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Paper Title Other Keywords Page
MPPP020 RF Phase Modulation at the LNLS Electron Storage Ring simulation, synchrotron, resonance, beam-loading 1686
  • N.P. Abreu, N.P. Abreu
    UNICAMP, Campinas, São Paulo
  • R.H.A. Farias, P.F. Tavares
    LNLS, Campinas
  Funding: FAPESP

In the Brazilian Electron Storage Ring, we observed that modulating the phase of accelerating fields at twice the synchrotron frequency suppressed remarkably well a longitudinal coupled-bunch mode of the beam driven by one of the RF cavities. We present results of a set of systematic measurements, in single and multi-bunch mode, aimed at characterizing the effects of the modulation on the beam. We also compare those experiments with the results of tracking simulations.

MPPP021 Evolution of the Machine Impedance following the ESRF Upgrade to Low-Gap NEG Coated Aluminium Chambers impedance, vacuum, simulation, insertion 1712
  • T.F. Günzel, L. Farvacque, T. Perron, J.-L. Revol
    ESRF, Grenoble
  The installation of 5 meter-long, 8 mm vertical aperture insertion device (ID) aluminum chambers coated in house with non evaporable getter material is progressing at a rate of one chamber per shutdown. The evolution of the impedance with associated consequences on instability thresholds, following the installation of a number of low aperture insertion device chambers will be reported. In particular the impedance measurement using the local bump method allowed the identification and the replacement of the chambers of highest impedance. Correlation with the evolution of the single bunch instability thresholds and the theoretical prediction will be discussed. It could be observed that change in vertical aperture has a sensible effect on the single bunch horizontal threshold.  
MPPP029 The Code MBIM2 for the Calculation of the Arbitrary Multibunch Beams Longitudinal Coherent Oscillations Stability (in the Case of Long Bunches) synchrotron, multipole, damping, impedance 2110
  • N. Mityanina
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk
  The presented code is an advanced version of the code MBIM1 also presented at this conference and dealing with short bunches. The code MBIM2 analyses the stability of longitudinal coherent motion for arbitrary multibunch beams in storage rings without limitations on the bunch length or RF cavities wavelength, which is especially important for higher types of multipole synchrotron oscillations. The code implies also the possibility to consider coupling between different types of multipole synchrotron oscillations and Landau damping. In considered approach, the problem reduces to the eigenvalue problem for the linear algebraic equation system. The order of this system is equal to the number of bunches times number of multipole types times approximation order wich appears to be small (a few units) in most cases.  
MPPP049 Observations and Measurements of Anomalous Hollow Electron Beams in a Storage Ring lattice, storage-ring, electron, betatron 3082
  • Y.K. Wu, J. Li
    DU/FEL, Durham, North Carolina
  • J. Wu
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: This work is supported by the U.S. AFOSR MFEL grant F49620-001-0370 and by U.S. DOE grant DE-FG05-91ER40665 (YW and JL). This work is also supported by U.S. DOE contract DE-AC02-76SF00515 (JW).

This paper reports first observations and measurements of anomalous hollow electron beams in a storage ring. In a lattice with a negative chromaticity, hollow electron beams consisting of a solid core beam inside and a large ring beam outside have been created and studied in the Duke storage ring. We report the detailed measurements of the hollow beam phenomenon, including its distinct image pattern, spectrum signature, and its evolution with time. By capturing the post-instability bursting beam, the hollow beam is a unique model system for studying the transverse instabilities, in particular, the interplay of the wake field and the lattice nonlinearity. In addition, the hollow beam can be used as a powerful tool to study the linear and nonlinear particle dynamics in the storage ring.

TPAE010 Resonant Excitation of Selected Modes by a Train of Electron Bunches in a Rectangular Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator electron, radiation, resonance, simulation 1174
  • I.N. Onishchenko, N. Onishchenko, G. Sotnikov
    NSC/KIPT, Kharkov
  • T.C. Marshall
    Yale University, Physics Department, New Haven, CT
  Funding: This work was partly supported by CRDF award #UP2-2569-KH-04

The dielectric wake field accelerator is based on particle acceleration by wake fields excited in a dielectric waveguide by a regular sequence of electron bunches. Enhancement of the accelerating field can be achieved using two phenomena: coherent excitation by many bunches (multibunch effect) and constructive interference of many excited eigenmodes (multimode effect). It was believed that the latter is possible only for planar slab geometry in which the excited modes are equally spaced in frequency. By analysis and simulation, in this presentation the effect of wake field superposition to high amplitude is demonstrated for arbitrary rectangular geometry that is more realizable in experiment. We find this result using simultaneous multibunch and multimode operation providing the repetition frequency of the bunch sequence is equal to the frequency difference between selected modes, whereupon resonant oscillation takes place. Moreover, it is shown that for an appropriate choice of selected modes and bunch repetition frequency a "quasimonopolar” peaked wake field can be excited.

