THP —  Poster Session   (28-Aug-14   13:30—15:30)
Paper Title Page
Beam Manipulation for Plasma Accelerator Based Free Electron Lasers  
  • A. Loulergue, C. Benabderrahmane, M.-E. Couprie, M. Labat
    SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • C. Evain
    PhLAM/CERCLA, Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France
  • V. Malka
    LOA, Palaiseau, France
  Longitudinal decompression of electron beams delivered by state-of-the-art Laser WakeField Accelerators (LWFA) eases the free-electron laser process. We propose here an additional second order transverse beam manipulation, only based on quadrupoles, turning the very large inherent transverse chromatic emittances of LWFA beam into direct FEL gain advantage. This complete transfer line scheme is presently under construction for the projects COXINEL recently funded by an ERC advanced grant. Numerical simulations showing that this beam manipulation can further enhance by orders of magnitude the peak power of the radiation are presented.  
THP002 Beam Energy Management and RF Failure Compensation Scenarios for the European XFEL 672
  • B. Beutner
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  The operation of complex systems as the driver linacs for free-electron-lasers is limited by the reliability of the individual components. Failures of RF systems can therefore constrict FEL availability. Typically reserves are included in the overall linac voltage capacity to allow for redistribution of acceleration in case of an RF failure. However, such redistributions of the acceleration of the linac affects the beam dynamics of the machine. While the effects on the optics can easily be compensated by rescaling of the quadrupole magnet strength, the bunch compression set-up requires a more involved investigation. In this paper we discuss studies for an energy management system for the European XFEL.  
THP003 Two Charges in the Same Bunch Train at the European XFEL 678
  • Y.A. Kot, T. Limberg, I. Zagorodnov
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  The European XFEL has been initially designed for the operation with bunch charge of 1 nC (*) which was later extended down to 20 pC (**). An important upgrade of this extension might be the ability to operate different bunch charges in the same RF pulse. In this paper we assume the nominal design of the XFEL injector which means in particular that both charges in the same RF pulse experience the same solenoid field and are generated by the laser of the same rms size. We discuss the requirements which the combined working points of the injector have to fulfil and show the results of the complete start to end (S2E) and SASE simulations for the simultaneous operation of 250 pC and 500 pC bunch charges.
* DESY XFEL Project Group "The European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser. Technical Design Report" July 2007
** W. Decking and T. Limberg "European XFEL. Post-TDR Description" February 2013
THP004 Start-to-End Error Studies for FLUTE 682
  • M. Weber, A.-S. Müller, S. Naknaimueang, M. Schuh, M. Schwarz, P. Wesolowski
    KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany
  FLUTE, a new linac based test facility and THz source, is currently under construction at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in collaboration with DESY and PSI. With a repetition rate of 10 Hz, electron bunches with charges from 1 pC to 3 nC will be accelerated up to 40-50 MeV and then compressed longitudinally in a magnetic chicane to generate intense coherent THz radiation. Since the stability and repeatability of longitudinal bunch profiles are essential for optimum compression and THz radiation properties, simulation-based start-to-end error studies using the tracking code ASTRA have been performed to determine the influence of the machine elements on the bunches. Thus, critical parameters are identified and their respective tolerance ranges defined. In this contribution a summary of the error studies will be given.  
THP006 Optimization of the PITZ Photo Injector Towards the Best Achievable Beam Quality 685
  • M. Khojoyan, M. Krasilnikov, F. Stephan, G. Vashchenko
    DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen, Germany
  Funding: The work is supported by the German Federal Ministry of education and Research, project 05K10CHE and RFBR grant 13-02-91323.
Uniform 3D ellipsoids are proven to be the best distributions for high brightness charged particle beam applications due to the linear dependence of the space charge fields on the position within the distribution. Such electron bunches have lower emittance and are less sensitive to the machine settings and, therefore, should allow more reliable operation, which is one of the key requirements for single-pass free-electron lasers (FELs). The Photo Injector test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site (PITZ) is optimizing high brightness electron sources for linac based FELs such as the European XFEL. Recent measurements at PITZ using a photocathode laser with a flat-top temporal profile have revealed record low transverse emittance values at different bunch charges. As a next step towards the further improvement of the high quality beams, a cathode laser system, capable of producing quasi-3D ellipsoidal bunches is intended to be used at PITZ. In this work the beam dynamics optimization results for various bunch charges and for flat-top and 3D ellipsoidal cathode laser shapes are presented. For each working point the relative emittance growth is estimated due to possible deviations of the machine parameters.
THP007 Recent Electron Beam Optimization at PITZ 689
  • G. Vashchenko, P. Boonpornprasert, J.D. Good, M. Groß, I.I. Isaev, D.K. Kalantaryan, M. Khojoyan, G. Kourkafas, M. Krasilnikov, D. Malyutin, D. Melkumyan, A. Oppelt, M. Otevřel, T. Rublack, F. Stephan
    DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen, Germany
  • G. Asova
    INRNE, Sofia, Bulgaria
  • G. Pathak
    Uni HH, Hamburg, Germany
  • D. Richter
    HZB, Berlin, Germany
  High brightness electron sources for linac based freee-lectron lasers operating at short wavelength such as FLASH and the European XFEL are characterized and optimized at the Photo Injector Test Facility at DESY, Zeuthen site (PITZ). In the last few years PITZ mainly was used to condition RF guns for their later operation at FLASH and the European XFEL. Only limited time could be spent for beam characterization. However, recently we have performed emittance measurements and optimization for a reduced gun accelerating gradient which is similar to the usual operation conditions at FLASH. The results of these measurements are presented in this paper.  
THP008 Evolution of a Warm Bunched Electron Beam in a Free Drift Region 692
  • B. Maly, A. Friedman
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel
  The state of the art of FELs development at present is "Table-Top X Ray Free Electron Lasers". Almost any such scheme involves a pre-bunched electron beam. In this paper we will analyze the evolution and "survivability" of bunching introduced into the beam in the free drift region prior to the wiggler. We examined analytically the first order degradation in beam bunching due to space charge effect. It will be shown that there is a limited interaction region, characterized by an exponential decay of the bunching factor, having a length inversely proportional to the square of the electron beam normalized temperature, followed by a stable bunch region. We will present examples of the effect for several schemes of X Ray and Tera Hertz FELs considered or being constructed presently.  
Spatiotemporal Optimization of UV-Pump Pulses for the Ultrafast Electron Diffraction  
  • I.H. Baek, B. Han, K.H. Jang, Y.U. Jeong, H.W. Kim, K. Lee, S. H. Park, S. Park, N. Vinokurov
    KAERI, Daejon, Republic of Korea
  Ultraviolet (UV) light has been devoted to escape electrons from common metals due to their work function energies. Nowadays the pulsed electron beam has triggered numerous fundamental studies and technological applications. Electron beam-based pump/probe spectroscopy requires a low timing jitter between pump- and probe-beams for the precise observation and analysis. Herein, we performed the systematic characterization of electron bunches depending on UV pulse conditions using the electro-optic streaking of electron pulses for the ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) experiment. The temporal stabilization between UV-pump and electron-probe beams within a 100 femtoseconds jitter is in progress by compensating a relative phase shift of RF master oscillator and Ti:sapphire laser oscillator. We are under optimization of the spatial distribution and size of the UV light for getting electron bunches with low emittance and energy spread.  
