THP  —  Thursday Poster Session THP   (02-Oct-08   14:40—17:30)

Chair: A. Facco, INFN/LNL, Legnaro, Padova

Paper Title Page
THP001 Nb-RRR Sheet Inspection by Means of Ultrasonic Microscopy 771
  • R. Grill, H. Kestler, L.S. Sigl, H. Traxler
    Plansee Metall GmbH, Reutte

Nb-RRR sheet material is one of the key components of super conducting linear particle accelerator projects (e.g. XFEL, ILC). The high quality requirements led to sophisticated quality systems in the manufacturing line. A major aspect is the development of non-destructive inspection methods for the detection of surface defects, delaminations, and inclusions. Up to now the standard inspection technologies for quality assurance of Nb-RRR sheet material are based on electromagnetic techniques, e.g. SQUID and eddy current. For these methods the detection limit is in the range of 0.1 mm. Ultrasonic microscopy (USM) in the frequency range of 1 GHz is a well established and economic technique for non-destructive surface inspection. For volume inspection of sheet material ultrasonic frequencies of 50 to 100 MHz are applied. For Nb-RRR sheets with typical thickness of 2.8 mm a detection limit of 0.1 mm is expected. First results of USM on Nb-RRR sheet material are presented.

THP002 The 1.3 GHz Superconducting RF Program at TRIUMF 774
  • R.E. Laxdal, K. Fong, A. Grassellino, A.K. Mitra, I. Sekachev, V. Zvyagintsev
    TRIUMF, Vancouver
  • R.S. Orr, W. Trischuk
    University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario

TRIUMF is proposing to build a 50 MeV electron linac as a driver to produce radioactive ion beams through photofission. The present design calls for the use of nine-cell 1.3 GHz Tesla type cavities. A 1.3 GHz Superconducting RF (SRF) program has been initiated with the goal to produce and test one nine cell cavity by the end of 2009. The program will utilize the existing clean room and SRF test facilities that support the ISAC-II heavy ion superconducting linac. A vertical cryostat has been modified with a new insert to allow single cell testing. Pumps for 2 K sub-atmospheric operation have been tested. A single cell fabrication program is being initiated with a local company. A RRR measurement program is on-going to test cavity welds. The goal of the 1.3 GHz upgrade is to not only produce cavities for the in house project but to broaden TRIUMF's technical base for future potential collaborations. The paper will report the progress and plans of the 1.3 GHz SRF program.


slides icon


THP003 Production and Testing of Two 141 MHz Prototype Quarter Wave Cavities for ISAC-II 777
  • R.E. Laxdal, R.J. Dawson, K. Fong, A. Grassellino, M. Marchetto, A.K. Mitra, T.C. Ries, V. Zvyagintsev
    TRIUMF, Vancouver
  • R. Edinger
    PAVAC, Richmond, B.C.

The medium beta section of the ISAC-II superconducting linac (β=5.7% and 7.1%) has been operational since April 2006 providing 20 MV of accelerating potential at 106 MHz. The ‘high beta' extension to the linac, in progress, will see the addition of twenty 141 MHz quarter wave cavities at β=11%. The design specification calls for cw operation at a voltage gain of at least 1.1 MV/cavity for no more than 7 W of power dissipated in the cavity. This operation point corresponds to challenging peak surface fields of 30 MV/m and 60 mT. The cavity design is similar in concept to the medium beta cavities except for the addition of a drift tube to render symmetric the accelerating fields. A prototyping and qualification program was initiated with PAVAC Industries Inc. of Richmond, B.C. Two full size models in copper and two in niobium have been completed. The niobium cavities have been warm and cold-tested and characterized for frequency, rf performance and mechanical stability. The cold performance of both cavities exceeds the specification and the final frequency is within tuning range. The design, fabrication details and test results will be presented.

THP004 Performance of the ISAC-II 141 MHz Solid State Amplifier 780
  • A.K. Mitra, I.V. Bylinskii, K. Fong, R.E. Laxdal, J. Lu, R.W. Shanks, V. Zvyagintsev
    TRIUMF, Vancouver

The ISAC-II linac extension requires an additional 20 rf amplifiers to power twenty 141 MHz quarter wave superconducting cavities. Solid state amplifiers will be used for this extension as compared to tube amplifiers which have been employed for the existing ISAC-II linac section, operational since 2006. The amplifiers are specified to run with an output power of 600 W. The first amplifier of the production series has been tested for gain and phase linearity. Phase noise of this amplifier has been measured on a 141 MHz superconducting cavity and compared with phase noise measured with a tube amplifier. The test results and general rf, interlock and interface requirements are verified against tendered specification before series production of the remaining amplifiers can proceed. Benchmarking tests of the prototype amplifier will be reported.

THP005 Tests of Wire Sublimations Very Close to SPIRAL 2 Superconducting Cavity 783
  • R. Ferdinand, E. Gueroult, P. Robillard, J.L. Vignet
    GANIL, Caen
  • P. Ausset, D. Longuevergne, G. Olry, H. Saugnac, P. Szott
    IPN, Orsay

The construction of the new Spiral 2 facility has started in Caen (France) at the National Heavy Ions Accelerator Center (GANIL). The SPIRAL 2 project is based on a multi-beam Superconducting Linac Driver delivering 5 mA deuterons up to 40 MeV and 1 mA heavy ions up to 14.5 MeV/u delivering different Radioactive Isotope Beams (RIB). The LINAC is composed of 2 cryomodule families. The low energy family (cryomodules A) is composed of 12 cryomodules housing a single cavity at beta=0.07. The "high" energy family (cryomodules B) is composed of 7 cryomodules housing 2 cavities at beta=0.12. In between cryomodules are located the focalisation quadrupoles and the diagnostic boxes. Strong beliefs forbid the use of interceptives diagnostics around superconducting cavities. We simulated the use of wires for diagnostics in the linac, sublimating 14 wires of tungsten, Niobium and carbon while operating the B cavity at full performances. The first results describe in this paper looks promising.

THP006 704 MHz High Power Coupler and Cavity Development for High Power Pulsed Proton Linacs 786
  • G. Devanz, J.-P. Charrier, S. Chel, M. Desmons, Y. Gasser, A. Hamdi, P. Hardy, J. Plouin, D. Roudier
    CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette

In the framework of the European CARE-HIPPI program we develop components for superconducting high pulsed power proton linacs at 704 MHz. We have designed, fabricated and tested a beta 0.47 5-cell elliptical cavity with an optimized stiffening to reduce its sensitivity to Lorentz forces. A fast piezo tuner has been developed in order to be able to operate the cavity in pulsed mode in our horizontal test cryostat CryHoLab. We also have carried out the development of a fundamental power coupler. It is designed to transmit a power up to 1 MW at a 10% duty cycle. A high power test area has been setup consisting of a 1.2 MW klystron, a pulsed high voltage power supply and a coupler test stand.

THP008 A Novel Frequency Tuning System Based on Movable Plunger for SPIRAL2 High-Beta Superconducting Quarter-Wave Resonator 789
  • D. Longuevergne, S. Blivet, G. Martinet, G. Olry, H. Saugnac
    IPN, Orsay

SPIRAL2 aims at building a multi-purpose facility dedicated to nuclear physics studies, including the production of rich-neutrons isotopes. The multi-beam linear accelerator is composed of superconducting accelerating modules and warm focusing magnets. IPN Orsay is in charge of the high energy accelerating modules, each hosting two superconducting (β = 0.12) quarter-wave resonators operating at an accelerating field of 6.5 MV/m at 88 MHz. The static and dynamic frequency tuning is achieved by the insertion and motion of a niobium plunger into the magnetic field area. The efficiency of the tuning (1 kHz/mm) has been validated during the tests of the cryomodule. In this paper we discuss the impact of such a tuning system, based on experimental results on Spiral2 cavities, on the different aspects: maximum accelerating field, Qo slopes, quench, multipacting and microphonics.

THP009 RF and Cryogenic Tests of the First Beta 0.12 SPIRAL2 Cryomodule 792
  • H. Saugnac, C. Commeaux, C. Joly, J. Lesrel, D. Longuevergne, F. Lutton, G. Martinet, G. Olry
    IPN, Orsay
  • R. Beunard, R. Ferdinand, M. Souli
    GANIL, Caen
  • Y. Gómez-Martínez, F. Vezzu
    LPSC, Grenoble

The SPIRAL2 project, installed in GANIL for Radioactive Ion Beam physics purposes requires the manufacturing of a multi beam driver. This driver is based on a superconducting Linac featuring two 88 MHz Quarter Wave Resonator families. IPN Orsay is in charge of the study and the assembly of the 7 high energy (beta = 0.12) cryomodules. Each cryomodule is composed of two QWRs, specified to operate at 4.2 K with a nominal accelerating gradient of 6.5 MV/m. A first qualifying cryomodule has been manufactured and tested at the beginning of 2008 in order to validate the resonator and the cryostat design before launching the serial production of the 6 remaining cryomodules. The paper presents the main results of this test and the cryomodule design in its final version.

THP010 Influence of Piezo-Hysteresis and Resolution on Cavity Tuning 795
  • O. Kugeler, W. Anders, J. Knobloch, A. Neumann
    BESSY GmbH, Berlin

Funding: Work partially funded by the EU Commission in the sixth framework programme, contract no 011935 EURO-FEL-DS5, BMBF and Land Berlin.
All mechanical tuning systems are subject to hysteresis effects: For coarse tuning with a stepper motor, the exercised forces lead to a visco-elastic deformation of the tuner body. In piezo-based fine tuning, even if the smaller deformations of tuner and cavity can be regarded as fully elastic, the piezo-actuators themselves suffer from remanent polarization effects. The extent of these nonlinearities has been measured in three different tuning systems (Saclay I, Saclay II and Blade Tuner) utilizing high-voltage as well as low-voltage piezo actuators. An estimate of the resulting tuner-resolution and performance degradation with respect to microphonics compensation is given. Experiments were performed in the HoBiCaT facility at BESSY.

THP011 Recent Developments on Superconducting CH-Structures and Future Perspectives 797
  • H. Podlech, M. Amberg, A. Bechtold, M. Busch, F.D. Dziuba, U. Ratzinger, C. Zhang
    IAP, Frankfurt am Main

Funding: GSI, BMBF contr. No. 06F134I, EU contr. No. 516520-FI6W, RII3-CT-2003-506395, EFDA/99-507ERB500CT990061
Worldwide there is an increasing interest in new high intensity proton and ion driver linacs with beam powers up to several MW. A very challenging part of these accelerators is the low and medium energy section up to 100 MeV. Depending on the duty cycle room temperature or superconducting options are favoured. In both cases the Crossbar-H-mode (CH)-structure, developed at the IAP in Frankfurt is an excellent candidate. Room temperature as well as superconducting prototype cavities have been developed and tested successfully. A superconducting 19 cell low energy (beta=0.1) CH-cavity at 360 MHz reached effective gradients of 7 MV/m corresponding to an accelerating voltage of 5.6 MV. This cavity could be used for high intensity, cw operated linacs like accelerator driven systems (ADS, EUROTRANS) or the international fusion material irradiation facility (IFMIF). Additionally, the new proton injector for FAIR (325 MHz, 70 mA, 70 MeV) will use room temperature CH-cavities. Recent developments of this new type of a multi-cell drift tube cavity, beam dynamics issues and the tests of the prototypes will be presented.

THP012 Nondestructive Testing of Niobium Sheets for SRF Cavities Using Eddy-current and SQUID Flaw Detection 800
  • A. Brinkmann, W. Singer
    DESY, Hamburg

For more than 10 years DESY has been operating a high resolution eddy-current scanning installation with rotating table for nondestructive flaw detection on niobium sheets for SRF cavities. More than 2000 sheets have been examined up to now, several types of defects have been detected and identified using different supplementary methods such as EDX, X-ray fluorescence, neutron activation analysis etc. In order to scan Nb-sheets needed for XFEL-cavity production, new scanning devices have to be build. One option of the eddy-current installations could be an application of SQUID-sensors due to much higher sensitivity instead of conventional probes. A SQUID based scanner system was built and is in evaluation at DESY. A status report will be given.

THP013 Various Applications of Dry-Ice Cleaning in the Field of Accelerator Components at DESY 803
  • A. Brinkmann, D. Reschke, J. Ziegler
    DESY, Hamburg

Funding: We acknowledge the support of the European Community Research Infrastructure Activity under FP6 'Structuring the European Research Area' program (CARE, contract number RII-CT-2003-506395
Dry-Ice cleaning offers a dry and waterless cleaning option removing hydrocarbons and particles without residues. Complex excavations like Cu rf gun cavities and Nb multicell cavities in horizontal installation position can be cleaned in an effective way. In the recent past rf gun cathodes and cathode transportboxes could be cleaned satisfactory. A status report will be given.