TPAT008 Numerical Dispersion Error Reduction in EM Calculations for Accelerators simulation, electromagnetic-fields, electron, linac 1114
  • T. Lau, E. Gjonaj, T. Weiland
    TEMF, Darmstadt
  • I. Zagorodnov
    DESY, Hamburg
  Funding: Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY

In this contribution novel numerical algorithms with no dispersion along the beam axis are investigated. This property is of interest for the long-time calculation of electromagnetic fields in accelerators. Instead of increasing the spatial stencil of the Yee scheme the compared methods modify the time-stepping algorithm.The results are compared on several test examples. As a practical application the electromagnetic field of a very short bunch inside a cavity is calculated.

TPAT011 Impedance Analysis of Longitudinal Bunch Shape Measurements at PLS impedance, undulator, damping, insertion
  • I. Hwang, M. Yoon
    POSTECH, Pohang, Kyungbuk
  • Y.J. Han, E.-S. Kim
    PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk
  We measured the longitudinal bunch shape by streak camera at 2.5 GeV Pohang Light Source. The impedances estimated by a series R+L model indicate a resistance R= 960 ohm, an inductance L= 80 nH and a longitudinal impedance Z/n= 0.53 ohm. The scaling law for the bunch lengthenig is expressed as I0.22. The effects of insertion device in the ring on the ring impedance, particularly the vertical height of in-vacuum undulator are also presented.  
TOAD005 Observation of Frequency Locked Coherent Transition Radiation radiation, electron, plasma, vacuum 452
  • R.A. Marsh, A.S. Kesar, R.J. Temkin
    MIT/PSFC, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  Funding: This work was supported by the Department of Energy, High Energy Physics, under contract DE-FG02-91ER40648.

Measurements of frequency locked, coherent transition radiation (CTR) were performed at the 17 GHz high-gradient accelerator facility built by Haimson Research Corporation at MIT PSFC. CTR produced from a metallic foil placed in the beam path was extracted through a window, and measured with a variety of detectors, including: diode, Helium cooled Si Bolometer, and double heterodyne receiver system. The angular energy distribution measured by the diode and bolometer are in agreement and consistent with calculations for a 15 MeV 200 mA 110 ns beam of 1 ps bunches. Heterodyne receiver measurements were able to show frequency locking, namely inter-bunch coherence at integer multiples of the accelerator RF frequency of 17.14 GHz. At the locked frequencies the power levels are enhanced by the number of bunches in a single beam pulse. The CTR was measured as a comb of locked frequencies up to 240 GHz, with a bandwidth of 50 MHz.

TPPP026 Bunch-Length Measurements in PEP-II synchrotron, positron, electron, luminosity 1934
  • A.S. Fisher, A. Novokhatski, J.L. Turner, U. Wienands, G. Yocky
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • R. Holtzapple
    Alfred University, Alfred, New York
  Funding: Supported by U.S. Department of Energy contract DE-AC03-76SF00515.

We measured the lengths of colliding e+e- bunches in the PEP-II B Factory at SLAC using various techniques. First, at several RF voltages and with both single-bunch and multibunch beams, a synchroscan streak camera measured synchrotron emission through a narrow blue filter. With 3.8 MV of RF, the length of a single positron bunch was 12 mm at low current, rising to 13 mm at 1.5 mA and 14.8 mm at 3 mA. The electrons measured 12.2 mm with little current dependence. Both are longer than the expected low-current value of 10 mm (e+) and 11 mm (e-), derived from the energy spread and the measured synchrotron tune. We also determined the length from measurements between 2 and 13 GHz of the bunch spectrum on a BPM button. After correcting for the frequency dependence of cable attenuation, we then fit the measured spectrum to that of a Gaussian bunch. With 3.8 MV, the positrons measurement gave 13.2 mm at 1.5 mA/bunch in a full ring, in agreement with the streak camera, but we found 11.4 mm for the electrons at 16.7 MV and 1 mA/bunch, lower than the streak measurement.