THP010 Analysis of Beam Stability in the KAERI Ultrashort Pulse Accelerator 697
  • H.W. Kim, S. Bae, B.A. Gudkov, K.H. Jang, Y.U. Jeong, Y. Kim, K. Lee, S.V. Miginsky, J. Mun, S. H. Park, S. Park, N. Vinokurov
    KAERI, Daejon, Republic of Korea
  • K.H. Jang, Y.U. Jeong, H.W. Kim, K. Lee, S.V. Miginsky, S. H. Park, N. Vinokurov
    UST, Daejeon City, Republic of Korea
  • S.V. Miginsky, N. Vinokurov
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
  An RF-photogun-based linear accelerator for the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) ultrashort pulse facility is under construction. It has a symmetry structure with four different beamlines. The UED beamlines will generate ultrashort electron pulses with over 106 electrons per pulse for the single-shot measurements on femtoseconds dynamics of atomic or molecular structures. Electron bunches with an energy of ~3 MeV from the RF photogun can be compressed up to less than 50 fs by achromatic and isochronous bends. The intrinsic r.m.s. timing jitter of the pulses through the bends is estimated to be less than 30 fs with the r.m.s. energy fluctuation of 0.1%. In the THz pump and X-ray probe beamline, two successive laser pulses with a time interval of ~10 ns are used to generate two electron bunches having bunch charges more than 100 pC. Two electron bunches are accelerated by a linac up to ~25 MeV and separated into individual beamlines by a fast kicker. We will present on estimated timing jitter and effects of magnet errors to the beam dynamics in the accelerator by considering beam dilution effects.  
THP011 Beam Measurement of Photocathode RF-gun for PAL-XFEL 699
  • J.H. Hong, M.S. Chae, J.H. Han, H.-S. Kang, C.-K. Min, S.J. Park, Y.J. Park
    PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea
  • I.S. Ko
    POSTECH, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea
  The Injector Test Facility (ITF) at Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL) was constructed to develop an injector for the PAL X-ray free-electron laser (PAL-XFEL) project. The PAL-XFEL design requires the injector to produce an electron beam with a slice emittance of 0.4 mm-mrad at the charge of 200 pC. A 4-hole type RF-gun has been successfully fabricated and tested at ITF. In this paper we report the recent beam-measurement results using the RF-gun at ITF. Emittance measurements have been carried out by changing laser and RF parameters.  
THP012 Error Analysis for Linac Lattice of Hard X-ray FEL Line in PAL-XFEL* 703
  • H. Yang, J.H. Han, H.-S. Kang, I.S. Ko
    PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea
  Funding: *This work was supported by MSIP, Korea.
PAL-XFEL consists of the hard x-ray line for 0.06 – 1-nm FEL and the soft x-ray line for 1 – 10-nm FEL. The linac of hard x-ray line is designed to generate 10-GeV, 200-pC, and 3-kA electron beam. It consists of S-band accelerating columns, an X-band linearizer, three bunch compressors (BC). We conduct error simulation in order to evaluate the tolerances of machine parameters and alignments. First, the machine tolerances and beam jitter levels are calculated in the simulations with dynamic errors and we find out the optimized lattice to satisfy the target tolerance of machine. Second, we conduct simulations with misalignment. We quantify the emittance dilution by misalignments, especially those of BCs. In order to compensate the misalignments, the methods of beam correction like Beam Based Alignment (BBA) are presented and the effects of emittance improvements are calculated.
poster icon Poster THP012 [0.736 MB]  
THP013 Slice Emittance Measurement using RF Deflecting Cavity at PAL-XFEL ITF 707
  • J. Lee
    POSTECH, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea
  • J.H. Han, J.H. Hong, I.S. Ko, S.J. Park
    PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea
  One of key characteristic for operating PAL-XFEL is the time-dependent transverse properties of a bunch, slice emittance. To achieve the design FEL performance of PAL-XFEL a slice emittance of 0.4 mm mrad at 0.2 nC is required. An Injector Test Facility (ITF) was constructed to study beam properties. In addition to projected emittance measurement, slice emittance measurement is being done using a transverse RF deflecting cavity. We presents results of slice emittance measurement at ITF and future plan for the optimization of operating condition.  
THP014 Cyclotron-Undulator Cooling of a Free-Electron-Laser Beam 710
  • A.V. Savilov, I.V. Bandurkin, S.V. Kuzikov
    IAP/RAS, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
  We propose methods of fast cooling of an electron beam, based on wiggling of particles in an undulator in presence of an axial magnetic field. We use a strong dependence of the axial electron velocity on the oscillatory velocity, when the electron cyclotron frequency is close to the frequency of electron wiggling in the undulator field. Such cooling may open a way for creating a compact X-ray free-electron laser based on the stimulated scattering of a powerful laser pulse on a moderately-relativistic (several MeV) electron beam. This work is supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Projects 14-08-00803 and 14-02-00691).  
poster icon Poster THP014 [0.166 MB]  
Temporal Profile Reconstruction Based on a Passive Streaker  
  • S. Bettoni, P. Craievich, M. Pedrozzi
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  A time resolved measurement of the beam is important to optimize the final performances of an accelerator and in particular it is crucial for Free Electron Lasers. A transverse deflecting cavity, as an iris loaded wave guide or multi cell-standing wave structures, is conventionally used to image the longitudinal profile of a streaked beam on a downstream screen. In this paper we present an alternative method to passively deflect the electron bunch by using the dipole wakefield excited by the electron bunch passing off-axis through a dielectric-lined or a corrugated pipe. Measurements of a proof-of-principle experiment performed at the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility compared with the simulations are also discussed here.  
THP016 Optimization of FEL Performanceby Dispersion-based Beam-tilt Correction 714
  • M.W. Guetg, S. Reiche
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  In Free Electron Lasers (FEL) the beam quality is of crucial importance for the radiation power. A transverse centroid misalignment of longitudinal slices in an electron bunch reduces the effective overlap between radiation field and electron bunch. This leads to a reduced bunching and decreased FEL performance. The dominant sources of slice misalignments in FELs are the coherent synchrotron radiation within bunch compressors as well as transverse wake fields in the accelerating cavities. This is of particular importance for over-compression, which is required for one of the key operation modes for the SwissFEL under construction at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland. The slice centroid shift can be corrected using multi-pole magnets in dispersive sections, e.g. the bunch compressors. First and second order corrections are achieved by pairs of sextupole and quadrupole magnets in the horizontal plane while skew quadrupoles correct to first order in the vertical plane.  