THP014 Recent Results of 1.3 GHz Nine-Cell Superconducting Cavities for the European XFEL 806
  • L. Lilje, D. Reschke
    DESY, Hamburg

In preparation for the series production of roughly 800 superconducting accelerating structures, several tests with an industrial-like production sequence have been tested for their accelerating gradient and quality factor. The main part of the surface preparation is being done with electropolishing. with ethanol rinse. For the two different final preparation steps namely electropolishing and etching the performance is compared. The results will be also put into the perspective of earlier cavity production cycles that were tested at DESY.

THP015 Open 120C Bake in Argon Atmosphere: A Simplified Approach for Q-Drop Removal 809
  • D. Reschke, J. Ziegler
    DESY, Hamburg

The removal of the Q-drop without field emission by a low temperature (app. 120C) bake procedure is essential in order to achieve the full performance in both electropolished (EP) and chemically etched (BCP) high gradient SCRF Nb accelerator cavities. A simplified procedure applying an open 120C bake out in an Argon atmosphere is presented. First results are compared to the well-established bake-out procedure under vacuum conditions.

THP016 Analysis of Quenches Using Temperature Mapping in 1.3 GHz SCRF Cavities at DESY 812
  • D. Reschke
    DESY, Hamburg

The local thermal breakdown (quench) behavior of one- and nine-cell SCRF Nb accelerator cavities is investigated systematically. For more than 50 cavities, temperature mapping data have been analyzed with respect to surface preparation, Nb material etc. Results on quench location and characteristic correlations are presented.

THP017 Use of Piezoelectric Actuator to Frequency Lock Superconducting Quarter Wave Resonator 815
  • B.K. Sahu, G.K. Chowdhury, S. Ghosh, D. Kanjilal, D.S. Mathuria, R. Mehta, A. Pandey, P. Patra, A. Rai, A. Roy, K. Singh
    IUAC, New Delhi

The frequency control of the superconducting quarter wave resonator at IUAC is currently accomplished by mechanical and electronic tuners which are operated in the time scale of seconds and hundreds of milliseconds to a few tens of microseconds respectively. Due to presence of microphonics, input rf power in the range 200-300 W was required to control the resonator for a typical field of 3-5 MV/m achieved with 6 watts dissipation. Implementation of a novel idea to damp the mechanical vibration with the help of SS-balls has helped to reduce rf power below 100 W. Though resonators are working fine at this power level, we are investigating whether further reduction of rf power is possible using a piezo actuator to control the drift of frequency. The piezo tuner working in hundreds of milli seconds range with the dynamic phase control scheme will share a substantial load from the electronic tuner. As a result, the resonator's phase lock loop will remain locked for less rf power. The initial test results of the piezo tuner will be presented.

THP018 Successful Qualification of the Coaxial Blade Tuner 818
  • R. Paparella, A. Bosotti, C. Pagani, N. Panzeri
    INFN/LASA, Segrate (MI)
  • C. Albrecht, R. Lange, L. Lilje
    DESY, Hamburg
  • J. Knobloch, O. Kugeler, A. Neumann
    BESSY GmbH, Berlin

Cavity tuners are needed to precisely tune the narrow-band resonant frequency of superconducting cavities. The Blade Tuner presented is installed coaxially to the cavity and changes the resonator frequency by varying its length. Piezoceramic actuators add dynamic tuning capabilities, allowing fast compensation of main dynamic instabilities as Lorentz Forces, under pulsed operations, and microphonic noise. A prototype piezo Blade Tuner has been assembled on a TESLA cavity and extensively cold tested inside the horizontal cryostats CHECHIA (DESY) and HoBiCaT (BESSY). Then, as suggested by results, a few minor modifications have been implemented thus achieving the current Blade Tuner design. The introduction of thicker blades re-distributed along the circumference allows to increase its stiffness and fulfill European and American pressure vessel codes, while ensuring requested performances and cost. The paper will present the successful characterization tests performed on the prototype, the extensive mechanical analyses made to validate the final model and the results from qualification tests of first revised Blade Tuner produced, to be installed in the second module of ILCTA at FNAL.

THP019 Third Harmonic Superconducting Cavity Prototypes for the XFEL 821
  • P. Pierini, A. Bosotti, N. Panzeri, D. Sertore
    INFN/LASA, Segrate (MI)
  • H.T. Edwards, M.H. Foley, E.R. Harms, D.V. Mitchell
    Fermilab, Batavia
  • J. Iversen, W. Singer, E. Vogel
    DESY, Hamburg

The third harmonic cavities that will be used at the injector stage in the XFEL to linearize the rf curvature distortions and minimize beam tails in the bunch compressor are based on the rf structures developed at FNAL for the DESY FLASH linac. The design and fabrication procedures have been modified in order to match the slightly different interfaces of XFEL linac modules and the procedures followed by the industrial production of the main (1.3 GHz) XFEL cavities. A revision of the helium vessel design has been required to match the layout of the cryomodule strings, and a lighter version of the tuner has been designed (derived from the 1.3 GHz ILC blade tuner activities). The main changes introduced in the design of the XFEL cavities and the preliminary experience of the fabrication of three industrially produced and processed third harmonic rf structures are described here.

THP021 Development of Inspection Systems for Superconducting Cavities 824
  • Y. Iwashita
    Kyoto ICR, Uji, Kyoto
  • H. Hayano, K. Watanabe
    KEK, Ibaraki

Inspections of superconducting rf cavities seem essential in achieving high achieving gradient. The inspection of interior surface of a superconducting rf cavity with high enough resolution to find defects more than several tens microns is achieved by our high resolution camera system. This system revealed undiscovered defects at just inner sides of the locations predicted by passband-mode and thermometry measurements. This system will help to improve cavity fabrication processs and their yield. This system will be delivered world wide for that purpose. We are planning to widen our activity in this field: developments of new termometry system with easy installation and less cabling and high sensitivity Eddy Current Surface Inspection system for bare niobium sheets. The detailed systems and some preliminary data obtained from the systems will be presented.

THP022 SC Nb Sputtered QWRs for the REX-ISOLDE Accelerator at CERN: Prototype Design and Manufacturing 827
  • M. Pasini, S. Calatroni, L.M.A. Ferreira, D. Ramos, T. Tardy, F. Thierry, T. Trilhe
    CERN, Geneva

The HIE-ISOLDE activity aims at the construction of a superconducting linac based on 101.28 MHz Nb sputtered Quarter Wave Resonators (QWRs), which will be installed downstream the present REX-ISOLDE linac. The present design considers two basic geometries of the cavities (geometric β0 = 6.26% and 10.84%) for which a mechanical, chemical treatment and Nb coating design study has been performed. We report here on the status of the prototype cavity and sputtering tests.

THP023 Crab Cavities for Linear Colliders 830
  • G. Burt, P.K. Ambattu, R.G. Carter, A.C. Dexter, M.I. Tahir
    Cockcroft Institute, Lancaster University, Lancaster
  • C. Adolphsen, Z. Li, A. Seryi, L. Xiao
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • C.D. Beard, D.M. Dykes, P. Goudket, A. Kalinin, L. Ma, P.A. McIntosh
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire
  • L. Bellantoni, B. Chase, M. Church, T.N. Khabiboulline
    Fermilab, Batavia
  • R.M. Jones
    UMAN, Manchester
  • A. Latina, D. Schulte
    CERN, Geneva

Crab cavities have been proposed for a wide number of accelerators and interest in crab cavities has recently increased after the successful operation of a pair of crab cavities in KEK-B. In particular crab cavities are required for both the ILC and CLIC linear colliders for bunch alignment. Consideration of bunch structure and size constraints favours a 3.9 GHz superconducting, multi-cell cavity as the ILC solution, whilst bunch structure and beam-loading considerations suggest an X-band copper travelling wave structure for CLIC. These two cavity solutions are very different in design but share complex design issues. Phase stabilisation, beam loading, wakefields and mode damping are special issues for these crab cavities. Requirements and potential design solutions will be discussed for both colliders.

THP024 Initial Study on the Shape Optimisation of the CLIC Crab Cavity 833
  • P.K. Ambattu, G. Burt, R.G. Carter, A.C. Dexter
    Cockcroft Institute, Lancaster University, Lancaster
  • R.M. Jones
    UMAN, Manchester
  • P.A. McIntosh
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire

The CLIC linear collider will require a crab cavity to align bunches prior to collision. Consideration of the bunch structure leads us to favour the use of X-band copper cavities. Due to the large variation of train to train beam loading, it is necessary to minimise the consequences of beam loading. One solution is to use a travelling wave structure with a large group velocity allowing rapid propagation of amplitude errors from the system. Such a design makes this structure significantly different from previous travelling wave deflecting structures. This paper will look at the implications of this on other cavity parameters and the optimization of the cavity geometry.

THP025 Superconducting Quarter-Wave Resonators for the ATLAS Energy Upgrade 836
  • M.P. Kelly, J.D. Fuerst, S.M. Gerbick, M. Kedzie, P.N. Ostroumov, K.W. Shepard, G.P. Zinkann
    ANL, Argonne

A set of six new 109 MHz β=0.15 superconducting quarter-wave resonators (QWR) has been built at ANL as part of an upgrade to the ATLAS superconducting heavy-ion linac. The final cavity string assembly will also use many of the techniques needed for the next generation of large high-performance ion linacs such as the U.S. Department of Energy's FRIB project. Single-cavity cold tests at T=4.5 K have been performed for three cavities with moveable coupler, rf pickup, and VCX fast tuner as required for the full 6-meter cryomodule assembly. The average maximum accelerating gradient of 4 cavities (3 new + 1 prototype), is EACC=11.2 MV/m (BPEAK=65 mT). Clean cavity string assembly techniques, required here and for most future SRF ion linacs, are fairly well developed. Details on cavity performance including high-field cw operation, microphonics and fast tuning are presented.

THP026 Surface Processing Facilities for Superconducting RF Cavities at ANL 839
  • M.P. Kelly, S.M. Gerbick
    ANL, Argonne
  • D.R. Olis, A.M. Rowe
    Fermilab, Batavia

New SRF cavity processing systems at ANL, including those for electropolishing (EP), high-pressure water rinsing (HPR), and single-cavity clean room assembly have been developed and operated at ANL for use with cavities for a range of electron and ion linac applications. Jointly with FNAL, systems for 1.3 GHz single- and multi-cell elliptical cavities for the linear collider effort have been developed. New systems for use with low-beta TEM-class cavities have also been built and used to process a set of new quarter-wave resonators as part of an upgrade to the ATLAS heavy-ion accelerator at ANL. All of the new hardware is located in a 200 m2 joint ANL/FNAL Superconducting Cavity Surface Process Facility (SCSPF) consisting of two separate chemical processing rooms, a clean anteroom, and a pair of class 10 and 100 clean rooms for HPR and clean assembly. Results of first cold tests for elliptical and TEM-class cavities processed in these facilities are presented.

THP027 Welding Helium Vessels to the 3.9 GHz Superconducting Third Harmonic Cavities 842
  • M.H. Foley, T.T. Arkan, H. Carter, H.T. Edwards, J. Grimm, E.R. Harms, T.N. Khabiboulline, D.V. Mitchell, D.R. Olis, T.J. Peterson, P.A. Pfund, N. Solyak, D.J. Watkins, M. Wong
    Fermilab, Batavia
  • G. Galasso
    University of Udine, Udine

Funding: This work was supported by Fermilab Research Alliance, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the United States Department of Energy.
The 3.9 GHz 3rd harmonic cavities are designed to serve as compensation devices for improving the longitudinal emittance of the free-electron laser FLASH at DESY. These cavities operate in the TM010 mode, and will be located between the injector and the accelerating cavities. Fermilab is obligated to provide DESY with a cryomodule containing four 3rd harmonic cavities. In this paper we discuss the process of welding helium vessels to these cavities. Included will be a description of the joint designs and weld preparations, development of the weld parameters, and the procedure for monitoring the frequency spectrum during TIG welding to prevent the cavity from undergoing plastic deformation. Also discussed will be issues related to qualifying the dressed cavities as exceptional vessels (relative to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code) for horizontal testing and eventual installation at DESY, due to the necessary use of non-ASME code materials and non-full penetration electron beam welds.