TPPP027 Single-Bunch Tune and Beam Size Measurements Along Bunch Trains in PEP-II luminosity, electron, positron, feedback 2006
  • R. Holtzapple
    Alfred University, Alfred, New York
  • D.D. Dujmic, A.S. Fisher
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  By scanning a gated camera and a gated tune monitor across the bunch pattern during normal colliding-bunch operation of PEP-II, the single-bunch tunes and beam sizes were measured simultaneously in the high and low energy storage rings of PEP-II. The measurements were made with 1561 colliding bunches in PEP-II, arranged in trains of 66 bunches, with each bunch in the train separated by 4.2 ns. The tune and beam size measurements were correlated with the current, luminosity, and specific luminosity of the bunch. The results show a vertical tune shift at the start and end of the mini-trains, a luminosity droop along the mini-train, and specific luminosity drop in the first and last bunches of the train, since they experience a different parasitic crossing on either side of the IP.  
TPPP033 Cavity Alignment Using Beam Induced Higher Order Modes Signals in the TTF Linac dipole, alignment, linac, higher-order-mode 2284
  • M.C. Ross, J.C. Frisch, K.E. Hacker, R.M. Jones, D.J. McCormick, C.L. O'Connell, T.J. Smith
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • N. Baboi, M.W. Wendt
    DESY, Hamburg
  • O. Napoly, R. Paparella
    CEA/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette
  Funding: DE-AC02-76SF00515.

Each nine cell superconducting accelerator cavity in the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) at DESY* has two higher order mode (HOM) couplers that efficiently remove the HOM power.** They can also provide useful diagnostic signals. The most interesting modes are in the first 2 cavity dipole passbands. They are easy to identify and their amplitude depends linearly on the beam offset from the cavity axis making them excellent beam position monitors (BPM). By steering the beam through an eight-cavity cryomodule, we can use the HOM signals to estimate internal residual alignment errors and minimize wakefield related beam emittance growth. We built and commissioned a four channel heterodyne receiver and time-domain based waveform recorder system that captures information from each mode in these two bands on each beam pulse. In this paper we present an experimental study of the single-bunch generated HOM signals at the TTF linac including estimates of cavity alignment precision and HOM BPM resolution.

*P. Piot, DESY-TESLA-FEL-2002-08. **R. Brinkmann et al. (eds.), DESY-2001-011.

TPPT086 Elliptical Cavity Shape Optimization for Acceleration and HOM Damping laser, damping, resonance, impedance 4191
  • H. Wang, R.A. Rimmer, G. Wu
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Funding: Supported by the Office of Naval Research, the Joint Technology Office, the Commonwealth of Virginia, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and by DOE Contract DE-AC05-84ER40150.

A normal design process for a superconducting cavity shape is to maximize the R/Q (shunt impedance/intrinsic quality factor) and geometry factor G for a given RF field limit of Bpeak/Eacc or Epeak/Eacc. For the application of an Ampere-class, high current energy recovery linac or storage ring, heavy HOM damping is required. This paper reports on a survey of single cell shapes developed for multi-cell cavities for different projects. Using a set of normalized parameters, we compare the designs for different frequencies and ß structures for the fundamental mode. Using dispersion curve (frequency verse phase advance) calculated by MAFIA for a single cell, we explore further how to optimize the cavity shape to avoid a light cone line crossing at the dangerous resonance frequencies determined by the beam bunch structure or the dangerous (trapped or high R/Q) modes with a low group velocity. We expect such a formulation to inform our development of a 5-cell, optimized cavity shape, with good real estate accelerating gradient and strong HOM damping waveguide structure for the JLab 1MW ERL-FEL project.

WPAT081 Ceramic Power Extractor Design at 15.6 GHz dipole, linac, quadrupole, beam-transport 4078
  • A. Smirnov, Y. Luo, R. Yi, D. Yu
    DULY Research Inc., Rancho Palos Verdes, California
  Funding: Work supported by DOE SBIR Grant No. DE-FG03-01ER83232.