THP018 The Seed Laser System for the Proposed VUV FEL Facility at NSRRC 718
  • M.C. Chou, N.Y. Huang, W.K. Lau, A.P. Lee
    NSRRC, Hsinchu, Taiwan
  The possibility of establishing a free electron laser facility in Taiwan has been a continuing effort at NSRRC in the past several years. The baseline design of the envisioned NSRRC FEL is a high gain harmonic generation (HGHG) FEL seeded by a 266 nm laser. The seed laser is produced by adding an optical parametric amplification (OPA) system pumped by upgrading the existing IR laser system. To provide broad tunability of the FEL radiation, the seed laser will be tunable. The spectrum considered for seeding the FEL is between 266 - 800 nm with peak power of 200 MW. The spatial and temporal overlap between the sub-100 fs electron bunch and the 100 fs UV seed laser is under study.  
poster icon Poster THP018 [0.152 MB]  
THP019 Higher-Order Moment Models of Longitudinal Pulse Shape Evolution in Photoinjectors 722
  • C.E. Mitchell, D. Filippetto, R. Huang, C. F. Papadopoulos, H.J. Qian, J. Qiang, F. Sannibale, M. Venturini
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  The presence of longitudinal asymmetry, sometimes in the form of a one-sided tail, in the current profile emerging from low-energy photoinjectors can strongly impact the beam quality downstream of the compression system of the FEL beam delivery system. To understand the origin of this feature, an approximate model for the evolution of higher-order beam moments is developed in the presence of nonlinear kinematic effects and longitudinal space-charge. This model is applied to investigate the evolution of beam skewness for injector systems with parameters similar to the APEX Injector under investigation at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.  
THP020 Electron Beam Dynamics Optimization Using A Unified Differential Evolution Algorithm 726
  • J. Qiang, C.E. Mitchell
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  Funding: Work supported by the Director of the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy under Contract no. DEAC02-05CH11231.
Accelerator beam dynamics design depends heavily on the use of control parameter optimization to achieve the best performance. In this paper, we report on electron beam dynamics optimization of a model photoinjector using a new unified differential evolution algorithm. We present the new unified differential evolution algorithm and benchmark its performance using several test examples. We also discuss the application of the algorithm in the multi-objective optimization of the photoinjector.
THP022 Theoretical Investigation of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation Induced Microbunching Instability in Transport and Recirculation Arcs 730
  • C.-Y. Tsai
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA
  • D. Douglas, R. Li, C. Tennant
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  Funding: This work is supported by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177.
The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of a high brightness electron beam traversing a series of dipoles, such as recirculation or transport arcs, may lead to the microbunching instability. We extend and develop a semi-analytical approach of the CSR-induced microbunching instability for a general lattice, based on the previous formulation with 1-D CSR model [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 5, 064401 (2002)] and apply it to investigate the physical processes of microbunching amplification for two example transport arc lattices. We find that the microbunching instability in transport arcs has a distinguishing feature of multistage amplification (e.g, up to 6th stage for our example arcs in contrast to two stage amplification for a 3-dipole chicane). By further extending the concept of stage gain as proposed by Huang and Kim [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 5, 074401 (2002)], we developed a method to quantitatively characterize the microbunching amplification in terms of iterative or staged orders that allows the comparison of optics impacts on microbunching gain for different lattices. The parametric dependencies and Landau damping for our example lattices are also studied. Excellent agreement of the gain functions and spectra from Vlasov analysis with results from ELEGANT is achieved which helps to validate our analyses.
poster icon Poster THP022 [1.316 MB]  
THP023 Simulation of Alpha Magnet Elements in Dipole-only Tracking Codes 735
  • J.W. Lewellen, F.L. Krawczyk
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
  Alpha magnets are used in a variety of ion-beam and low-energy (< 5 MeV) electron-beam transport systems as both “switchyard” elements and as bunch compressors. A unique feature of the alpha-magnet is its natively achromatic transport. Particles of different energies, injected at a specific location and angle, will exit at the same location and (symmetry-reflected) angle but with a different time-of-flight. Despite the general usefulness of alpha magnets in low-energy beam transport and compression schemes, few simulation codes support them as native elements. The (arguably) most-common codes used for injector design, PARMELA, ASTRA and GPT (listed in order of their release) do not support alpha magnets natively, but do support modeling of space-charge-dominated beams through dipole magnets. As a result, the most commonly used injector design codes are unable to incorporate one of the most useful and interesting beam transport devices. We present a method for simulating an alpha magnet in a tracking code using dipole elements. As elegant supports both dipoles and alpha magnets, it is used to provide a basic check of the approximation and a means of estimating the induced errors.  
THP024 High-gradient Cathode Testing for MaRIE 739
  • J.W. Lewellen, F.L. Krawczyk, N.A. Moody
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
  X-ray free-electron lasers (X-FELs) provide unprecedented capabilities for characterizing and controlling matter at temporal, spatial and energetic regimes which have been previously inaccessible. The quality of the electron beam is critical to X-FEL performance; a degradation of beam quality by a factor of two, for instance, can prevent the X-FEL from lasing at all, rather than yielding a simple reduction in output power. While conceptual designs for new beam sources exist, they incorporate assumptions about the behavior of the photocathode, under extreme operating conditions. The combined requirements for high bunch charge, short bunch duration, and small emission area, dictate the use of high-efficiency photocathodes operating at electric field gradients of ~140 MV/m. No suitable cathode has been operated at these gradients, however, so the success of next-generation X-FELs rests on a series of untested assumptions. We present our plans to address these knowledge gaps, including the design of a high-gradient RF cavity specifically designed for testing cathodes under MaRIE-relevant conditions.  
THP025 Linear Accelerator Design for the LCLS-II FEL Facility 743
  • P. Emma, J.C. Frisch, Z. Huang, H. Loos, A. Marinelli, T.J. Maxwell, Y. Nosochkov, T.O. Raubenheimer, L. Wang, J.J. Welch, M. Woodley
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • J. Qiang, M. Venturini
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  • A. Saini, N. Solyak
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  Funding: Work supported by the Director, Office of Science, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515.
The LCLS-II is an FEL facility proposed in response to the July 2013 BESAC advisory committee, which recommended the construction of a new FEL light source with a high-repetition rate and a broad photon energy range from 0.2 keV to at least 5 keV. A new CW 4-GeV electron linac is being designed to meet this need, using a superconducting (SC) L-band (1.3 GHz) linear accelerator capable of operating with a continuous bunch repetition rate up to 1 MHz at ~16 MV/m. This new 700-m linac is to be built at SLAC in the existing tunnel, making use of existing facilities and providing two separate FELs, preserving the operation of the existing FEL, which can be fed from either the existing copper or the new SC linac. We briefly describe the acceleration, bunch compression, beam transport, beam switching, and electron beam diagnostics. The high-power and low-level RF, and cryogenic systems are described elsewhere.
poster icon Poster THP025 [0.627 MB]  
THP026 Design Study of LCLS Chirp-Control with a Corrugated Structure 748
  • Z. Zhang, K.L.F. Bane, Y. Ding, Z. Huang, R.H. Iverson, T.J. Maxwell, G.V. Stupakov, L. Wang
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • P. Frigola, M.A. Harrison, M. Ruelas
    RadiaBeam, Santa Monica, California, USA
  The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of flat metallic plates with small corrugations as a passive dechirper, studying its effects on beam dynamics. Similar systems have been tested in Pohang and Brookhaven at relatively low energies (~100 MeV) and with relatively long bunches (>1ps) [*,**]. Four meters of such a structure are being machined by Radiabeam Systems for use in the LCLS with a high energy and femtosecond electron beam. In this paper we use a field matching program to obtain the longitudinal and transverse wakes for the purpose of the LCLS dechirper design. In addition, we fit the longitudinal wake to simple functions, so that one can obtain the wake without resorting to the field matching program. Since the transverse wakes–both dipole and quadrupole wakes–are strong, we include beam dynamics simulations to find the tolerances for injection jitter and misalignment in the LCLS.