THP028 Status of 3.9 GHz Superconducting RF Cavity Technology at Fermilab 845
  • E.R. Harms, T.T. Arkan, V.T. Bocean, H. Carter, H.T. Edwards, M.H. Foley, T.N. Khabiboulline, M.W. McGee, D.V. Mitchell, D.R. Olis, A.M. Rowe, N. Solyak
    Fermilab, Batavia

Funding: Operated by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the United States Department of Energy.
Fermilab is involved in an effort to design, build, test and deliver four 3.9 GHz superconducting rf cavities within a single cryomodule to be delivered to DESY as a 'third harmonic' structure for the FLASH facility to improve the longitudinal emittance. In addition to an overall status update we will present recent results from single 'dressed' cavity horizontal tests and shipping and alignment measurements.


slides icon


THP029 Performance of 3.9-GHZ Superconducting Cavities 848
  • E.R. Harms, H.T. Edwards, A. Hocker, T.N. Khabiboulline, N. Solyak
    Fermilab, Batavia

Funding: Operated by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the United States Department of Energy.
3.9 GHz SRF cavities have been built and tested at Fermilab for use in the DESY FLASH facility. Six cavities have undergone testing in various scenarios. Comparisons of performance in these different conditions, from bare cavities in a vertical dewar to 'dressed' in the horizontal test stand and intermediate test configurations are presented. We also report on analysis of expected maximum performance and an estimate of same.

THP030 High Gradient Test Results of 325 MHz Single Spoke Cavity at Fermilab 851
  • G. Apollinari, I.G. Gonin, T.N. Khabiboulline, G. Lanfranco, A. Mukherjee, J.P. Ozelis, L. Ristori, G.V. Romanov, D.A. Sergatskov, R.L. Wagner, R.C. Webber
    Fermilab, Batavia
  • J.D. Fuerst, M.P. Kelly, K.W. Shepard
    ANL, Argonne

The High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) project represents the current effort at Fermilab to develop 60 MeV Proton/H- Linac as a front end for possible use in the Project X. Eighteen superconducting β=0.21 single spoke resonators (SSR), operating at 325 MHz, comprise the first stage of the HINS cold section. Two SSR cavities have now been fabricated in industry under this project and undergone surface treatment that is described here. We report the results of high gradient tests of the first SSR in the Vertical Test System (VTS). The cavity successfully achieved accelerating gradient of 13.5 MV/m; higher than the design operating gradient of 10 MV/m. The history of multipacting and conditioning during the VTS tests will be discussed. Experimental measurements of the cavity mechanical and vibration properties including Lorenz force detuning and measurements of X-rays resulting from field emission are also presented.

THP033 Superconducting Quarter-Wave Resonator Cavity and Cryomodule Development for a Heavy Ion Re-accelerator 854
  • W. Hartung, J. Bierwagen, S. Bricker, C. Compton, J. DeLauter, P. Glennon, M. Hodek, M.J. Johnson, F. Marti, P.S. Miller, D. Norton, J. Popielarski, L. Popielarski, D. Sanderson, J. Wlodarczak, R.C. York
    NSCL, East Lansing, Michigan
  • A. Facco
    INFN/LNL, Legnaro, Padova
  • E.N. Zaplatin
    FZJ, Jülich

A superconducting linac is being planned for re-acceleration of exotic ions produced by the Coupled Cyclotron Facility at Michigan State University. The re-accelerator will include a gas stopper, a charge breeder, a normal conducting radio-frequency quadrupole, and two types of superconducting quarter-wave resonators (QWRs) for re-acceleration to energies of up to 3 MeV per nucleon initially, with a subsequent upgrade path to 12 MeV per nucleon. The QWRs (80.5 MHz, optimum beta = 0.041 and 0.085, made from bulk niobium) are similar to existing cavities presently used at INFN-Legnaro. The re-accelerator's cryomodules will accommodate up to 8 cavities, along with superconducting solenoids for focussing. Active and passive shielding is required to ensure that the solenoids' field does not degrade the cavity performance. First prototypes of both QWR types have been fabricated and tested. A prototype solenoid has been procured and tested. A test cryomodule has been fabricated: one QWR, one solenoid, and two other beam line elements have been installed inside. This paper will cover the re-accelerator cavity and cryomodule prototyping efforts, results so far, and future plans.


slides icon


THP034 CW RF Systems of the Cornell ERL Injector 857
  • S.A. Belomestnykh, Z.A. Conway, J. Dobbins, R.P.K. Kaplan, M. Liepe, P. Quigley, J.J. Reilly, J.P. Sikora, C.R. Strohman, V. Veshcherevich
    CLASSE, Ithaca, New York

Funding: Work is supported by the National Science Foundation grant PHY 0131508.
Two high power 1300 MHz rf systems have been developed for the Cornell University ERL Injector. The first system, based on a 16 kWCW IOT transmitter, is to provide rf power to a buncher cavity. The second system employs five 120 kWCW klystrons to feed 2-cell superconducting cavities of the injector cryomodule. The sixth, spare klystron is used to power a deflecting cavity in a pulsed mode for beam diagnostics. A digital LLRF control stem was designed and implemented for precise regulation of the cavities' field amplitudes and phases. All components of these systems have been recently installed and commissioned. The first operational experience with the systems is discussed.

THP035 Multipactor in Minimum Electric Field Regions of Transmission Lines and Superconducting RF Cavities 860
  • S.A. Belomestnykh, V.D. Shemelin
    CLASSE, Ithaca, New York

Funding: Work is supported by the National Science Foundation grant PHY 0131508
Multipactor in beam-pipe transitions of superconducting rf cavities can be explained using rf potential well theory*. In this paper we present simulation results supporting this explanation for both rf cavities and transmission lines.

*S. Belomestnykh and V. Shemelin, "Multipacting-free Transitions between Cavities and Beam-pipes," submitted to Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A.

THP036 Oscillating Superleak Transducers for Quench Detection in Superconducting ILC Cavities Cooled with He-II 863
  • Z.A. Conway, D.L. Hartill, E.N. Smith
    CLASSE, Ithaca, New York
  • H. Padamsee
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

Funding: DOE and NSF
Quench detection for 9-cell LLC cavities is presently a cumbersome procedure requiring two or more cold tests. One is to identify the cell-pair involved via quench field measurement in several pass band modes, followed by a second cold test with many fixed thermometers attached to the culprit cell-pair to identify the particular cell, and possibly a third measurement to zoom in on the quench spot with many localized fixed thermometers. We report here on a far more efficient alternative method which utilizes a few (e.g. 8) oscillating super-leak transducers to detect the He-II second sound wave driven by the defect induced quench. Results characterizing defect location on a 9-cell reentrant cavity with He-II second sound detection and corroborating measurements with carbon thermometers will be presented.


slides icon


THP037 RF Design of a Spoke Resonator for High Power Free-Electron Lasers 866
  • F.L. Krawczyk, D.C. Nguyen
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
  • S.J. Cooke
    NRL, Washington, DC
  • B. Rusnak
    LLNL, Livermore, California
  • T.I. Smith
    Stanford University, Stanford, Califormia
  • E.L. Wright
    Beam-Wave Research, Inc., Union City

Funding: Supported by the High-Energy Laser Joint Technology Office
We are investigating spoke resonators that originally were proposed for moderate energy proton acceleration for application in high-average-current free-electron lasers (FEL). This structure holds the promise of alleviating the BBU limitations of conventional rf structures. Spoke resonator have several advantages: 1) strong coupling simplifies the access to higher order modes (HOM), 2) at the same frequency a spoke resonator is about half the size of an elliptical resonator, 3) the spokes provide additional mechanical stability and stiffening , 4) the power and HOM couplers can be attached to the cavity body and do not take up additional space along the length of the accelerator, 5) the presence of the spokes limits the polarizations of the HOMs to two orientations which facilitates the selection of HOM coupler positions. The rf performance of a spoke resonator specifically designed for high-current electron applications (beta=1.0) will be presented and compared with the expected performance of elliptical resonators designed for such applications. Besides the structure's effectiveness for acceleration also HOM properties will be presented.


slides icon


THP038 A New SRF Cavity Shape with Minimized Surface Electric and Magnetic Fields for the ILC 867
  • Z. Li, C. Adolphsen
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California

Funding: Work supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.
The TESLA-shape cavity has been chosen as the baseline design for the 1.3 GHz SCRF linacs of the International Linear Collider. However, there is ongoing research to develop new cavity shapes that will support higher gradients and hence lower the machine cost. The critical magnetic flux (Bc) of the niobium, which is approximately 180 mT, ultimately limits the gradient achievable in a superconducting cavity. Thus far, the new designs have focused on minimizing the peak surface magnetic field (Bs) for a given on-axis gradient, while relaxing the requirement on the peak surface electric field (Es). For example, the Low Loss (LL) design reduces Bs by more than 10% relative to the baseline design, which should allow a gradient of up to 50 MV/m with a 20% reduction in cryogenics loss. However, Es is about 15% higher in this case, which enhances field emission that in practice is one of the main impediments to achieving the Bc-limited gradient. In this paper, we will present an optimized cavity shape that reduces both Bs and Es, and thus should have a better chance of reaching higher gradients. The design of HOM couplers for wakefield damping in this cavity will also be presented.


slides icon


THP039 SRF Cavity Imperfection Studies Using Advanced Shape Uncertainty Quantification Tools 870
  • V. Akcelik, K. Ko, L. Lee, Z. Li, C.-K. Ng, L. Xiao
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California

Funding: Work supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.
The shape deviation of a SRF cavity from the design shape may result in significant impact on cavity performance and wakefields that could lead to unexpected effects in beam dynamics. Yet, most of these deviations are unknown in the final cavity installation because of the complicated process of assembly and tuning. It is desirable to be able to uncover such distortions using measurable rf quantities. With these data, the cavity performance can be analyzed and realistic tolerance criteria may be implemented in the cavity design and manufacture for quality assurance. To perform such analyses, SLAC has developed advanced Shape Determination Tools, under the SciDAC support for high performance computing, that recover the real cavity shape by solving an inverse problem. These tools have been successfully applied to analyze shape distortions to many SRF cavities, and identified the cause of unexpected cavity behaviors. The capabilities and applications of these tools will be presented.

THP040 A New TEM-Type Deflecting and Crabbing RF Structure 873
  • J.R. Delayen, H. Wang
    JLAB, Newport News, Virginia

Funding: Supported by US DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06-OR23177
A new type of rf structure for the deflection and crabbing of particle bunches is introduced. It is comprised of a number of parallel TEM-resonant lines operating in opposite phase from each other. One of its main advantages is its compactness compared to conventional crabbing cavities operating in the TM110 mode, thus allowing low frequency designs. The properties and characteristics of this type of structure are presented.

THP041 Analysis of Electronic Damping of Microphonics in Superconducting Cavities 876
  • J.R. Delayen
    JLAB, Newport News, Virginia
  • S.U. De Silva
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia

Funding: Supported by US DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177
In low current applications superconducting cavities have a high susceptibility to microphonics induced by external vibrations and pressure fluctuations. Due to the narrow bandwidth of the cavities, the amount of rf power required to stabilize the phase and amplitude of the cavity field is dictated by the amount of microphonics that need to be compensated. Electronic damping of microphonics is investigated as a method to reduce the level of microphonics and of the amount of rf power required. The current work presents a detailed analysis of electronic damping and of the residual cavity field amplitude and phase errors due to the fluctuations of cavity frequency and beam current.

THP042 High-Gradient SRF R&D for ILC at Jefferson Lab 879
  • R.L. Geng, G. Ciovati, A.C. Crawford
    JLAB, Newport News, Virginia
  • M.S. Champion, D.A. Sergatskov
    Fermilab, Batavia
  • F. Furuta, K. Saito
    KEK, Ibaraki

Funding: Supported by DOE
Jefferson Lab plays an active role in the ILC high-gradient SRF R&D. Eight 9-cell cavities have been processed and tested so far by using the state-of-the-art recipes. Five reached a maximum gradient of over 32 MV/m. However, not surprisingly, the high-gradient performance is not necessarily reached during the first test. Re-processing by progressively more material removal can improve performance ultimately, but the number of re-processing cycles needed is un-predictable. Some cavities are quench limited repeatedly at around 20 MV/m. The quench locations are near the equator weld of specific cells. Based on the non-trivial high-gradient experiences in the past two years, we come to the conclusion that new capabilities beyond the state-of-the-art must be added to the existing SRF infrastructures in order to reliably achieve high gradients at a low cost. Targeted R&D is required to identify and characterize gradient limiting defects and field emitters. An enhanced high-gradient R&D program is emerging at JLab for continued contribution to realize the ambitious ILC gradient yield goal.


slides icon


THP043 Preliminary Results from Multi-Cell Seamless Niobium Cavities Fabricated by Hydroforming 882
  • W. Singer, I. Jelezov, A. Matheisen, X. Singer
    DESY, Hamburg
  • G. Ciovati, P. Kneisel, M. Morrone
    JLAB, Newport News, Virginia

Funding: This manuscript has been partially authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177.
The technology of forming multi-cell seamless niobium cavities has been developed at DESY within the European CARE (Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe) program. Three cell units have been manufactured successfully and a 9-cell cavity has recently been completed from three sub-sections and will be tested in the near future. Meanwhile, we have equipped two 3-cell units – one center unit of a 9-cell cavity and one end-unit – with niobium beam pipes, have tuned these units and carried out cryogenic rf tests after standard bcp surface treatments had been applied to these cavities. In addition, we will take temperature maps with Jlab's two-cell thermometry system; since in cavities fabricated by 'standard' methods such as deep drawing of half cells and electron beam welding cavity performance limitations have often been found at or near equator welds. It will be of particular interest to compare the seamless cavity quench locations to those from standard cavities. This contribution will report about the cryogenic test results and the T-mapping findings.