Power extractor and coupler designs developed for an experiment planned at the 12th beam harmonic of the upgraded Advanced Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility is described. New features are an upstream HOM dielectric damper with additional tapering, and a single-port coupler considered in two variants. Performance analysis includes coupler geometric tolerances, overvoltage, dipole mode wake and BBU; and wakefield losses induced in the damper.

RPAE034 Storage Ring Fill Patterns for Femtoslicing Applications laser, electron, radiation, injection 2327
  • S. Khan
    BESSY GmbH, Berlin
  Funding: Funded by the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung and by the Land Berlin.

The generation of laser-induced ultrashort synchrotron radiation pulses ("femtoslicing") during user operation at the BESSY II storage ring requires to add several bunches with enhanced charge to the routinely used multibunch fill. The paper addresses these specialized fill patterns in view of beam stability against multibunch oscillations and ion effects, beam lifetime, and the effect of beam loading on the synchronous phase angles.

RPAE044 Operation and Recent Developments of the Photon Factory Advanced Ring injection, vacuum, emittance, betatron 2845
  • T. Miyajima, T. Abe, W.X. Cheng, K. Ebihara, K. Haga, K. Harada, Y. Hori, T. Ieiri, S. Isagawa, T. Kageyama, T. Kasuga, T. Katoh, H. Kawata, M. Kikuchi, Y. Kobayashi, K. Kudo, T. Mitsuhashi, S. Nagahashi, T.T. Nakamura, H. Nakanishi, T. Nogami, T. Obina, Y. Ohsawa, M. Ono, T. Ozaki, H. Sakai, Y. Sakamoto, S. Sakanaka, M. Sato, M. Satoh, T. Shioya, M. Suetake, R. Sugahara, M. Tadano, T. Takahashi, S. Takasaki, Y. Tanimoto, M. Tejima, K. Tsuchiya, T. Uchiyama, A. Ueda, K. Umemori, N. Yamamoto, S. Yamamoto, S.I. Yoshimoto
    KEK, Ibaraki
  The Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR) is a synchrotron light source dedicated to X-ray research. The PF-AR is usually operated at a beam energy of 6.5 GeV, but a 5.0 GeV mode is also available for medical application. In 6.5 GeV mode the typical lifetime of 15 hrs and the beam current of 60 mA with a single-bunch have been archived. Almost full-time single-bunch operation for pulse X-ray characterize the PF-AR. However, single-bunch high-current caused several problems to be solved, including the temperature rise of the some of the vacuum component, a pressure increase in the ring, and a sudden drop in lifetime. In order to avoid these issues the developments of new methods have been continued. In this paper, the status and the recent developments of the PF-AR will be presented. It concerns: the successful operation with two-bunch high-current in 5.0 GeV mode; varying the vertical beam size for the medical application; modulating the RF acceleration phase in order to elongate the length of bunch; stabilizing temperature in the ring tunnel; the study for medium emittance operation with 160 nmrad; moving the RF cavities in order to install a new insertion device; an innovative injection scheme using a pulsed quadrupole magnet.  
RPAE053 Transient Generation of Short Pulses in the APS Storage Ring synchrotron, simulation, storage-ring, photon 3247
  • G. Decker, N. Sereno
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38.

A method for obtaining very short pulses using modulation of the accelerating voltage gradient is described and simulation results given. The idea is to operate the two rf stations with a phase separation adjusted so that the synchronous particle resides on the crest of one of the sources. Phase modulation of the on-crest system at twice the synchrotron frequency induces a longitudinal bunch shape oscillation with significantly reduced bunch length occurring twice each synchrotron period. Pulsed and steady-state operation will be discussed using various accelerator parameters.

RPAT086 Dual-Sweep Streak Camera Measurements of the APS User Beams storage-ring, electron, emittance, diagnostics 4185
  • A.H. Lumpkin, B.X. Yang
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  • F. Sakamoto
    UTNL, Ibaraki
  Funding: Work supported by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract Number W-31-109-ENG-38.