* P. Emma, et al. PRL 112, 034801
** M. Harrison, et al., NaPAc 2013, Pasadena, USA
THP027 LCLS-II Bunch Compressor Study: 5-Bend Chicane 755
  • D. Khan, T.O. Raubenheimer
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  In this paper, we present a potential design for a bunch compressor consisting of 5 bend magnets which is designed to compensate the transverse emittance growth due to Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR). A specific implementation for the second bunch compressor in the LCLS-II is considered. The design has been optimized using the particle tracking code, ELEGANT. Comparisons of the 5-bend chicane’s performance with that of a symmetric 4-bend chicane are shown for various compression ratios and bunch charges. Additionally, a one-dimensional, longitudinal CSR model for the 5-bend design is developed and its accuracy compared against ELEGANT simulations.  
poster icon Poster THP027 [0.881 MB]  
  • L. Wang, P. Emma, Y. Nosochkov, T.O. Raubenheimer, M. Woodley, F. Zhou
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • C. F. Papadopoulos, J. Qiang, M. Venturini
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  The Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) will generate extremely intense X-ray flashes to be used by researchers from all over the world. The FEL is powered by 4 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, operating with a 1 MHz bunch repetition rate. LCLS-II will provide large flexibility in bunch charge and peak current. Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) is applied to optimize the machine parameters including bunch compressors system, linearizer, de-chirper, RF phase and laser heater, in order to minimize the energy spread, collective effects and emittance. The strong resistive wall wake field along the 2km bypass beam line acts as a natural de-chirper. This paper summarizes the optimization of various configurations.  
poster icon Poster THP029 [0.702 MB]  
THP030 Recent Photocathode R&D for the LCLS injector 769
  • F. Zhou, A. Brachmann, W.J. Corbett, M.J. Ferreira, S. Gilevich, E.N. Jongewaard, J.R. Lewandowski, J. Sheppard, T. Vecchione, S. Vetter, S.P. Weathersby
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  Funding: US DOE under contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515
Systematic studies of the copper photocathodes identical to those used in the LCLS injector gun has been carried out at SLAC’s RF gun test facility. Recent observations at the gun test facility indicate that the pre-cleaning of the cathode prior to the installation in the gun is the major cause of the lower initial QE (~10-6) in the RF gun. All of four cathodes tested in the gun test facility have reliable higher initial QE, 4-8·10-5, with removal of pre-cleaning step. All of details will be described in the paper. A robust laser-assisted processing recipe has been developed. With this recipe, QE can be repeatedly evolved to about 1x10-4 within 3-4 weeks following the laser processing, and within 1-2 days the emittance is recovered to the values as observed prior to the laser processing. When compared to previous recipe used for the present LCLS cathode, the new recipe uses lower laser fluence and provides faster emittance recovery. Laser pointing stability is a key requirement for the success of the technique. This paper presents all details of the studies for four cathodes with over a few tens of laser-assisted spots and compares the results with the present LCLS cathode.
THP031 Further Understanding the LCLS Injector Emittance 774
  • F. Zhou, K.L.F. Bane, Y. Ding, Z. Huang, H. Loos
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  Funding: US DOE under contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515
Notable COTR effect from the LCLS laser heater chicane is recently observed at the LCLS injector OTR screen, used for routine emittance measurements. The emittance with the OTR screen is under-estimated by about 30% compared to the values with the wire scanner located next to the OTR screen. The emittance with the OTR and wire scanner is compared and relevant analyses are presented. Slice emittance upstream of the LCLS BC1 is measured using a traditional transverse cavity. Recently, slice emittance downstream of the BC1 is able to be measured with a newly developed technique, using a collimator located in the middle of the BC1. The parasitic effects of using the collimator for slice emittance measurement are evaluated. The slice emittance before and after the BC1 is compared. The dependence of the slice emittance on the linearizer’s transverse offset and CSR effect from the BC1 is discussed.
THP032 Effects of Potential Energy Spread on Particle Dynamics in Magnetic Bending Systems 779
  • R. Li
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  Funding: This work is supported by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177.
Understanding CSR effects for the generation and transport of high brightness electron beams is crucial for designs of modern FELs. Most studies of CSR effects focus on the impacts of the longitudinal CSR wakefield. In this study, we investigate the impact of the initial retarded potential energy of particles, due to bunch collective interaction, on the transverse dynamics of particles on a curved orbit. It is shown that as part of the remnants of the CSR cancellation effect when both the longitudinal and transverse CSR fores are taken into account, this initial potential energy at the entrance of a bending system acts as a pseudo kinetic energy, or pseudo energy in short, because its effect on particle optics through dispersion and momentum compaction is indistinguishable from effect of the usual kinetic energy offset from the design energy. Our estimation indicates that the resulting effect of pseudo energy spread can be measurable only when the peak current of the bunch is high enough such that the slice pseudo energy spread is appreciable compared to the slice kinetic energy spread. The implication of this study on simulations and experiments of CSR effects will be discussed.
THP033 Mechanical Design for a Corrugated Plate Dechirper System for LCLS 785
  • M.A. Harrison, P. Frigola, D.W. Martin, A.Y. Murokh, M. Ruelas
    RadiaBeam Systems, Santa Monica, California, USA
  • Z. Huang, R.H. Iverson, T.J. Maxwell, Z. Zhang
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  Funding: This work is supported by Department of Energy grant number DE-SC0009550.
RadiaBeam Systems is developing a novel passive chirp removal system using corrugated plates as studied by Bane and Stupakov.* Following on from low-energy experiments at BNL-ATF,** RBS will install a much larger and powerful system for removing the chirp from the 3-GeV beams in the LTU section at LCLS. The larger plates will present new challenges in the areas of manufacturing and mechanical control. In this paper we review the requirements for the dimensions of the corrugated plates for proper operation and the infrastructure necessary for precisely placing the plates so as not to adversely disrupt the beam.
* K. Bane, et al "Corrugated Pipe as a Beam Dechirper," SLAC-PUB-14925, 2012
** Harrison, M., et al "Removal of Residual Chirp in Compressed Beams Using a Passive Wakefield Technique." NaPAC13, 2013
THP034 Further Analysis of Corrugated Plate Dechirper Experiment at BNL-ATF 788
  • M.A. Harrison, G. Andonian, P. Frigola, A.Y. Murokh, M. Ruelas, A.V. Smirnov
    RadiaBeam Systems, Santa Monica, California, USA
  • M.G. Fedurin
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  Funding: This work is supported by Department of Energy grant number DE-SC0009550.
RadiaBeam Systems successfully completed testing of a proof-of-concept corrugated plate dechirper at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility.* Such passive devices should prove indispensable for the efficient operation of future XFEL facilities. These experiments demonstrated a narrowing of the energy spectrum in chirped beam bunches at 57.6 MeV. In this paper, we compare these results with results from Elegant simulations of the BNL-ATF beam. We also compare GdfidL simulations of the wakefield with the analytic results of Bane and Stupakov.**
* Harrison, M., et al "Removal of Residual Chirp in Compressed Beams Using a Passive Wakefield Technique." NaPAC13, 2013
** K. Bane, et al "Corrugated Pipe as a Beam Dechirper," SLAC-PUB-14925, 2012
THP035 Relativistic Effects in Micro-bunching 790
  • V. Litvinenko
    Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, USA
  • G. Wang
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  In this paper we present our theoretical studies of limits on bunching using magnetic systems. We discuss the connection of this limit with plasma oscillations in electron beams and present simple formulae for an additional limit of micro-bunching amplification.  