THP044 Coaxial Coupling Scheme for Fundamental and Higher Order Modes in Superconducting Cavities 885
  • J.K. Sekutowicz, G. Ciovati, P. Kneisel
    JLAB, Newport News, Virginia
  • L. Xiao
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California

Funding: This manuscript has been authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177.
Higher Order Modes generated by a particle beam passing through a superconducting accelerating cavity have to be damped to avoid beam instabilities. A coaxial coupler located in the beam pipes of the cavities provides for better propagation of HOMs and strong damping in appropriate HOM dampers. The whole damping device can be designed as a detachable system. If appropriately dimensioned, the rf currents can be minimized at the flange position. Additionally, the coaxial system also provides efficient coupling of fundamental mode rf power into the superconducting cavity. Compared to presently available solutions for HOM damping, this scheme provides for several advantages: stronger HOM damping, flangeable solution, exchangeability of the HOM damping device on a cavity, less complexity of the superconducting cavity, possible cost advantages. This contribution will describe the results of room temperature measurement and discuss modeling, which resulted in an optimized layout of a cavity-coupler system.

THP045 Twisted Structures and Their Application as Accelerating Structures 888
  • J.L. Wilson, Y.W. Kang
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  • A.E. Fathy
    University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee

Funding: This work has been sponsored by ORNL-SNS. The Spallation Neutron Source is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy.
Normally, reactive loading is employed to construct accelerating cavities in order to slow the phase velocity of the electromagnetic wave. However, due to their non-uniform cross section, they tend to be difficult to machine, requiring complicated welding or brazing processes which increase the total cost. Although empty straight waveguides can only support faster-than-light propagation, empty twisted waveguides can support propagation at or below c. Because twisted structures have a uniform cross section in the transverse plane, they offer several potential advantages over dielectric loaded structures or other types of periodic structures. Of particular interest are twisted structures whose longitudinal cross section has been selected to resemble well-known accelerating structures, such as the iris-loaded accelerating structure and the TESLA type elliptical cavity. Comparisons are drawn between these conventional cavities and their twisted counterparts. Specifically, the phase velocity and dispersion relationship are discussed, the accelerating mode is found and analyzed, and R/Q is calculated. Design guidelines for the design of twisted structures are given.

THP046 Preliminary Design of the Slow Chopper for the SPIRAL 2 Project 891
  • M. Di Giacomo
    GANIL, Caen
  • A.C. Caruso, G. Gallo, D. Rifuggiato, A. Spartà, E. Zappalà
    INFN/LNS, Catania
  • A. Longhitano
    ALTEK, San Gregorio (CATANIA)

The SPIRAL2 LEBT line uses a single chopper situated in the line section common to protons, deuterons and A/Q=3 ions. The paper describes the design and the test of the power circuits, based on standard components and working up to 10 kV, at a 1 kHz repetition rate.

THP047 Design of the MEBT Rebunchers for the SPIRAL2 Driver 894
  • J.F. Leyge, M. Di Giacomo, M. Michel, P. Toussaint
    GANIL, Caen

The SPIRAL2 project uses a RFQ, normal conducting rebunchers and a superconducting linac to accelerate high intensity beams of protons, deuterons and heavier ions. All cavities work at 88 MHz, the beta after of the RFQ is 0.04 and 3 rebunchers are located in the MEBT line, which accepts ions with A/q up to 6. The paper describes the RF design and the technological solutions proposed for an original 3-gap cavity, characterised by very large beam holes (60 mm) and providing up to 120 kV of effective voltage.

THP048 RF Power Amplifiers for the SPIRAL2 Driver: Requirements and Status 897
  • M. Di Giacomo, B. Ducoudret
    GANIL, Caen

The SPIRAL2 project uses an RFQ, normal conducting rebunchers and a superconducting linac to accelerate high intensity beams of protons, deuterons and heavier ions. All cavities work at 88 MHz, are independently phased and powered by amplifiers whose power ranges from a few kW to 250 kW. The paper describes the amplifier requirements, the proposed solutions and their status.

THP049 Optimization of Spiral-Loaded Cavities Using the 3D Code OPERA/SOPRANO 900
  • M. Schuh
    CERN, Geneva
  • K.-U. Kühnel, C.P. Welsch
    MPI-K, Heidelberg
  • M. Schuh
    GSI, Darmstadt

Rebunching cavities are today routinely used for matching a beam of charged particles between different accelerator structures, and thus optimizing the overall transmission and beam quality. At low resonance frequencies, unnecessary large dimensions of these cavities can be avoided by using spiral-loaded cavities. The optimization of these structures is a complicated process in which a wide range of different parameters have to be modified essentially in parallel. In this contribution, we investigate in detail the characteristics of a model structure with the 3D code OPERA/SOPRANO. This includes the optimization of the structure in terms of the spiral geometry for a given resonance frequency, the investigation of power losses on the inner surfaces, and the possibility of cavity tuning by means of a tuning cylinder.

THP052 Development of a High-Pressure Chemical Etching Method as a Surface Treatment for High-Field Accelerating Structures Made of Copper 903
  • H. Tomizawa, H. Dewa, H. Hanaki, A. Mizuno, T. Taniuchi
    JASRI/SPring-8, Hyogo-ken

The acceleration gradient is limited by breakdown in an accelerating rf structure, including its surface condition of the inner wall. The surface treatment is an important technique to achieve the maximal acceleration gradient of an accelerating structure. We chose chemical etching as a method of surface treatment for accelerating rf structures made of copper. To study rf breakdown and effect of surface treatments, we used a pillbox-type single cell rf gun cavity. The highest cathode surface field (190 MV/m) of rf gun cavity was accomplished with this surface treatment under rf-conditioning elapsed time (21 days) in 2004. SPring-8 rf gun has been operating with the highest gradient in the world. This indicates that our treatment is considerably effective to improve the inner cavity surface made of copper. Further, we developed the high-pressure chemical etching for more complicated inner structures in 2006. Using a cartridge-type photocathode rf gun, high-field experiments were performed with cathode plugs chemical etching treated under deferent pressure condition. We report these results on highest gradient, using test copper samples treated with high-pressure chemical etching.

THP053 The Status of Nextef; The X-band Test Facility in KEK 906
  • S. Matsumoto, M. Akemoto, S. Fukuda, T. Higo, N. Kudoh, H. Matsushita, H. Nakajima, T. Shidara, K. Yokoyama, M. Yoshida
    KEK, Ibaraki

Nextef is a new X-band (11.4GHz) test facility in KEK. All of the key devices of this facility are from our old X-band Test Facility(XTF). By combining the power from two klystrons, 100 MW maximum X-band rf power is produced and 75MW is available in the bunker where the high power test of the high gradient accelerator structures will be done. The commissioning of the facility for the structure testing has almost done. The status of the facilityis is reported.

THP054 Status of RF Sources in Super-Conducting RF Test Facility (STF) at KEK 909
  • S. Fukuda, M. Akemoto, H. Hayano, H. Honma, H. Katagiri, S. Kazakov, S. Matsumoto, T. Matsumoto, S. Michizono, H. Nakajima, K. Nakao, T. Shidara, T. Takenaka, Y. Yano, M. Yoshida
    KEK, Ibaraki

Phase 0.5 and Phase 1.0 of the Superconducting RF Test Facility (STF) have been developed since 2005 in KEK. We have completed the two rf-sources and they have been used for the evaluation for the components of power distribution system (PDS) and couplers which were installed in the 5m-cryomodules. We have developed some rf components which is used in the power distribution system(PDS). Phase 1.0 have been conducted now and we attempt the R&D of PDS required in ILC project. This report describes the recent status of the rf source of STF in KEK including the modulator, PDS and LLRF.

THP055 Characteristics of Different Materials on High-Gradient Experiments 912
  • K. Yokoyama, S. Fukuda, Y. Higashi, T. Higo, N. Kudoh, S. Matsumoto, Y. Watanabe
    KEK, Ibaraki

High-gradient experiments have been performed using a narrow waveguide that has a field of approximately 200 MV/m at an rf power of 100 MW. The study investigates the characteristics of different materials at high-gradient rf breakdown. This paper reports the results of high-gradient experiments and observations of the surface of stainless-steel waveguides.


slides icon


THP056 Improvement in the ACS Cavity Design for the J-PARC Linac Energy Upgrade 915
  • H. Ao, K. Hasegawa, K. Hirano, T. Morishita, A. Ueno
    JAEA/LINAC, Ibaraki-ken
  • H. Asano
    JAEA/J-PARC, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken
  • M. Ikegami, F. Naito
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • V.V. Paramonov
    RAS/INR, Moscow
  • Y. Yamazaki
    J-PARC, KEK & JAEA, Ibaraki-ken

The ACS (Annular-ring Coupled Structure) cavities were under development for the J-PARC Linac from 190 MeV to 400 MeV. We have fixed the cavity specification, taking into account the results of the high-power conditioning and the fabrication experience. The mass production of the ACS with a tight time schedule is now an issue, since the user community strongly requests the beam power upgrade as early as possible. Therefore, the design and the fabrication process of the ACS cavity have been reexamined on the basis of the experience, stored during the course of the fabrication and the tuning of the prototype ACS tanks. Here, we also discussed about the key issues on the mass production with a manufacturer. The cavity shape, that required complicated machining, was simplified to some extent, while the frequency tuning strategy was reconsidered to reduce the production period. The paper describes these recent activities on the ACS development.

THP057 Development of RF Cavities for the SHB System of the L-band Electron Linac at Osaka University 918
  • G. Isoyama, S. Kashiwagi, R. Kato, M. Morio, S. Suemine
    ISIR, Osaka

Funding: This research is partly supported by the accelerator support program to universities conducted by the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization in Japan.
The 40 MeV L-band electron linac at the Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University is operated for joint-use in Osaka University. It is equipped with a three-stage sub-harmonic buncher (SHB) system consisting of two 108 MHz and a 216 MHz rf cavities to produce a high-intensity single-bunch beam. They were quarter-wavelength coaxial cavities made of a clad plate of copper on stainless steel and were inefficiently cooled with water flowing through a pipe wound on their outer surfaces made of stainless steel. We have renewed the cavities with new ones made only of oxygen-free copper to solve the problem. We made physical design and basic mechanical design of the new rf cavities by ourselves by taking a mechanical design of the SHB cavity of the electron-positron linac at KEK, Japan as a model. Special care was devoted in the mechanical design to cool the most part of the cavities directly with water instead of relying on heat conductivity in copper so that they are stable in regard to temperature. They have been installed in the linac and have been working well in expected performance. We will report details of design and fabrication of the new SHB cavities.

THP058 Accelerating Structure for C-Band Electron Linear Accelerator Optimization 921
  • S.V. Kutsaev, A. Anisimov, N.P. Sobenin
    MEPhI, Moscow
  • M.A. Ferderer, A.A. Krasnov, A.A. Zavadtsev
    ScanTech, Atlanta, Georgia

The results of analysis and comparison of different linear accelerator designs for 10 MeV facility powered by 4.5 MW klystron on 5712 MHz operation frequencies presented. Several concepts of accelerator including standing wave and traveling wave ones with either rf or magnetic focusing were considered. Cells geometry and beam dynamics parameters in these types of accelerators featuring high capture factor were obtained using numeric simulation methods. The computer simulation code for traveling wave linac optimization based on beam dynamics with space charge consideration was developed. Accelerating structures and input coupler for traveling wave linac along with standing wave one were designed. The task of energy variation was solved.

