a fluid-processing system utilizing Fluorinert® FC-77 high-voltage dielectric was built to precisely control the setpoint temperature of the resistor assembly from 70 to 120F, required to maintain constant resistance during changing operational modes. The Fluorinert® must be continually processed to remove hazardous breakdown products caused by radiation exposure to prevent chemical attack of system components. Design details of the termination resistor assembly and Fluorinert® processing system are described. Early performance results will be presented.

FPAT050 Improvement RF Control System for the 20 Mev Proton Linac of PEFP rfq, feedback, radio-frequency, linac 3100

• J.C. Yoon, J. Choi, H.-S. Kang, J.-W. Lee
PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk
Funding: EPICS, Control, LLRF.

This paper presents the RF control system for Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC). KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been performing the project named KOMAC. As the 3nd phase of the project, 20MeV proton accelerating structure is under development. The new design is based on the use of VME based Multi-function modules connected to the specific low level RF Controllers(LLRF) via distributed I/O modules and Serial communication modules. The control system was based on EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) from the end of 2004. Installation and commissioning of the RF module is scheduled on 2005. Control system to integrated the RF System to the KOMAC control system is implemented. Hardware, software and various applications are upgrade to support the operation of RF Control system. In this paper, We describe control structure and scheme of the current RF Control System and upgraded one.

FPAT066 The SNS Ring LLRF Control System SNS, feedback, extraction, accumulation 3697

• S. Peng
ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
• L.T. Hoff, K. Smith
BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
Funding: SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a collaboration of six U.S. National Laboratories: ANL, BNL, JLab, LANL, LBNL, and ORNL.

The low-level RF control system for the SNS Ring differs considerably from that for the Linac. To accommodate requirements for higher data throughput and improved performance the system is based on a PCI Digital Signal Processor (DSP). In accordance with SNS standards, a VME-based PowerPC© is used, but advantage is taken of the on-board PMC slot which houses a Bittware© Hammerhead© PMC card with four AD-21162 DSPs.The EPICS system handles system configuration and data traffic while the DSP performs the low-level RF controls. Protocol and software to support both the PowerPC and the DSP have been developed. This paper presents the system design and initial testing experience.

FPAT071 Timing System for J-PARC linac, synchrotron, power-supply, target 3853

• F. Tamura
JAERI/LINAC, Ibaraki-ken
• J.C. Chiba, T. Katoh, M. Yoshii
KEK, Ibaraki
J-PARC has three accelerators running at the different repetition rates; a 400-MeV linac (50Hz), a 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS, 25Hz), and a 50-GeV synchrotron (MR). The linac and the RCS deliver the beam pluses to the different destinations in each cycle. The destinations are scheduled according to the machine operations. We define two kinds of timing, "scheduled timing" and "synchronization timing" so that the accelerators are operated with proper timing and the beam pulses are transported to the experimental facilities or the next accelerators. The J-PARC complex requires a stable and precise timing system. The system is based on a master clock generated by a synthesizer and the triggers are operated independently of the AC-line frequency. We describe the design of the J-PARC timing system and their configuration, and also present the hardware details.

FPAT081 A New Version of SixTrack with Collimation and Aperture Interface collimation, simulation, betatron, scattering 4084

• G. Robert-Demolaize, R.W. Assmann, S. Redaelli, F. Schmidt
CERN, Geneva
Simulations of collimation and beam cleaning were so far often performed with simplified computer models. However, the increase in available CPU power has opened the possibility for far more realistic simulations. For large accelerators like LHC it is now possible to track millions of particles, element by element over hundreds of turns. The well established SixTrack code treats the full six-dimensional phase space and considers the non-linear magnet components up to very high order. This code is being used for all LHC tracking simulations and has well developed linear and non-linear error models. SixTrack was extended for tracking of large ensembles of halo particles, taking into account halo interaction with arbitrarily placed collimators. An interface to a program for aperture analysis allows obtaining beam loss maps in the machine aperture. A standardized and portable SixTrack version is now available, providing all functionality of the old SixTrack, as well as the newly added support for halo tracking, collimation and aperture loss maps.

FPAT082 From Visualisation to Data Mining with Large Data Sets simulation, electron, synchrotron, synchrotron-radiation 4114

PSI, Villigen
• R.D. Ryne, J.M. Shalf, C. Siegerist
LBNL, Berkeley, California
In 3D particle simulations, the generated 6D phase space data are can be very large due to the need for accurate statistics, sufficient noise attenuation in the field solver and tracking of many turns in ring machines or accelerators. There is a need for distributed applications that allow users to peruse these extremely large remotely located datasets with the same ease as locally downloaded data. This paper will show concepts and a prototype tool to extract useful physical information out of 6D raw phase space data. ParViT allows the user to project 6D data into 3D space by selecting which dimensions will be represented spatially and which dimensions are represented as particle attributes, and the construction of complex transfer functions for representing the particle attributes. It also allows management of time-series data. An HDF5-based parallel-I/O library, with C++, C and Fortran bindings simplifies the interface with a variety of codes. A number of hooks in ParVit will allow it to connect with a parallel back-end that is able to provide remote file access, progressive streaming, and even parallel rendering of particle sets in excess of 1Billion particles.