THP036 Benchmark and Simulation Design of a Low Energy Bunch Compressor 795
  • A. He, F.J. Willeke, L. Yang, L.-H. Yu
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  • J. Qiang
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  In the electron beam slicing method, a low energy bunch with very short and focused beam size is required to interact with the storage ring bunch. We have designed a low energy bunch compressor with BNL photocathode electron RF-gun by applying simulation code PARMELA. In this paper, in order to increase the repetition rate of the electron beam slicing system, we change the compressor’s RF gun from BNL RF-gun to LBNL’s VHF gun and redesign the compressor by applying IMPACT-T with both space charge effects and CSR effects considered. The benchmark between PARMELA and IMPACT-T has produced excellent agreement. The comparison of the CSR effects also shows the bunch can be compressed and focused to our desired size after optimization using code IMPACT-T with CSR effects turned on. The new compressor with high repetition rate still works in space charge dominated domain and the bunch with a negative energy chirp at the entrance of the chicane is compressed by a chicane with positive R56. After the optimization, we have achieved a low energy bunch with the 128 fs RMS bunch length, 42 μm and 25 μm RMS beam size in the vertical and horizontal directions respectively, at 22 MeV with 200 pC charge.  
THP037 Beam Performance of the Photocathode Gun for the Max IV Linac 799
  • J. Andersson, F. Curbis, D. Kumbaro, F. Lindau, S. Werin
    MAX-lab, Lund, Sweden
  The MAX IV facility in Lund (Sweden) is under construction and conditioning of the electron guns for the injector is ongoing. There are two guns in the injector, one thermionic gun for storage ring injection and one photocathode gun for the Short Pulse Facility. In this paper we report on the beam performance tests of the photocathode gun. The measurements were performed at the MAX IV electron gun test stand during spring 2014. Parameters that were studied includes quantum efficiency, emittance and emittance compensation. Results from the measurements are also compared to particle simulations done with ASTRA.  
Progress on the Construction of KAERI Ultra-short Pulse Facility  
  • K.H. Jang
    KAERI, Daejon, Republic of Korea
  The availability of subpicosecond electron bunches makes possible a variety of new experimental techniques such as the generation of ultra-short radiation pulses, time-resolved pump-probe experiments, and ultrafast electron diffraction. A Photocathode RF gun-based accelerator with subpicosecond electron bunches is under construction at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The main aim of the short-pulse facility in KAERI is to provide tools for high-power terahertz experiments with subpicosecond time resolution. Hence, the facility is mainly designed for generation of synchronized high-power terahertz and short x-ray pulse. Additionally, the bending magnet, installed after the RF gun (or before main accelerator), is capable to deflect the beam by 45 degrees right or left to the low-energy beamlines. These beamlines are to be used for experiments with ultrafast electron diffraction. Recently, RF source, laser, the coaxial coupler type RF gun and other components are ready for setting up the beam lines. Some details of the design, current status of the project, and future plans will be presented.  
THP039 Commissioning of the Photo-Cathode RF Gun at APS 803
  • Y.-E. Sun, J.C. Dooling, R.R. Lindberg, A. Nassiri, S.J. Pasky, H. Shang, T.L. Smith, A. Zholents
    ANL, Argonne, Ilinois, USA
  A S-band RF gun is recently RF conditioned and commissioned at APS, Argonne. In this paper we report the high-power RF conditioning process of the gun. Dark currents are monitored during the RF conditioning and found to be less than 150pC. Following the RF conditioning, photo-electron beams are generated from the gun and the copper cathode quantum efficiency is monitored. We study the quantum efficiency as gun gradient varies and vacuum condition improves. Photo-electron beam enery and emittance are measured as RF gun gradient and solenoid, as well as drive-laser conditions are varied. Finally we compare our experimental results with numerical simulations.
Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.
THP040 Status of Pump-probe Laser Development for the European XFEL 807
  • L.-G. Wißmann, M. Emons, M. Kellert, K. Kruse, M. Lederer, G. Palmer, M. Pergament, G. Priebe, J. Wang, U. Wegner
    XFEL. EU, Hamburg, Germany
  The European XFEL is under construction and is designed to become a multi-user facility. Three SASE beam lines with two experimental areas each are foreseen to guarantee a high user throughput. In order to enable the full scientific potential of the facility, optical laser pulses for either pumping or probing samples will be deployed regularly. We are presenting the pump-probe laser concept and the current status of the development, showing some experimental results of the prototype laser, achieved to date. The main emphasis of the presentation lies on the integration of the laser system into Karabo, the emerging control system of the European XFEL.  
THP041 Development of All-metal Stacked-double Gate Field Emitter Array Cathodes for X-ray Free-electron Laser Applications 811
  • S. Tsujino, H.-H. Braun, P. Das Kanungo, V. Guzenko, C. Lee, Y. Oh, M. Paraliev
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  • T. Feurer
    Universität Bern, Institute of Applied Physics, Bern, Switzerland
  Funding: This work was partially supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation Nos. 200020143428 and 2000021147101.
We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of all-metal stacked-double-gate field emitter array (FEA) cathodes as a potential upgrade option of SwissFEL cathode at the Paul Scherrer Institute. Single-gate FEAs have demonstrated stable operation and gated field emission in pulsed diode gun with gradient up to 30 MV/m with pulse duration down to 200 ps and generation of 5 pC electron bunches by near infrared laser-induced field emission. However for high brightness applications it is crucial to reduce the beam divergence of individual beamlet by a suitable double-gate structure. The challenge lies in suppressing the concomitant decrease of the emission current when a negative focusing potential is applied to the second gate. To solve this problem, a stacked-double-gate FEAs with large collimation gate aperture diameter has been proposed. The intrinsic transverse emittance evaluated from a beam measurement for 1 mm-diameter FEA was below 0.1 mm-mrad. Compatibility with neon-gas conditioning to improve the beam uniformity and high emission current with double-gate FEAs were also demonstrated recently. The current research is focusing on the combination of the surface-plasmon-polariton resonance of the gate electrode and the near infrared laser-induced field emission to realize an ultrafast and ultrabright FEA cathode.