THP059 The Cut Disk Structure Parameters for Medium Proton Energy Range 924
  • V.V. Paramonov
    RAS/INR, Moscow

For intense proton beam acceleration the structure aperture diameter should be ~30 mm. With such aperture room temperature coupled cell accelerating structures have the maximal effective shunt impedance Ze at operating frequency ~650 MHz. For this frequency well known Side Coupled Stricture (SCS), Disk and Washer Structure (DAW), Annular Coupled Structure (ACS) have large transversal dimension, leading to essential technological problems. The Cut Disk Structure (CDS) has been proposed to join high Ze and coupling coefficient kc values, but preferably for high energy linacs. In this report parameters of the four windows CDS option are considered at operating frequency ~700 MHz for proton energy range from 80 MeV to 200 MeV. The cells diameter ~30 cm and kc ~0.12 result naturally, but Ze value is of (0.7-0.9) from Ze value for SCS (kc=0.03). Small cells diameter opens possibility of CDS applications for twice lower frequency and structure parameters at operating frequency ~ 350 MHz are estimated too. Cooling conditions for heavy duty cycle operation are considered.


slides icon


THP060 Room Temperature Accelerating Structure for Heavy Ion Linacs 927
  • V.V. Paramonov, V.A. Moiseev
    RAS/INR, Moscow
  • I.V. Bylinskii
    TRIUMF, Vancouver

In this report we consider room temperature DTL structure for heavy ions acceleration in energy range 150 keV/u - 400 keV/u. The structure design is based on known and proven solutions. Due to design idea, the structure has no end wall problem. It allows flexible segmentation in cavities and transverse focusing elements placing outside cavity. As compared to well known IH DTL, considered structure has smaller transverse dimensions and is designated for lower operating frequency. The structure promises high rf efficiency - with careful elements optimization calculated effective shunt impedance value is higher than 1.0 GOhm/m for operating frequency ~ 70 MHz, E~150 keV/u.

THP061 High Power Test of a Low Group Velocity X-Band Accelerator Structure for CLIC 930
  • S. Döbert, A. Grudiev, G. Riddone, M. Taborelli, W. Wuensch, R. Zennaro
    CERN, Geneva
  • C. Adolphsen, V.A. Dolgashev, L. Laurent, J.R. Lewandowski, S.G. Tantawi, F. Wang, J.W. Wang
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • S. Fukuda, Y. Higashi, T. Higo, S. Matsumoto, K. Ueno, K. Yokoyama
    KEK, Ibaraki

In recent years evidence has been found that the maximum sustainable gradient in an accelerating structure depends on the rf power flow through the structure. The CLIC study group consequently designed a new prototype structure for CLIC with a very low group velocity, input power and average aperture (a/λ = 0.12). The 18 cell structure has a group velocity of 2.4% at the entrance and 1% at the last cell. Several of these structures have been made in collaboration between KEK, SLAC and CERN. A total of five brazed-disk structures and two quadrant structures have been made. The high power results of some of these structures are presented. The first KEK/SLAC built structure reached an unloaded gradient in excess of 100 MV/m at a pulse length of 230 ns with a breakdown rate below 10-6. The high-power testing was done using the NLCTA facility at SLAC.

THP062 Design of an X-Band Accelerating Structure for the CLIC Main Linac 933
  • A. Grudiev, W. Wuensch
    CERN, Geneva

The rf design of an accelerating structure for the CLIC main linac is presented. The structure is designed to provide 100 MV/m averaged accelerating gradient at 12 GHz with an rf-to-beam efficiency as high as 27.7%. The design takes into account both aperture and HOM damping requirements coming from beam dynamics as well as the limitations related to rf breakdown and pulsed surface heating.

THP063 A New Local Field Quantity Describing the High Gradient Limit of Accelerating Structures 936
  • A. Grudiev, W. Wuensch
    CERN, Geneva

A new local field quantity which gives the high gradient performance limit of accelerating structures in the presence of vacuum rf breakdown is presented. A model of the breakdown trigger based on the pulsed heating of a potential breakdown site by the field emission currents and driven by a new field quantity, a modified Poynting vector, has been derived. The field quantity Sc takes into account both active and reactive power flow on the surface. This new quantity has been evaluated for many X-band and 30 GHz rf tests, both travelling wave and standing wave, and the value of Sc achieved in the experiments agrees well with analytical estimates.


slides icon


THP064 Development Status of the Pi-Mode Accelerating Structure (PIMS) for Linac4 939
  • M. Vretenar, P. Bourquin, R. De Morais Amaral, G. Favre, F. Gerigk, J.-M. Lacroix, T. Tardy, R. Wegner
    CERN, Geneva

The high-energy section of Linac4, between 100 and 160 MeV, will be made of a sequence of 12 seven-cell accelerating cavities of the Pi-Mode Structure (PIMS) type, resonating at 352 MHz. Compared to other structures used in this energy range, cavities operating in pi-mode with a low number of cells have the advantage of simplified construction and tuning, compensating for the fact that the shunt impedance is about 10% lower because of the lower frequency. Field stability in steady state and in presence of transients is assured by the low number of cells and by the relatively high coupling factor of 5%. Standardising the linac rf ystem to a single frequency is considered as an additional economical and operational advantage. The mechanical design of the PIMS will be very similar to that of the 352 MHz normal conducting 5-cell LEP accelerating cavities, which have been successfully operated at CERN for 15 years. After reviewing the basic design principles, the paper will focus on the tuning strategy, on the field stability calculations and on the mechanical design. It will also report the results of measurement on a cold model and the design of a full-scale prototype.

THP065 Shunt Impedance Studies in the ISIS Linac 942
  • D.C. Plostinar
    STFC/RAL/ASTeC, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon
  • A.P. Letchford
    STFC/RAL/ISIS, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon

The ISIS linac consists of four DTL tanks that accelerate a 50 pps, 20 mA H- beam up to 70 MeV before injecting it into an 800 MeV synchrotron. Over the last decades, the linac has proved to be a strong and reliable injector for ISIS, which is a significant achievement considering that two of the tanks are more than 50 years old. At the time the machine was designed, the limited computing power available and the absence of 3D electromagnetic (EM) simulation codes, made the creation of a linac optimized for power efficiency almost impossible, so from this point of view, the ISIS linac is quite simple by today's standards. In this paper, we make a shunt impedance comparison study using the power consumption data collected from ISIS and the results obtained when simulating each of the four DTL tanks with 2D and 3D EM codes. The comparison will allow us to check the accuracy of our simulation codes and models and to assess their relative performance. It is particularly important to benchmark these codes against real data, in preparation for their use in the design of a proposed new linac, which will replace the currently aging ISIS injector.

THP066 Breakdown in Pressurized RF Cavities 945
  • R. Sah, M. Alsharo'a, R.P. Johnson, M.L. Neubauer
    Muons, Inc, Batavia
  • M. BastaniNejad, A.A. Elmustafa
    Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia
  • J.M. Byrd, D. Li
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  • D. Rose, C.H. Thoma, D.R. Welch
    Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, New Mexico
  • G.M. Wang
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia

The performance of many particle accelerators is limited by the maximum electric gradient that can be realized in rf cavities. Recent studies have shown that high gradients can be achieved quickly in 805 MHz cavities pressurized with dense hydrogen gas, because the gas can suppress, or essentially eliminate, dark currents and multipacting. In this project, two new test cells operating at 500 MHz and 1.3 GHz will be built and tested, and the high pressure technique will be used to suppress the vacuum effects of evacuated rf cavities, so that the role of metallic surfaces in rf cavity breakdown can be isolated and studied as a function of external magnetic field, frequency, and surface preparation. Previous studies have indicated that the breakdown probability is proportional to a high power of the surface electromagnetic field, in accordance with the Fowler-Nordheim description of electron emission from a cold cathode. The experiments will be compared with computer simulations of the rf breakdown process.

THP069 Design and Test of the Triple-Harmonic Buncher for the NSCL Reaccelerator 948
  • Q. Zhao, V. Andreev, J. Brandon, G. Machicoane, F. Marti, J.C. Oliva, J. Ottarson, J.J. Vincent
    NSCL, East Lansing, Michigan

To meet the requirement of a small output longitudinal beam emittance from the reaccelerator, a triple-harmonic buncher operating at the fundamental frequency of 80 MHz upstream the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linac has been designed, manufactured and tested at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). The buncher consists of two coaxial resonators with a single gridded gap. One cavity provides both the fundamental and the third harmonic simultaneously with l/4 and 3l/4 modes respectively, while the other for the second harmonic with a l/4 mode. This buncher combines the advantages of using high quality factor resonator and only a pair of grids. Details on design considerations, electromagnetic simulations, and test results are presented.

THP070 Surface-Loss Power Calculations for the LANSCE DTL 951
  • S.S. Kurennoy
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico

The surface losses in the drift-tube linac (DTL) tanks 3 and 4 of the LANSCE linear accelerator are calculated using 3-D electromagnetic modeling with the CST MicroWave Studio (MWS). The results are used to provide more realistic power estimates for the 201.25 MHz rf upgrade design within the LANSCE-R project. We compared 3-D MWS results with those from traditional 2-D Superfish computations for DTL cells and their simplified models and found differences on the level of a few percent. The differences are traced to a 3-D effect consisting in a redistribution of the surface currents on the drift tubes (DT) produced by the DT stem. The dependence of MWS results on the mesh size used in computations is also discussed.

THP071 Efficient Low-Beta H-Mode Accelerating Structures with PMQ Focusing 954
  • S.S. Kurennoy, J.F. O'Hara, E.R. Olivas, L. Rybarcyk
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico

We are developing high-efficiency room-temperature rf accelerating structures for beam velocities in the range of a few percent of the speed of light by merging two well-known ideas: H-mode cavities and the transverse beam focusing with permanent-magnet quadrupoles (PMQ). Combining electromagnetic 3-D modeling with beam dynamics simulations and thermal-stress analysis, we have found that the H-mode structures with PMQ focusing provide a very efficient and practical accelerator for light-ion beams of considerable currents. Such accelerating structures following a short RFQ can be used in the front end of ion linacs or in stand-alone applications such as a compact deuteron-beam accelerator up to the energy of a few MeV.


slides icon


THP072 Performance of a 1.3 GHz Normal-Conducting 5-Cell Standing-Wave Cavity 957
  • F. Wang, C. Adolphsen, J.W. Wang
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California

Funding: Work supported by Department of Energy contract DE-AC03-76SF00515.
A 5-cell, normal-conducting, 1.3 GHz, standing-wave cavity was built as a prototype capture accelerator for the ILC positron source. Although the ILC uses predominately super-conducting cavities, the capture cavity location in both a high radiation environment and in a solenoidal magnetic field requires it to be normal conducting. With the ILC requirements of relatively long beam pulse on-time (1 msec at 5 Hz) and high gradient for efficient positron capture (15 MV/m), achieving adequate cavity cooling to prevent detuning was challenging. This paper presents the operational performance of this cavity including its breakdown characteristics as a function of gradient, pulse length and solenoidal magnetic field strength. In addition, these results are compared with those from other normal-conducting cavities at various frequencies

THP073 Progress in L-Band Power Distribution System R&D at SLAC 960
  • C.D. Nantista, C. Adolphsen, F. Wang
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California

Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.
We report on the L-band rf power distribution system (PDS) developed at SLAC for Fermilab's NML superconducting test accelerator facility. The makeup of the system, which allows tailoring of the power distribution to cavities by pairs, is briefly described. Cold test measurements of the system and the results of high power processing are presented. We also investigate the feasibility of eliminating the expensive, lossy circulators from the PDS in the ILC linacs by taking advantage of our scheme of pair-feeding through 3-dB hybrids. A computational model is used to simulate the impact on field stability of inter-cavity coupling due to reduced isolation. Measurements of typically achievable hybrid port isolations provide the likely magnitude for such coupling.

THP074 A New Accelerator Structure Concept: the Zipper Structure 963
  • C.D. Nantista
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California

Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.
I introduce a novel normal-conducting accelerator structure combining standing wave and traveling wave characteristics, with relatively open cells. I describe the concept and geometry, optimize parameters, and discuss the advantages and limitations this new structure presents.

THP075 X-Band Traveling Wave RF Deflector Structures 966
  • J.W. Wang, S.G. Tantawi
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California

Funding: Work supported by U.S. Department of Energy, contract DE-AC02-76SF00515 (SLAC)
Design studies on the X-Band transverse rf deflectors operating at HEM11 mode have been made for two different applications. One is for beam measurements of time-sliced emittance and slice energy spread for the upgraded LCLS project, its optimization in rf efficiency and system design are carefully considered. Another is to design an ultra-fast rf kicker in order to pick up single bunches from the bunch-train of the B-factory storage ring. The challenges are to obtain very short structure filling time with high rf group velocity and good rf efficiency with reasonable transverse shunt impedance. Its rf system will be discussed.