FOAA001 New Technology in Hydrogen Absorbers for Muon Cooling Channels emittance, simulation, linac, scattering 84

• M.A.C. Cummings
Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois
Funding: National Science Foundation.

Ionization cooling is the only technique fast enough to cool and focus muons for neutrino factories and muon colliders, and hydrogen is the optimal material for maximum cooling and minimal multiple scattering. Liquid hydrogen absorber R & D for the Muon Colloboration has proceeded on parallel and complementary fronts. The continuing LH2 absorber engineering and technical developments by the MuCool group conducted by ICAR* institutions (NIU, IIT and UIUC), the University of Mississippi and Oxford University, in cooperation with Fermilab, will be summarized, including results from the first hydrogen absorber tests at the newly constructed FNAL Mucool Test Area (MTA). The program includes designs for the high-powered test of an absorber prototype (external heat exchange) at the MTA which are nearing completion to be installed by summer 2005, an alternative absorber design (internal heat exchange) being finalized for the approved cooling experiment (MICE) at Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, and a novel idea for gaseous hydrogen absorbers being developed at Fermilab for a high powered test at the MTA in 2006.

*Illinois Consortium for Accelerator Research.

FOAA010 Full Characterization at Low Temperature of Piezoelectric Actuators Used for SRF Cavities Active Tuning vacuum, linac, radiation, electromagnetic-fields 728

• M. Fouaidy, S. Blivet, F. Chatelet, N. Hammoudi, G.M. Martinet, A. Olivier, H. Saugnac
IPN, Orsay
Funding: EU, CNRS-IN2P3.

In the frame of the CARE project activities, supported by EU, IPN Orsay participate to the development of a fast cold tuning system for SRF cavities operating at a temperature T=2 K. The study is aimed at full characterization of piezoelectric actuators at low temperature. A new experimental facility was developed for testing various prototypes piezoelectric actuators and successfully operated for T in the range 1.8 K-300 K. Different parameters were investigated as function of T: piezoelectric actuator displacement vs. applied voltage V, capacitance vs. T, dielectric and thermal properties vs. T and finally heating DT due to dielectric losses vs. modulating voltage Vmod and frequency. We observed a decrease of the Full Range Displacement (FRD or DX) of the actuator from ~40μm @ 300K down to 1.8μm-3μm @ 1.8K, depending on both material and fabrication process of the piezostacks. Besides, both material and fabrication process have a strong influence on the shape of the characteristics DX vs. T dependence. Moreover, the variations of losses tangent with T show a maximum at T in the range 30 K-120 K. Finally a dedicated facility located at CERI (Orléans, France) for radiation hardness tests of actuators with fast neutrons at T=4.2 K was developed and the first beam tests results are summarized.

FOAB004 Construction of FFAG Accelerators in KURRI for ADS Study ion, ion-source, acceleration, booster 350

• M. Tanigaki, K. Mishima, S. Shiroya
KURRI, Osaka
• S. Fukumoto, Y. Ishi
Mitsubishi Electric Corp, Energy & Public Infrastructure Systems Center, Kobe
• M. Inoue
SLLS, Shiga
• S. Machida, Y. Mori
KEK, Ibaraki
KART (Kumatori Accelerator driven Reactor Test) project is in progress at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) from the fiscal year of 2002. The purposes of this project is the feasibility study of ADS, such as studying the effect of incident neutron energy on the effective multiplication factor of the subcritical nuclear fuel system. We are now constructing a proton FFAG accelerator complex as a neutron production driver for this project. Our accelerator complex consists of a 2.5 MeV FFAG with induction acceleration as an injector, 20 MeV and 150 MeV FFAGs with RF acceleration as a booster and a main ring, respectively. Our FFAG injector is a spiral sector type with 32 trim coils to produce a magnetic field of variable field index. Both booster and main rings are the radial sector type in which the field index is determined by the shape of pole-face. The test operations of the injector and the whole FFAG complex are expected around the spring and summer in 2005, respectively. Then this FFAG complex will be combined with our Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) in KURRI by the end of March 2006 for the feasibility study.

FOPA003 Challenges and Progress in the FAIR Accelerator Project dipole, ion, antiproton, synchrotron 294

• P.J. Spiller