THP042 The LCLS-II Injector Design 815
  • J.F. Schmerge, A. Brachmann, D. Dowell, A.R. Fry, R.K. Li, Z. Li, T.O. Raubenheimer, T. Vecchione, F. Zhou
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • A.C. Bartnik, I.V. Bazarov, B.M. Dunham, C.M. Gulliford, C.E. Mayes
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • D. Filippetto, R. Huang, C. F. Papadopoulos, G.J. Portmann, J. Qiang, F. Sannibale, S.P. Virostek, R.P. Wells
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  • A. Lunin, N. Solyak, A. Vivoli
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  The new LCLS-II project will construct a 4 GeV continuous wave (CW) superconducting linear accelerator to simultaneously feed two undulators which will cover the spectral ranges 0.2-1.2 keV and 1-5 keV, respectively. The injector must provide up to 300 pC/bunch with a normalized emittance < 0.6 mm and peak current > 30 A at up to 1 MHz repetition rate. An electron gun with the required brightness at such high repetition rate has not yet been demonstrated. However, several different options have been explored with results that meet or exceed the performance requirements of LCLS-II. The available technologies for high repetition-rate guns, and the need to keep dark current within acceptable values, limit the accelerating gradient in the electron gun. We propose a CW normal conducting low frequency RF gun for the electron source due to a combination of the simplicity of operation and the highest achieved gradient in a CW gun, potentially allowing for lower beam emittances. The high gradient is especially significant at the 300 pC/bunch charge where beam quality can suffer due to space charge. This paper describes the design challenges and presents our solutions for the LCLS-II injector.  
THP043 Model-based Klystron Linearization in the SwissFEL Test Facility 820
  • A. Řežaeizadeh, R. Kalt, T. Schilcher
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  • A. Řežaeizadeh, R. Smith
    Automatic Control Laboratory, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
  Funding: Paul Scherrer Institut
An automatic procedure is developed to provide the optimal operating point of a klystron. Since klystrons are nonlinear with respect to the input amplitude, a model-based amplitude controller is introduced which uses the klystron characteristic curves to obtain the appropriate high voltage power supply and amplitude, such that the operating point is close to the saturation. An advantage of the proposed design is that the overall open-loop system (from the input to the RF station to the klystron output amplitude) is linearized. The method has been successfully tested on a full scale RF system running at nominal power.
*Ch.Rapp, Effects of HPA-Nonlinearity on a 4-DPSK/OFDM-Signal …,Euro.
Conf. on Satellite Communi.,1991. <CR>
**A.Cann, Nonlinearity Model With Variable Knee…,IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst.,1980
THP044 RF Pulse Flattening in the SwissFEL Test Facility based on Model-free Iterative Learning Control 824
  • A. Řežaeizadeh, R. Smith
    Automatic Control Laboratory, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • A. Řežaeizadeh, T. Schilcher
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  Funding: Paul Scherrer Institut
This paper introduces an iterative approach to producing flat-topped radio frequency (RF) pulses for driving the pulsed linear accelerators in the Swiss free electron laser (SwissFEL). The method is based on model-free iterative learning control which iteratively updates the input pulse shape in order to generate the desired amplitude and phase pulses at the output of the RF system. The method has been successfully applied to the klystron output to improve the flatness of the amplitude and phase pulse profiles.
* P. Janssens,, "Model-free iterative learning control for LTI systems …", 18th IFAC. <CR>
** N. Amann, , "ILC for discrete-time systems …", IEE Control Theory Apps.
THP045 Development of Photocachode Drive Laser System for RF Guns in KU-FEL 828
  • H. Zen, T. Kii, H. Ohgaki, S. Suphakul
    Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
  • R. Kuroda, Y. Taira
    AIST, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  Funding: This research was supported by ZE Research Program, IAE, Kyoto University (ZE26A-22).
We have been developing an accelerator based infrared light sources at Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University. An MIR-FEL has been developed* and a THz-FEL is under development**. A thermionic RF gun has been used as the electron source of MIR-FEL. A project of photocathode upgrade of the current thermionic RF gun is now undergoing to increase the peak power of the FEL. We need to develop multi-bunch laser for this purpose. On the other hand, the THz-FEL will be a single-pass FEL using an S-band 1.6-cell photocathode RF gun. For this purpose, a single-bunch laser is enough. A photocathode drive laser system for those purposes has been developed. The laser system consists of an Nd:YVO4 mode-locked oscillator with an integrated AOM, a laser pointing stabilizer, two diode pumped Nd:YAG amplifiers, and harmonic generators. In case of single-bunch operation of the laser, the pulse energy of higher than 150 micro-J at 266 nm has been obtained. For multi-bunch operation, 70 micro-J/micro-pulse and 70 pulses have been obtained. Optimization for multi-bunch operation of the laser is under going. In the conference, status of development of the drive laser will be presented.
*H. Zen, et al., Infrared Physics & Technology, vol. 51, pp.382-385 (2008).
**S. Suphakul, et al., in this conference.
THP046 Cu and Cs2Te Cathodes Preparation and QE History at the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility. 832
  • J. Bossert, R. Ganter, M. Schaer, T. Schietinger
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  The installation of a load-lock chamber attached to the SwissFEL gun gives the possibility to carefully prepare the metallic cathodes under vacuum and also to use semiconductor cathodes like Cs2Te cathodes which cannot be transported through air. The paper presents the preparation procedures used for copper (QE>1.e-4) and Cs2Te cathodes (based on a CERN recipe) together with surface analysis results (SEM, EDX, interferometry, microscopy). Finally, the QE evolutions obtained in the SwissFEL Injector test facility as well as in a test stand are discussed for both materials.  
THP047 Photoemission Studies of Niobium and Lead Photocathodes Using Picosecond UV Laser 836
  • R. Xiang, A. Arnold, P.N. Lu, P. Murcek, J. Teichert, H. Vennekate
    HZDR, Dresden, Germany
  • R. Barday
    HZB, Berlin, Germany
  Funding: We acknowledge the support of Enhanced European Coordination for Accelerator Research & Development (EuCARD2, WP12), and the support of German Federal Ministry of Education and Research grant 05K12CR1.
We present the results of our investigations on superconducting photocathodes for supercondcuting rf injectors. Bulk niobium and lead film on niobium have been considered as the best candidates. The quantum efficiency (QE) at room temperature has been measured with 258 nm UV laser pulses of 14 ps duration. A QE of 10-4 has been obtained for the lead film. In order to improve the photoemission yield of niobium, new treatment methods, like Cs-activation and implantation with alkali metals, have been applied and the results are reported.
THP048 Formation of the Electron Bunch Longitudinal Profile for Coherent Electron Cooling Experiment 840
  • I. Pinayev, D. Kayran, V. Litvinenko
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  Proof-of-princilpe experiment of the coherent electron cooling is ongoing at Brookhaven National Lab. CeC mechanism utilizes amplification of density modulation, induced by hadrons, by an FEL structure. To fully utilize electron beam cooling capacity we need uniform longitudinal beam profile. In this paper we present two frequency injector system tuned for this requirement.  
THP049 High Power RF Test and Analysis of Dark Current in the SwissFEL-gun 843
  • P. Craievich, S. Bettoni, M. Bopp, A. Citterio, C. Ozkan, M. Pedrozzi, J.-Y. Raguin, M. Schaer, A. Scherer, T. Schietinger, L. Stingelin
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  To fulfill the beam quality and operational requirements of the SwissFEL project, currently under construction at the Paul Scherrer Institut, a new RF photocathode gun for the electron source was designed and manufactured in house. A 2.6 cell S-band gun operating with near-perfect rotationally symmetric RF field was designed to operate with a 100MV/m cathode field at a repetition rate of 100Hz with average power dissipation of 0.9kW with pulse duration of 1us. The first SwissFEL-gun is now fabricated and installed in the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility (SITF). The frequency spectrum and field balance, through bead-pulling, have been directly verified in-situ and then the gun has been operated with high-power RF. The results of bead-pull measurements and high-power tests are presented and discussed. In addition the emitted dark current was also measured during the high-power tests and the charge within the RF pulse was measured as a function of the peak cathode field at different pulse durations. Faraday cup data were taken for cathode peak RF fields up to 100MV/m for the case of a diamond-turned polycrystalline copper cathode.  