THP076 Last SPIRAL 2 10 kW CW RF Coupler Design 969
  • Y. Gómez-Martínez, T. Cabanel, J. Giraud, D. Marchand, R. Micoud, F. Vezzu
    LPSC, Grenoble

The first tests of the SPIRAL 2 coupler have been done successfully in the B-cryomodule of the SPIRAL2 linac. It led to an updated design. We present the new design as well as the results of the last test and conditioning.


slides icon


THP077 Studies on Input Couplers for Superconducting Cavities 972
  • H. Jenhani, S. Cavalier, T. Garvey, W. Kaabi, M. Lacroix, B.M. Mercier, C. Prevost, A. Variola
    LAL, Orsay
  • L. Grandsire
    IN2P3-CNRS, Orsay

Drastic conditioning time reduction was successfully achieved for the TTF-III couplers at LAL. This was carried out by a systematic study of the different parameters that play a role in the conditioning process. Moreover, many investigations were made in order to have a better understanding of the couplers behaviour. These activities represent some aspects of a larger technology program that is being developed at LAL to study power couplers and multipacting. This paper will give an overview of some of these studies, the future experiments on couplers at LAL and the development of the associated technology program.

THP078 High Power RF Supplies for the FAIR Injector Linacs 975
  • W. Vinzenz, W. Barth, H.-L. Dambowy, L. Groening, M. Hoerr, G. Schreiber
    GSI, Darmstadt

During the LINAC conference in Knoxville 2006 the operating frequency of the FAIR proton linac was fixed at 325.224 MHz. Even though the six CH-Structures need slightly different rf levels, the proton linac will be equipped with identical rf power sources. That applies although for the RFQ structure. To supply the FAIR accelerators with a good beam quality by the UNILAC as the high current heavy ion injector for FAIR, as well as an high duty factor accelerator for nuclear physics experiments, different upgrades and modifications have to be made at the rf components. In addition there has to be an upgrade for a planned 50% duty cycle mode, higher beam load within the post-stripper section as well as the provision of an excellent rf operation for the next 30 years. Discussions on possible collaborations with CERN in terms of LLRF and the combining of the procurement for tube amplifiers for bunching cavities are on the way. This paper describes the actual status of the proton linac rf system and the future requirements for the existing UNILAC rf systems.

THP079 Operation Experience with the FLASH RF Waveguide Distribution System at DESY 978
  • S. Choroba, F. Eints, T. Frölich, A. Gamp, T. Grevsmühl, V.V. Katalev
    DESY, Hamburg

The rf stations for the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY provide rf power up to more than 5 MW, 1.3 ms and 10 Hz at 1.3 GHz for forty-eight superconducting cavities grouped into six cryogenic modules and for one normal conducting rf gun. A WR650 waveguide distribution system distributes the power generated by five active rf stations using 5 MW single beam and a 10 MW multibeam klystron to the cavities and the gun. Since FLASH is based on the Tesla Test Facility, TTF, a number of different distribution layouts for the different modules and the gun have been developed and used over the years in terms of type of components and distribution scheme. This paper presents the layout and summarizes the experience with the existing waveguide distribution system.


slides icon


THP080 Elimination of Parasitic Oscillations in RF Tube Amplifier for High Power Application 981
  • E. Feldmeier
    HIT, Heidelberg
  • G. Hutter, B. Schlitt, W. Vinzenz
    GSI, Darmstadt

For the heavy ion therapy center HIT in Heidelberg a 1.6 MW power amplifier for 217 MHz was built to supply the 7 MeV/u IH cavity. The inherent parasitic oscillations of the RF tube increases rapidly the anode current until the system switches off. For the elimination of those parasitic oscillations ferrite material is used. The electro magnetic fields are simulated to find an optimal positioning of the ferrite material in the anode cavity such that only the parasitic oscillations are attenuated without affecting the fundamental mode.

THP081 Development of All Solid State Bouncer Compensated Long Pulse Modulators for LEP 1MW Klystrons to be Used for LINAC4 Project at CERN 984
  • P. Shrivastava, J. Mulchandani, V.C. Sahni
    RRCAT, Indore (M.P.)
  • F. Bordry, C. De Almeida Martins, C. Rossi
    CERN, Geneva

Funding: Department of Atomic Energy, India.
CERN is building a 352.2 MHz, 3 MeV RFQ based Test Stand as first part of LINAC 4. Extending its collaboration with DAE of India, CERN approached us to design and develop a high voltage pulsed modulator for 1 MW LEP klystrons (planning their reuse). Three design schemes were proposed out of which an all solid state bouncer compensated modulator was chosen for follow up development. The main features of the modulator are: no gas tube crow-bar, all solid state construction low rise/fall times and high stability of the flat top. The major specifications are output voltage upto 110 kV, output current upto 24 Amp, pulse duration 800 μs, PRR 2Hz, pulse droop <1% and ripple on pulse top <0.1%. The energy in klystron arc is restricted to 10J. Based on these principles, a modulator has been developed and constructed at CERN and is currently undergoing tests with a klystron while another one with similar development is in the final stages of integration/evaluation at RRCAT. The present paper describes the topology, simulation results, protection strategy and integration aspects of the pulse modulator and would briefly summarize the results.

The work is done under DAE CERN Collaboration under NAT Protocol.

THP085 Cooling System Design of Compact Klystron Modulator Power Supply in the XFEL Project at SPring-8 987
  • C. Kondo
    RIKEN Spring-8 Harima, Hyogo
  • T. Inagaki, T. Sakurai, T. Shintake, K. Shirasawa
    RIKEN/SPring-8, Hyogo

A klystron modulator power supply for XFEL project at SPring-8 has been developed, which concepts are a compact body, a low noise, and a good stability. The cooling system of the power supply is one of the most important key for the stable modulator. For example, temperature change of insulation oil in the tank caused drift of the klystron voltage, and higher oil temperature deteriorates insulation oil and electric components. We adopted simple and compact cooling systems utilizing natural conviction cooling, because of low costs, limited space, and maintenance free. In order to estimate the requisite cooling ability, we designed four types of cooling panels and measured the natural conviction heat transfer coefficient between the oil and each cooling panels. Using the results, we designed cooling systems composed of water cooling panels placed on the side walls and a water pipe hanged from the ceiling panel. The temperature of the inner oil of the power supply in the rated operation was suppressed below 43 degree C, which is agreed with our expectation. In this paper we present the design and ability of the power supply, and the key point of oil cooling.

THP086 Cold Cathode Electron Tube Toward Plenty Multi Beam Tube 990
  • M. Yoshida
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • H. Hioka, S. Someya
    SUT, Noda-shi, Chiba
  • U. Utsunomiya
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo

The multi beam electron tube with a lot of beam pipes is required for the low applied voltage and the high frequency because the efficiency has a limit according to the perveance. However, the total heater power becomes too high if many thermal cathodes are used. Thus the cold cathode such as the carbon nano tube (CNT) is suitable for such a multi beam electron tube. Further the cold cathode has the advantage to work as a switching device since the metal grid close to the cathode can be used. The design and the fundamental test of the partial model will be presented.

THP087 Quarter-Wave-Stub Resonant Coupler 993
  • D.A. Swenson
    Linac Systems, LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico

Most small proton and other ion linacs involve two different linac structures, namely an RFQ linac section and some other, more efficient, linac structure, such as the Drift Tube Linac (DTL), the interdigital (Wideroe) linac, or the Rf Focused Interdigital (RFI) linac. Such linacs can benefit a lot by being resonantly coupled into a single resonant unit. The resonantly coupled structures can be driven by a single rf power system, through single rf drive loop, at a single rf frequency. The relative phase and relative amplitude of the fields in the two structures are locked by the resonant coupler. Such systems require no control of phase of the rf power. By designing the rf power system to track the resonant frequency of the combined structures, the control of the resonant frequencies of the two structures is greatly simplified. A simple, compact, resonant coupler, based on a quarter-wave-stub, will be described. Models of this resonant couple have been tuned and adjusted, and are scheduled to be tested at operating powers in the early fall (2008).

THP088 High Power 325 MHz Vector Modulators for the Fermilab High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) 996
  • R.L. Madrak, D. Wildman
    Fermilab, Batavia

One of the goals of the low energy 60 MeV section of the Fermilab HINS H- linac is to demonstrate that a total of 40 rf cavities can be powered by a single 2.5 MW, 325 MHz klystron. This requires individual vector modulators at the input of each rf cavity to independently adjust the amplitude and phase of the rf input signal during the 3.5 ms rf pulse. Two versions of vector modulators have been developed; a 500 kW device for the RFQ and a 75 kW modulator for the remaining rf cavities. High power test results showing the vector modulator phase and amplitude responses will be presented.

THP089 High Power L-Band Fast Phase Shifter 999
  • I. Terechkine, T.N. Khabiboulline, N. Solyak
    Fermilab, Batavia

Following development and testing a prototype waveguide-based high power phase shifter, a design concept of a high power fast phase shifter has been developed. The shifter uses ferrite blocks positioned in a rectangular waveguide. The waveguide cross-section is chosen to suppress most of resonances that could otherwise be a limiting factor for the phase shifter high power performance. Base bias field is created with the use of permanent magnets. Low inductance coils in the same magnetic circuit excite fast (pulsed) bias field component. The waveguide is designed in a way to ensure that the pulsed magnetic field penetrates inside the waveguide with minimum delay while allowing effective heat extraction from the ferrite blocks. This report provides details of the system design, including expected rf behavior and frequency range.

THP090 Marx Bank Technology for Accelerators and Colliders 1002
  • J.A. Casey, F.O. Arntz, R. Ciprian, M.P.J. Gaudreau, M.K. Kempkes, I. Roth
    Diversified Technologies, Inc., Bedford, Massachusetts

Funding: U.S. Department of Energy SBIR Program
Diversified Technologies, Inc. (DTI) has developed high power, solid-state Marx Bank designs for a range of accelerator and collider designs. We estimate the Marx topology can deliver equivalent performance to conventional designs, while reducing acquisition costs by 25-50%. In this paper DTI will describe the application of Marx based technology to two different designs: a long-pulse ILC focused design (140 kV, 160 A, 1.5 ms), and a short-pulse design (500 kV, 265 A, 3 us). These designs span the known requirements for future accelerator modulators. For the ILC design, the primary challenge is minimizing the overall size and cost of the storage capacitors in the modulator. For the short-pulse design, the primary challenge is high speed operation, to limit the energy lost in the pulse rise-time while providing a very tight (± 3%) voltage flattop. Each design demands unique choices in components and controls, including the use of electrolytic capacitors in the ILC Marx design. This paper will review recent progress in the development and testing of both of these prototype Marx designs, being built under two separate DOE Phase II SBIR grants.

THP093 Power Coupler and Tuner Development for Superconducting Quarter-Wave Resonators 1005
  • J. Wlodarczak, P. Glennon, W. Hartung, M. Hodek, M.J. Johnson, D. Norton, J. Popielarski
    NSCL, East Lansing, Michigan

The construction of a reaccelerator for secondary ion beams is currently underway at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). The reaccelerator linac will use superconducting quarter-wave resonators (QWR) operating at 80.5 MHz with beta = 0.041 and beta = 0.085. A coaxial probe-type rf fundamental power coupler (FPC) will be used for both QWR types. The power coupler makes use of a commercially-available feedthrough to minimize the cost. The FPC has been simulated and optimized for operation at 80.5 MHz using a finite element electromagnetics code. Prototype FPC have been fabricated and conditioned with traveling wave and standing wave power using a 1 kW amplifier. A niobium tuning plate is incorporated into the bottom flange of the QWR. The tuner is actuated by a stepping motor for slow (coarse) tuning and a stacked piezoelectric element in series for fast (fine) tuning. A prototype tuner for the beta = 0.041 QWR has been tested on the cavity at room temperature. This paper will cover the design, fabrication, and testing of the prototype coupler and tuner.

THP094 Leveraging the LEDA High Voltage Power Supply Systems for the LANSCE Refurbishment Project 1008
  • J.T. Bradley III, D. Rees, W. Roybal, K.A. Young
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico

Funding: Work supported by the NNSA, U. S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.
The LANSCE Refurbishment Project (LANSCE-R) will revitalize the LANSCE accelerator infrastructure. Much of the equipment has been in use for over 36 years and is approaching the end of its design lifetime. As obsolescence issues make like-for-like replacements increasingly more expensive, modern systems with lower costs become a reasonable alternative. As part of the LANSCE-R project, four of the seven HV power supplies for the 805 MHz rf klystrons will be replaced. The present and future requirements for these power supplies influence the selection of replacement options. Details of the HV power supply replacement requirements and the different replacement options will be discussed. One option is to use four 95 kV, 21 A dc power supplies originally installed nearby as part of the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) project. Significant material and labor cost savings can be achieved by leaving these supplies installed where they are and building a HV transport system to bring high voltage power from the existing LEDA facility to the LANSCE facility. The different replacement options will be compared based on material and labor costs as offset by long-term energy savings.