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a hard x-ray user facility based on a 7-GeV storage ring (SR). To accommodate the requests of the diverse user community, the APS normally runs with a 24-singlets fill pattern, a hybrid fill with a singlet and eight septuplets, or a 324-singlet fill pattern. In all cases the total stored beam current is 100 mA, with the lattice providing a natural emittance of about 2.5 nm rad. The first two patterns are used with a top-up mode that involves injection of one pulse of ~2.5 nC every two minutes into the designated SR bucket. Since the partition of bunch current varies for the different fills as well as the loading of the rf cavities, dual-sweep streak camera measurements (Hamamatsu model C5680) have been performed to characterize the average and individual bunch lengths in the fill patterns and the phase slew that occurs within the patterns. The bunch lengths vary from 32 ps (σ) within the septuplet to 50 ps (σ) for the singlet in the hybrid fill. The phase slew is significant in the hybrid fill across the eight septuplets. Example streak images of each pattern will be presented and discussed.

RPPP045 Single-Bunch Instability Driven by the Electron Cloud Effect in the Positron Damping Ring of the International Linear Collider electron, dipole, simulation, damping 2884
  • M.T.F. Pivi, T.O. Raubenheimer
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • A.F. Ghalam
    USC, Los Angeles, California
  • K.C. Harkay
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  • K. Ohmi
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • R. Wanzenberg
    DESY, Hamburg
  • A. Wolski
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  • F. Zimmermann
    CERN, Geneva
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. DOE under contracts DE-AC02-76SF00515.

With the recommendation that the future International Linear Collider (ILC) should be based on superconducting technology, there is considerable interest in exploring alternate designs for the damping rings (DR). The TESLA design was 17 km in circumference with a "dog-bone" configuration. Two other smaller designs have been proposed that are 6 km and 3 km in length. In the smaller rings, collective effects may impose the main limitations. In particular for the positron damping ring, an electron cloud may be produced by ionization of residual gas or photoelectrons and increase through the secondary emission process. The build-up and development of an electron cloud is more severe with the higher average beam current in the shorter designs. In this paper, we present recent computer simulation results for the electron cloud build-up and instability thresholds for the various DR configurations.

RPPT006 Commissioning of TTF2 Bunch Compressor for the Femtosecond (FS) FEL Mode Operation emittance, linac, simulation, gun 991
  • Y. Kim, Y. Kim, D. Son
    CHEP, Daegu
  Funding: For the TESLA Test Facility FEL team.

To get lasing at TTF2, we should supply high quality electron beams with a high peak current, a low slice emittance, and a low slice energy spread. To supply a high peak current, we compress bunch length with two bunch compressors. During TTF2 lasing period, there was no available special bunch length diagnostic tool such as LOLA cavity or streak camera. However we could optimize TTF2 bunch compressors by monitoring pyro-electric detector signal, by measuring emittance, and by monitoring beam images at chicane center and dump region, and by comparing operational machine conditions with simulation results. In this paper, we describe our various commissioning experiences of TTF2 bunch compressor to generate a femtosecond-long spike with a high peak current.

RPPT046 Development and Application of Bunch-by-Bunch Measurement System of HLS damping, synchrotron, betatron, pick-up 2932
  • J.H. Liu, Y.J. Pei, B. Sun, J.H. Wang, Y.L. Yang, K. Zheng
    USTC/NSRL, Hefei, Anhui
  This paper is intended to present the newly implemented wideband (100MHz) bunch oscillation measurement system, which is in nature a different method from the narrow-band (<5MHz) facilities employed before. Basic formalism and implementation details of the system is introduced to illustrate the function of observing coupled bunch instabilities in time and frequency domain. The designed function includes detecting of transverse oscillation, synchrotron phase oscillation, as well as bunch filling pattern. Some diagnostics results of machine instabilities and application of this system are also discussed.  
RPPT047 Development of Measurement and Transverse Feedback System at HLS feedback, storage-ring, simulation, pick-up 2974
  • J.H. Wang, H. He, W. Li, J.H. Liu, L. Liu, B. Sun, Y.L. Yang, K. Zheng, Z.R. Zhou
    USTC/NSRL, Hefei, Anhui
  In order to observe and cure coupled bunch (CB) instabilities caused by the high order modes (HOMs) of the RF cavity and the resistive wall impedance of the Ring vacuum chamber, which were ineluctable during the operation of the accelerator, an observer system characterized by bunch by bunch measurement of transverse ßoscillation and longitudinal synchrotron phase oscillation has been constructed and commissioned at Hefei Light Source (HLS); meanwhile a transverse bunch-by-bunch feedback system is under construction. The design and development of the systems, as well as diagnostics results of machine instabilities will be presented in this paper.