RF Design of a C-Band Transverse Deflecting Structure for Femtosecond Scale Phase Space Measurements  
  • J.-Y. Raguin, P. Craievich
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  The RF design of a two-meter long C-band travelling-wave transverse deflecting structure for the bunch length and slice emittance diagnostics of electron bunches with an energy of several GeV is presented. The structure is of the constant-impedance type with cup-like cells, each of which incorporates two azimuthally symmetric caved-in walls to stabilize the polarized dipolar HEM11 modes. It operates with a 2π/3 phase advance per cell on the lowest first backward space harmonic of one of these HEM11 modes, the two lowest passbands of which are well separated in frequency to avoid mode mixing. With a 14 mm diameter iris aperture and a transverse impedance of the structure of around 43 MΩ/m, an integrated deflecting voltage of 35 MV is guaranteed with an input power lower than 25 MW. The topology of the identical input and output single-feed RF couplers is such that peak field values are well below the safe limit. Two structures with such a design meet the SwissFEL high-energy beam diagnostic requirements.  
THP051 Thyratron Replacement 847
  • I. Roth, M.P.J. Gaudreau, M.K. Kempkes
    Diversified Technologies, Inc., Bedford, Massachusetts, USA
  Funding: DOE Contract DE-SC0011292
Semiconductor thyristers have long been used as a replacement for thyratrons, at least in low power or long pulse RF systems. To date, however, such thyristor assemblies have not demonstrated the reliability needed for installation in short pulse, high peak power RF stations used with many pulsed electron accelerators. The difficulty is that a fast rising current in a thyristor tends to be carried in a small region, rather than across the whole device, and this localized current concentration can cause a short circuit failure. It is not clear that this failure mode can be overcome with currently available device designs. An alternate solid-state device, the insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT), can readily operate at the speed needed for the accelerator, but commercial IGBTs cannot handle the voltage and current required. Diversified Technologies, Inc. (DTI) has patented and refined the technology required to build these arrays of series-parallel connected switches. Under DOE contract, DTI is currently developing an affordable, reliable, form-fit-function replacement for the klystron modulator thyratrons at SLAC capable of pulsing at 360 kV, 420 A, 6 μs, and 120 Hz.
THP052 Affordable Short Pulse Marx Modulator 849
  • R.A. Phillips, G. DelPriore, M.P.J. Gaudreau, M.K. Kempkes
    Diversified Technologies, Inc., Bedford, Massachusetts, USA
  • J.A. Casey
    Rockfield Research Inc., Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
  Funding: DOE Contract DE-SC0004251
High voltage short-pulse klystron modulators are required for numerous X-Band accelerator designs. At the very high voltages required for these transmitters, all of the existing designs are based on pulse transformers, which significantly limits their performance and efficiency. There is not a fully optimized, transformer-less modulator design capable of meeting the demanding requirements of very peak power, short pulse RF stations. Under a U.S. Department of Energy grant, Diversified Technologies, Inc. (DTI) is developing a short pulse, solid-state Marx modulator. The modulator is designed for high efficiency in the 100 kV to 500 kV range, for currents up to 250 A, pulse lengths of 0.2 to 5.0 μs, and risetimes <300 ns. Key objectives of the development effort are modularity and scalability, combined with low cost and ease of manufacture. For short-pulse modulators, this Marx topology provides a means to achieve fast risetimes and flattop control that are not available with hard switch or transformer-coupled topologies. The system is in the final stages of testing prior to installation at Yale University.
THP053 Steady State Multipacting in a Micro-pulse Electron Gun 851
  • K. Zhou, X.Y. Lu, X. Luo, S.W. Quan, Z.Q. Yang, J. Zhao
    PKU, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  Multipacting is a resonant electron discharge phenomenon via secondary electron emission, while micro-pulse electron gun (MPG) utilizes the multipacting current in a radio-frequency (RF) cavity to produce short pulse electron beams. The concept of MPG has been proposed for many years. However, the unstable operating state of MPG vastly obstructs its practical applications. This paper presents a study on the steady state mulitpacting in a MPG. The requirements for steady state multipacting are proposed through the analysis of the interaction between the RF cavity and the beam load. Accordingly, a MPG cavity with the frequency of 2856 MHz has been designed and constructed. Various kinds of grid-anodes are tested in our primary experiments. Both the unstable and stable multipacting current have been observed. Presently, the stable output beam current has been detected at about 12.2 mA. Further experimental study is under way now.  
poster icon Poster THP053 [2.525 MB]  
THP054 Dark Current Studies at the APEX Photoinjector 855
  • R. Huang
    USTC/NSRL, Hefei, Anhui, People's Republic of China
  • D. Filippetto, C. F. Papadopoulos, F. Sannibale
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  Funding: Work supported by the Director of the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy under Contract no. DEAC02-05CH11231
The increasing scientific demand for a high repetition rate FEL light source is driving the development of electron sources with high beam quality, delivering electron bunches at rates in the MHz range. An ongoing project to develop such a source is the Advanced Photoinjector Experiment (APEX) at LBNL. High brightness electron beams require high fields at the cathode during the electron emission. Such high fields associated with imperfections on the cathode surface area can induce undesired electron field emission (dark current). Excessive dark current can generate quenching of SRF structures and undesired radiation doses activating accelerator components and damaging undulator structures. In the present paper, we discuss the dark current studies performed at APEX. Field emitters in the cathode area have been localized and characterized, and techniques for minimizing dark current emission and to passively remove it have been investigated.
Ultra Precision Parts for Free Electron Lasers  
  • X.J.A. Janssen, M. Breukers, J.M.A. Priem
    VDL ETG, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
  Several institutes are currently developing free electron lasers (FEL) based on normal-conducting linear accelerators (LINAC). These LINAC’s have some intrinsic advantages e.g. no cryogenic cooling, larger accelerating gradients and hence a reduced length of the accelerator. The mechanical properties (e.g. roughness, accuracies) of these accelerator parts touch the limits of what is achievable with currently available manufacturing techniques. The increasing technical specifications and demands for volume-production not only drive industry to constantly improve their capabilities but also to industrialize existing techniques to a point that they are suitable for series production. We will present our current status in prototype- and series-manufacturing of high- and ultra-high precision parts for LINAC’s and FEL’s in particular. The examples cover the projects and parts for SwissFEL in which VDL ETG was involved in the manufacturing including; final machining of the gun [*]; complete realization of the BOC pulse-compressor [**,***]; final machining of 108 cups for the prototype accelerator structure [3] and complete realization of the prototype J-couplers [****].