THP095 Progress Towards the LANSCE RF System Refurbishment 1011
  • D. Rees, J.T. Bradley III, S. Kwon, J.T.M. Lyles, M.T. Lynch, M.S. Prokop, W. Reass, K.A. Young
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico

The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is in the conceptual design phase of a refurbishment project that will sustain reliable facility operations well into the next decade. The LANSCE accelerator was constructed in the late 1960s and early 1970s and is a national user facility that provides pulsed protons and spallation neutrons for defense and civilian research and applications. The refurbishment will focus on systems that are approaching "end of life" and systems where modern upgrades hold the promise for significant operating cost savings. The current baseline consist of replacing all the 201 MHz rf amplifiers, replacing greater than 75% of the 805 MHz rf systems with a combination of high efficiency klystrons and new klystrons of the existing style, replacing four high voltage systems, and replacing all the low level rf cavity field control systems along the accelerator. System designs and requirements will be presented and the project plan will be discussed.

THP096 Next Generation IGBT Switch Plate Development for the SNS High Voltage Converter Modulator 1012
  • M.A. Kemp, C. Burkhart, M.N. Nguyen
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • D.E. Anderson
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725
The rf source High Voltage Converter Modulator systems installed on the Spallation Neutron Source have operated well in excess of 200,000 hours, during which time numerous failures have occurred. An improved IGBT switch plate is under development to help mitigate these failures. The new design incorporates three significant improvements. The IGBTs are upgraded to 4.5 kV, 1200 A, press-pack devices, which increase the voltage margin, facilitate better cooling, and eliminate explosive disassembly of the package in the event of device failure. The upgrade to an advanced IGBT gate drive circuit decreases switching losses and improves fault-condition response. A common-mode choke is incorporated into the H-bridge to decrease dI/dt during a shoot-through condition, to further improve the circuit response to this fault condition. The upgrade design and development status will be presented.

THP097 ILC Marx Modulator Development Program Status 1015
  • C. Burkhart, T.G. Beukers, R.S. Larsen, K.J.P. Macken, M.N. Nguyen, J.J. Olsen, T. Tang
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California

Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515
A Marx-topology klystron modulator is under development as an 'Alternative Conceptual Design' for the International Linear Collider project. It is envisioned as a smaller, lower cost, and higher reliability alternative to the present, bouncer-topology, 'Baseline Conceptual Design'. The application requires 120 kV (±0.5%), 140 A, 1.6 ms pulses at a rate of 5 Hz. The Marx constructs the high voltage pulse by combining, in series, a number of lower voltage cells. The Marx employs solid state elements; IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and isolation of the cells. The developmental testing of a first generation prototype, P1, is nearing completion. Development of a second generation prototype, P2, is underway. Status updates for both prototypes will be presented.

THP098 RF Vector Control for Efficient Fan-Out Power Distribution 1018
  • Y.W. Kang
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Funding: This work was supported by SNS through UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. DOE.
An algorithm for direct high power rf vector control of fan-out rf distribution using reactive circuit elements is presented. In this approach, rf control is performed for the entire fan-out system with many cavities as one system to maximize the rf power efficiency. Control parameters for a set of required rf voltage vectors in the accelerating cavities are determined and maintained for the whole system. Maximizing rf power efficiency with fan-out power distribution can be valuable for large scale SRF accelerators since construction and operation costs can be saved significantly. If a fan-out system employs a fixed power splitter with high power vector modulators in cavity inputs, the optimum power efficiency especially for a SRF system can not be provided since certain rf power headroom is needed for the vector control at each cavity. In the new fan-out vector control approach, a set of required cavity rf voltages is delivered by adjusting the phase delays between the cavities and the reactive loadings at the cavity inputs. The phase shifts and the reactive loadings are realized with high power rf phase shifters.

THP099 Spallation Neutron Source Superconducting Linac Klystron to Cavity Mismatch Effects and Compensation 1021
  • M.P. McCarthy, M.T. Crofford, S.-H. Kim
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Funding: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6285 managed by UT-BATTELLE, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy Under Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725
Observations of several of the 81 klytron output waveforms into their respective superconducting cavities do not correspond with their rectangular klystron inputs in open loop mode. This can't be completely explained by a drooping high voltage power supply especially when the waveform is parabolic. Some possible causes and effects of these anomalies are presented.


slides icon


THP100 Self Tuning Regulator for ISAC 2 Superconducting RF Cavity Tuner Control 1024
  • K. Fong, M.P. Laverty, Q. Zheng
    TRIUMF, Vancouver

The ISAC 2 superconducting rf cavities use self-excited, phase-locked mode of operation. As such the microphonics are sensitive to the alignment of the phase control loop. Although initial alignments can minimize the effect of microphonics, long term drifts, particularly in the power amplifiers, can cause the control loop to misalign and an increase in sensitivity to microphonics. The ISAC 2 control system monitors several points in the control loop to determine the phase alignment of the power amplifiers as well as the rf resonant cavities. Online adaptive feedbacks using Self Tuning Regulators are employed to bring the different components back into alignment.

THP101 AM-PM Conversion Induced Instability in I/Q Feedback Control Loop 1027
  • K. Fong, M.P. Laverty, Q. Zheng
    TRIUMF, Vancouver

Most rf feedback control systems today uses the I/Q demodulation and modulation scheme because of its simplicity. Its performance, however, depends on the alignment of the feedback loops. If the loop contains elements that have a high AM-PM conversion such as a class C amplifier, then the misalignment is dynamic and power dependent. In the extreme case the I/Q loops can become unstable and the system settled into a limit-cycle oscillation.

THP102 Evaluation of Fast ADCs for Direct Sampling RF Field Detection for the European XFEL and ILC 1030
  • Z. Geng, S. Simrock
    DESY, Hamburg

For the LLRF system of superconducting linacs, precision measurements of the rf phase and amplitude are critical for the achievable field stability. In this paper, a fast ADC (ADS5474) has been evaluated for the measurement of a 1.3 GHz rf signal directly without frequency down conversion. The ADC clock frequency is synchronized with the rf frequency and chosen for non-IQ demodulation. In the laboratory, the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of the ADC was studied for different clock and rf input levels, and the temperature sensitivity of the ADC has been determined. A full bandwidth phase jitter of 0.2 degree (RMS) and amplitude jitter of 0.32% (RMS) was measured. For field control of superconducting cavities with a closed loop bandwidth up to 100 KHz, one can expect to achieve a phase stability close to 0.01 degree. The main limitation will be the jitter of the external clock. We present a measurements at the cavities at FLASH and compare the result with the existing system.

THP103 LLRF System Requirement Engineering for the European XFEL 1033
  • S. Simrock, G. Ayvazyan, Z. Geng, M.K. Grecki
    DESY, Hamburg
  • B. Aminov
    CRE, Wuppertal

The LLRF system of the European XFEL must fulfill the requirements of various stakeholders: Photon beam users, accelerator operators, rf experts, controls system, beam diagnostics and many others. Besides stabilizing the accelerating fields the system must be easy to operate, to maintain, and to upgrade. Furthermore it must guarantee high availability and it must be well understood. The development, construction, commissioning and operation with an international team requires excellent documentation of the requirements, designs and acceptance test. For the rf control system of the XFEL the new system modeling language SySML has been chosen to facilitate the system engineering and to document the system. SysML uses 9 diagram types to describe the structure and behavior of the system. The hierarchy of the diagrams allows individual task managers to develop detailed subsystem descriptions in a consistent framework. We present the description of functional and non-functional requirements, the system design and the test cases. An attempt of costing the software effort based on the use case point analysis is also presented.

THP104 Low Level RF and Timing System for XFEL/SPring-8 1036
  • T. Ohshima, N. Hosoda, H. Maesaka, Y. Otake
    RIKEN/SPring-8, Hyogo
  • M. Musha
    University of electro-communications, Tokyo
  • K. Tamasaku
    RIKEN Spring-8 Harima, Hyogo

Requirement on a Low Level rf (LLRF) system is very tight and allowable jitter is less than several tens femto seconds for the XFEL/SPring-8. To satisfy this requirement, we have developed special components; a low-noise master oscillator, a high precision IQ modulator/demodulator, a high speed DAC/ADC, and a delayed pulse generator with 700 fs jitter to a 5712 MHz reference clock. These components were installed in the SCSS test accelerator and their performance was checked. The standard deviations of the phase and amplitude were less than 0.02 degree and 0.03% for a 238 MHz SHB acceleration cavity. Measured rms jitter of the beam arrival time relative to the reference rf signal was 50 fs, which demonstrated the high performance of the total LLRF system. For the XFEL, the length of reference signal transmission line is long, about 1 km. Therefore an optical system is adopted because of low transmission loss and an ability to keep precise time accuracy using fiber length control, which has 0.2 um/sqrt(Hz) noise floor. Achieved performance of the LLRF and timing system, and development status on the optical transmission system will be presented in this paper.


slides icon


THP105 LLRF Control System of the J-PARC LINAC 1039
  • Z. Fang, S. Anami, S. Michizono, S. Yamaguchi
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • T. Kobayashi
    JAEA/J-PARC, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken
  • H. Suzuki
    JAEA, Ibaraki-ken

At the J-PARC 181 MeV proton linac, the rf sources consist of 4 solid-state amplifiers and 20 klystrons with operation frequency of 324 MHz. The rf fields of each rf source are controlled by a digital feedback system installed in a compact PCI (cPCI). A very good stability of the accelerating fields has been successfully achieved about ±0.2% in amplitude and ±0.2 degree in phase, much better than the requirements of ±1% in amplitude and ±1 degree in phase. Besides, the tuning of each accelerator cavity including 3 DTL and 15 SDTL is also controlled by this LLRF system through a cavity tuner. We pre-defined the cavity resonance states with the tuner adjusted to obtain a flat phase during the cavity field decay. The cavity auto-tuning is well controlled to keep the phase of rf fields within ±1 degree. Furthermore, from the amplitude waveform during the cavity field decay, the Q-value of each cavity is calculated in real-time and displayed in the PLC TP of the LLRF control system.

THP106 High Speed Data Acquisition System Using FPGA for LLRF Measurement and Control 1042
  • H. Katagiri, S. Fukuda, T. Matsumoto, S. Michizono, T. Miura, Y. Yano, M. Yoshida
    KEK, Ibaraki

Recently, FPGA technology is widely used for the accelerator control owing to its fast digital processing. We have been developing several applications for LLRF control and measurement using commercial and custom-made FPGA board. XtremeDSP(the commercial FPGA board equipped two ADCs and two DACs) is mainly used for the performance evaluation of STF(Superconducting RF Test Facility) LLRF. Installing the custom-made FPGA board equipped with ten ADCs and two DACs is considering for up-grade of the rf driver and rf monitoring system in the injector linac. Development of the high-speed data acquisition system that combines commercial FPGA board ML555 and FastADC(ADS5474 14bit, 400MS/s) is carried out. Result of those data acquisition systems will be summarized.

THP107 Performance of Digital Low-Level RF Control System with Four Intermediate Frequencies 1045
  • T. Matsumoto, S. Fukuda, H. Katagiri, S. Michizono, T. Miura, Y. Yano
    KEK, Ibaraki

In a superconducting accelerator, an FPGA/DSP-based low-level rf (LLRF) system with feedback control is adopted to satisfy the requirement of stability in the accelerating field. An rf probe signal picked up from cavity is down-converted to an intermediate frequency and sampled by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in the digital LLRF control system. In order to decrease the number of the ADCs required for vector sum feedback operation, a digital LLRF control system using different intermediate frequencies has been developed. At STF (Superconducting RF Test Facility) in KEK, the digital LLRF system with four intermediate frequencies was operated and the rf field stability under the feedback operation was estimated using a superconducting cavity. The result of the performance will be reported.

THP108 Performance of Digital LLRF System for STF in KEK 1048
  • S. Michizono, S. Fukuda, H. Katagiri, T. Matsumoto, T. Miura, Y. Yano
    KEK, Ibaraki

RF operation has started at the STF (Superconducting RF Test Facility) in KEK. The digital feedback system, which consists of one FPGA, ten 16-bit ADCs and two 14-bit DACs, was installed in order to satisfy the rf-field regulation requirements of 0.3% rms and 0.3 deg.rms in phase. The rf field stability under various feedback parameters are presented. Various studies were also carried out such as cavity detuning measurements (microphonics, quench detection, etc.). These results will also be summarized.

THP109 Measurements of Feedback-Instability Due to 8/9π and 7/9π Modes at KEK-STF 1051
  • T. Miura, S. Fukuda, H. Katagiri, T. Matsumoto, S. Michizono, Y. Yano
    KEK, Ibaraki

In the superconducting rf test facility (STF) at KEK, high power tests of the nine-cell superconducting cavity for the international linear collider (ILC) have been performed. Although the cavity was operated in π-mode, the feedback instability due to 8/9π and 7/9π modes was observed in the STF. The intensities of 8/9π and 7/9π modes were measured by changing the feedback loop-delay and stable/unstable region appeared periodically as expected.

THP110 Pulse-by-Pulse Switching of Beam Loading Compensation in J-PARC Linac RF Control 1054
  • T. Kobayashi
    JAEA/J-PARC, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken
  • S. Anami, Z. Fang, S. Michizono, S. Yamaguchi
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • E. Chishiro, H. Suzuki
    JAEA, Ibaraki-ken

For the J-PARC linac low level rf system, in order to compensate beam-loading change by pulses in the operation of 25 Hz repetition, a function that switches the feed-forward control parameters in every pulse were installed into the digital accelerating-field control system. The linac provides a 50 mA peak current proton beam to a 3 GeV rapid-cycling synchrotron (RCS). Then the RCS distributes the 3-GeV beam into a following 50 GeV synchrotron (main ring, MR) and the Materials and Life Science Facility (MLF), which is one of the experimental facilities in the J-PARC. The 500-us long macro pulses from the ion source of the linac should be chopped into medium pulses for injection into the RCS. The duty (width or repetition) of the medium pulse depends on which facility the RCS provides the beam to the MR or MLF. Therefore the beam loading compensation needs to be corrected for the change of the medium pulse duty in the 25 Hz operation.

THP111 LLRF Control System Using a Commercial Board 1057
  • H.S. Kim, Y.-S. Cho, H.-J. Kwon, K.T. Seol
    KAERI, Daejon

The requirements for the field amplitude and phase stability of the PEFP linac are 1% and 1 degree, respectively. To achieve the requirements, a digital LLRF control system has been developed using a commercial digital board for general purpose(FPGA). The feedback with PI control and feedforward are implemented in the FPGA. The LLRF control systems are currently used for the linac test. In this paper, test results and discussion on the advantage and disadvantage of the LLRF system based on a commercial board are presented.

THP112 Numerical Simulation of the INR DTL A/P Control System 1060
  • A.I. Kvasha
    RAS/INR, Moscow

Stabilization of amplitude and phase in linear accelerator cavities can be realized by means of control systems, operating both in polar (A/P) and rectangular (I/Q) coordinates. In analyzing of linear control systems, as a rule, transfer functions are used, which, in turn, are the symbolic representation of the linear differential equation, connecting the input and output variables. It's well known that generally in A/P coordinate it is impossible to get two separate linear differential equations for amplitude and phase of rf voltage in a cavity except for estimating of the control system stability in the small near steady state values of variables. Nevertheless, there is a possibility of numerical simulation of nonlinear A/P control system using up-to-date programs. Some results of the simulation are presented.

THP113 Optimal Coupler and Power Settings for Superconductive Linear Accelerators 1063
  • J. Branlard, B. Chase, S. Nagaitsev, O.A. Nezhevenko, J. Reid
    Fermilab, Batavia

Funding: FRA
In this paper we present a model for the rf power distribution to multiple super-conductive cavities from a single klystron. The goal of this model is to find a distribution scheme in which the cavities are operated as close to their quench limit as possible. The approach presented in this work consists of setting all cavities to the same QL value by adjusting the power coupler, and optimizing the power (Pk) distribution individually to each cavity to maximize the vector sum voltage. The proposed approach yields an operating gradient very close to the theoretical limit and offers a great operational benefit as the gradient stability is conserved for any beam current.

C. Nantista, K.L.F. Bane, C. Adolphsen, RF Distribution Optimization in
the Main Linacs of the ILC. Proceedings of PAC07, Albuquerque,
New Mexico, USA.

THP114 New LLRF System for Fermilab 201.25 MHz Linac 1066
  • T.A. Butler, L.J. Allen, J. Branlard, B. Chase, E. Cullerton, P.W. Joireman, M.J. Kucera, V. Tupikov, P. Varghese
    Fermilab, Batavia

The Fermilab Proton Plan, tasked to increase the intensity and reliability of the Proton Source, has identified the Low Level RF (LLRF) system as the critical component to be upgraded in the Linac. The current 201.25 MHz Drift Tube Linac LLRF system was designed and built over 35 years ago and does not meet the higher beam quality requirements under the new Proton Plan. A new VXI based LLRF system has been designed to improve cavity vector regulation and reduce beam losses. The upgrade includes an adaptive feedforward system for beam loading compensation, a new phase feedback system, and a digital phase comparator for cavity tuning. The new LLRF system is phase locked to a temperature stabilized 805 MHz reference line, currently used as frequency standard in the higher energy accelerating section of the Linac. This paper will address the current status of the project, present the advancements in both amplitude and phase stability over the old LLRF system, and discuss commissioning plans.

THP115 Optimizing Cavity Gradients in Pulsed Linacs Using the Cavity Transient Response 1069
  • G.I. Cancelo, A. Vignoni
    Fermilab, Batavia

Pulsed Linac accelerators are being designed powering a string of cavities from one klystron. A typical low level rf control loop controls the amplitude and the phase of the klystron's rf power; however, the loop cannot dynamically control individual cavity amplitude and phases. The problem is further complicated by the need to obtain the maximum possible acceleration from the rf unit. Proton Linacs (HINS, ProjectX) add extra complexity. A rf unit may need cavities operating at different synchronous phases. Particles travel cavities at increasing velocities, which implies different beam loading conditions. For pulsed proton Linacs amplitude and phase stability are crucial for beam stability. The usual steady state approach determines optimality conditions for minimum generator power as a function of rf parameters. This approach does not provide constant amplitude and phases when the beam is on. In this paper we propose a novel theory using the cavity transient response. The transient response allows setting flat cavity gradients (A and phi) for each cavity in the unit. The optimized rf parameters for the transient response are the cavity coupling parameter and cavity tuning angle.

THP116 Real Time RF Simulator (RTS) and Control 1072
  • G.I. Cancelo, K.R. Treptow, A. Vignoni, T.J. Zmuda
    Fermilab, Batavia
  • C. Armiento
    University of Pisa and INFN, Pisa

A multi cavity real time rf simulator and PID control has been implemented on a Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA. The rf simulator simulates an entire rf unit with up to 4 cavities connected to a single simulated klystron. Each cavity is allowed to have its own set of parameters, set point gradients, synchronous phases, and beam loadings. The simulator is built based on an interdependent electrical and mechanical model of a cavity. The electrical model is a 1st order differential equation in the complex phase space. The mechanical model is a 2nd order differential equation of the Lorentz force detuning on the cavities. Other spurious effects as microphonics and noises can be added using an external source or a memory table. The simulator has been optimized for size and utilizes only one Xilinx DSP block per cavity. A typical Virtex-4 has of the order of 100 DSP blocks. The simulator bandwidth is 1MHz which is plenty for niobium type superconducting cavities which have a loaded Q of about 3 million and a half bandwidth of about 250 Hz. The Real Time simulator is currently running on hardware comprised by an ESECON LLRF controller* and a Linux based VME processor.

*ESECON, 14 channel LLRF controller, Low Level Radio Frequency Workshop (LLRF07), Knoxville, Tennessee, October 22-25, 2007, presentation 031.

THP117 Design and Evaluation of the Low-Level RF Electronics for the ILC Main LINAC 1075
  • U. Mavric, B. Barnes, J. Branlard, B. Chase, D.W. Klepec, V. Tupikov
    Fermilab, Batavia

Funding: Work supported by Fermi Research Alliance LLC. Under DE-AC02- 07CH11359 with the U.S. DOE
The proposed 30 km long ILC electron/positron collider is pushing the limits not only in basic physics research but also in engineering. For the two main Linacs, the pulsed rf power that is feeding the high number of SCRF cavities (~17,000) must to be regulated to app. 0.1% for amplitude and 0.2 deg for phase. The regulation of phase and amplitude is carried out by the analog/digital electronics also denoted as the low-level rf control system. Besides meeting the regulation specifications, the low-level rf must be reliable, robust and low cost. In the paper we present a possible hardware solution that addresses these issues. We also reveal the main design strategies that allowed us meeting the conflicting demands of the system. The system is evaluated on a cavity emulator implemented on the FPGA, which shows that system performance is within the specifications. Finally, we discuss the obtained results and give some suggestions for future work.

THP118 A Femtosecond-Level Fiber-Optics Timing Distribution System Using Frequency-Offset Interferometry 1078
  • J.W. Staples, J.M. Byrd, L.R. Doolittle, G. Huang, R.B. Wilcox
    LBNL, Berkeley, California

Funding: This work was supported by the Office of Science, U. S. Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.
A fiber-based frequency and timing distribution system based on the principle of heterodyne interferometry has been in development at LBNL for several years. The temporal fiber drift corrector has evolved from an rf-based to an optical-base system, from mechanical correctors (piezo and optical trombone) to fully electronic, and the electronics from analog to fully digital, all using inexpensive commodity fiber components. Short-term optical phase jitter and long-term phase drift are both in the femtosecond range over distribution paths of 2 km and more. The temperature dependence of group and phase velocity correction is measured and applied. We will discuss the results of field tests, integration into various client subsystems and further applications.


slides icon


THP120 Concept Design Studies of the REX-ISOLDE Cryomodules at CERN 1081
  • V. Parma, S. Calatroni, N. Delruelle, J. Hansen, C. Maglioni, M. Modena, M. Pasini, T. Trilhe
    CERN, Geneva
  • S.M. Pattalwar
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire

The High Intensity and Energy (HIE) proposal plans a major upgrade of the existing ISOLDE and REX-ISOLDE facilities at CERN, with the objective of substantially increasing the energy and the intensity of the delivered radioactive ion beams. In the frame of this upgrade activity, a superconducting linac, based on Nb sputtered Quarter Wave Resonators (QWRs) is proposed to be installed downstream of the present normal conducting machine. The present design of the accelerator lattice features housing of five high-beta cavities (β=10.6%) and a superconducting solenoid in a common cryomodule. In most of the existing low-energy heavy-ion installations worldwide, insulation and beam vacuum are in common, with the risk of cavity surface contamination in case of accidental leak to the cryostat vessel. Following a concept study, we report in this paper on three design options, namely cryomodules with common vacuum, with separate or with hybrid vacuum systems (the latter having a low conductance between insulation and beam vacuum) and compare them in terms of technical complexity, performance, reliability and maintainability.

THP122 Overview of the First Five Refurbished CEBAF Cryomodules 1084
  • M.A. Drury, E. Daly, G.K. Davis, J.F. Fischer, C. Grenoble, J. Hogan, F. Humphry, L.K. King, J.P. Preble, K. Worland
    JLAB, Newport News, Virginia

Funding: Authored by JSA, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177
The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility is currently engaged in a cryomodule refurbishment project. The goal of this project is robust 6 GeV, 5 pass operation of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). The scope of the project includes removing, refurbishing and replacing ten CEBAF cryomodules at a rate of three per year. Refurbishment includes reprocessing of SRF cavities to eliminate field emission and increase the nominal gradient from the original 5 MV/m to 12.5 MV/m. New 'dogleg' couplers between the cavity and helium vessel flanges will intercept secondary electrons that produce arcing at the 2 K ceramic window in the Fundamental Power Coupler (FPC). Modification of the Qext of the FPC will allow higher gradient operations. Other changes include new ceramic rf windows for the air to vacuum interface of the FPC and improvements to the mechanical tuners. Any damaged or worn components will be replaced as well. Currently, five refurbished cryomodules have been installed in CEBAF. These cryomodules have been installed in CEBAF and are currently operational. This paper will summarize the test results and current operational experience.

THP123 Construction of the Magnets and Supports for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Undulator System 1087
  • M. White, J.T. Collins, M.S. Jaski, G. Pile, B.M. Rusthoven, S. Sasaki, S.E. Shoaf, S.J. Stein, E. Trakhtenberg, I. Vasserman, J.Z. Xu
    ANL, Argonne

Funding: Work at Argonne was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No DE-AC02-06CH11357.
The LCLS, now under construction at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, will be the world's first X-ray free-electron laser when it comes online next year. Design and production of the undulator system is the responsibility of a team from the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Forty 3.4-m-long high-precision undulators, 37 laminated quadrupole magnets, plus 38 support and motion systems with micron-level adjustability and stability were constructed and delivered to SLAC, where final tuning, fiducialization, and installation are underway. An overview of the undulators and support systems, including achieved results, is presented.