** R. Zennaro, Proc. IPAC2013
*** F. Loehl, Proc. FEL2013
**** H. Braun, presentation FEL2012
THP056 The SwissFEL C-band RF Pulse Compressor: Manufacturing and Proof of Precision by RF Measurements 859
  • U. Ellenberger, H. Blumer, M. Heusser, M. Kleeb, L. Paly, M. Probst, T. Stapf
    Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  • M. Bopp, A. Citterio, R. Zennaro
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  A pulse compressor is required to compress the RF power distributed to the four accelerating structures of a single C-band (5712 GHz) module of the SwissFEL. The pulse compressor is of the barrel open cavity (BOC) type. A total of 26 BOC devices are necessary to operate the linear accelerator (26 modules or 104 C-band structures) of SwissFEL X-ray laser. The C-band BOC combines the advantages of compactness and large RF efficiency i.e. large compression factor. Key features of the BOC are described and how they have been implemented in the manufacturing and tuning processes. RF measurements of the BOC are presented to account for the mechanical precision reached by manufacturing. Up to August 2014 about 6 BOCs have been manufactured in-house and one has been high power tested in a RF test stand to simulate the operation in SwissFEL.  
THP057 Longitudinal and Transverse Optimization for a High Repetition Rate Injector 864
  • C. F. Papadopoulos, D. Filippetto, R. Huang, G.J. Portmann, H.J. Qian, F. Sannibale, S.P. Virostek, R.P. Wells
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  • A.C. Bartnik, I.V. Bazarov, B.M. Dunham, C.M. Gulliford, C.E. Mayes
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • A. Brachmann, D. Dowell, P. Emma, Z. Li, T.O. Raubenheimer, J.F. Schmerge, T. Vecchione, F. Zhou
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • A. Vivoli
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  Funding: Work supported by the Director of the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy under Contract no. DEAC02-05CH11231
The injector is the low energy part of a linac, where space charge and kinematic effects may affect the electron beam quality significantly, and in the case of single pass systems determines the brightness in the downstream components. Following the increasing demand for high repetition rate user facilities, the VHF-gun, a normal conducting, high repetition rate (1 MHz) RF gun operating at 186 MHz has been constructed at LBNL within the APEX project and is under operation. In the current paper, we report on the status of the beam dynamics studies. For this, a multi-objected approach is used, where both the transverse and the longitudinal phase space quality is optimized, as quantified by the transverse emittance and the bunch length and energy spread respectively. We also report on different bunch charge operating modes.
THP058 Solid-State Switch for a Klystron Modulator for Stable Operation of a THz- FEL 868
  • G. Isoyama, M. Fujimoto, S. Funakoshi, K. Furukawa, A. Irizawa, R. Kato, K. Kawase, K. Miyazaki, A. Tokuchi, R. Tsutsumi, M. Yaguchi
    ISIR, Osaka, Japan
  • F. Kamitsukasa
    Osaka University, Graduate School of Science, Osaka, Japan
  We have been conducting studies on upgrade of the THz-FEL and its applications, using the L-band electron linac at ISIR, Osaka University. The stability of the FEL is crucial for these studies and the operation of the FEL depends on characteristics of the electron beam, especially on stability of the electron energy, which is strongly affected by the RF power and its phase provided to the linac. We uses a klystron modulator with the a highly stable charging system to the PFN with a fractional variation of 8×10-5 (peak-to-peak), but the klystron voltage varies by one order of magnitude larger due probably to the thyratron used as a high voltage and high current switch in the klystron modulator. In order to make the stability of the FEL higher, we have developed a solid-state switch using static induction thyristors. The performance of the switch is as follows; the maximum holding voltage is 25 kV, the maximum current is 6 kA for the pulse duration of 10 us, the switching time is 270 ns, and the maximum repetition frequency is 10 Hz. The intensity fluctuation of the FEL macropulse is reduced to a few percents using the solid state switch.  
THP059 The Laser Heater System of SwissFEL 871
  • M. Pedrozzi, M. Calvi, R. Ischebeck, S. Reiche, C. Vicario
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  • B.D. Fell, N. Thompson
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  Short wavelength FELs are generally driven by high-brilliance photo-cathode RF-guns which generate electron beams with an uncorrelated energy spread on the order of 1 keV or less. These extremely cold beams can easily develop micro-bunching instabilities caused by longitudinal space charge forces after the compression process. This can result in a blow up of the energy spread and emittance beyond the tolerable level for SASE emission. It has been demonstrated theoretically and experimentally [1] that a controlled increase of the uncorrelated energy spread to typically a few keV is sufficient to strongly reduce the instability growth. In the laser heater system, one achieves a controlled increase of the beam energy spread by a resonant interaction of the electron beam with a transversally polarized laser beam inside of an undulator magnet. The momentum modulation resulting from the energy exchange within the undulator is consequently smeared out in the transmission line downstream of the laser heater system. In SwissFEL, the laser heater system is located after the first two S-band accelerating structures at a beam energy of 150 MeV. This paper describes the layout and the sub-components of this system.
[1] Z. Huang, et al, Phys. Rev. Special Topics – Accelerator and beams 13, 020703 (2010)
THP060 Design of a Spatio-temporal 3-D Ellipsoidal Photo Cathode Laser System for the High Brightness Photo Injector PITZ 878
  • T. Rublack, J.D. Good, M. Khojoyan, M. Krasilnikov, F. Stephan
    DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen, Germany
  • A.V. Andrianov, E. Gacheva, E. Khazanov, S. Mironov, A. Poteomkin, V. Zelenogorsky
    IAP/RAS, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
  • I. Hartl, S. Schreiber
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • E. Syresin
    JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia
  Funding: German Federal Ministry of education and Research, project 05K10CHE “Development and experimental test of a laser system for producing quasi 3D ellipsoidal laser pulses” and RFBR grant 13-02-91323.
Minimized emittance is crucial for improved operation of linac-based free electron lasers. Simulations have thus shown 3-D ellipsoidal photocathode laser pulses are superior to the standard Gaussian or cylindrical laser pulses in this manner. Therefore, in collaboration with the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna, Russia) and the Photo Injector Test facility at DESY, Zeuthen (PITZ), a prototype system capable of producing spatio-temporal 3-D ellipsoidal pulses has been constructed at the Institute of Applied Physics (IAP, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia). The system consists of a dual-output, 1030 nm fiber laser coupled with disc amplifiers, a scheme based on Spatial Light Modulators for spatial and temporal pulse shaping of the primary output, a cross-correlator set up utilizing the secondary output to characterize the primary output, and finally frequency conversion to the UV. A preliminary, temporal ellipsoidal shaped IR pulse has been observed and measured so far at IAP RAS. As of writing, improvements and refinements of the system are ongoing and it is expected to replicate the finalized prototype at PITZ soon.
THP061 Commissioning of an Improved Superconducting RF Photo Injector at ELBE 881
  • J. Teichert, A. Arnold, M. Freitag, P.N. Lu, P. Michel, P. Murcek, H. Vennekate, R. Xiang
    HZDR, Dresden, Germany
  • P. Kneisel
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • I. Will
    MBI, Berlin, Germany
  In order to produce high-brightness electron beams in a superconducting RF photo injector, the most important point is to reach a high acceleration field in the cavity. For this reason two new 3.5-cell niobium cavities were fabricated, chemically treated and cleaned in collaboration with Jlab. The first of these two cavities was shipped to HZDR and assembled in a new cryomodule. This new gun (SRF Gun II) was installed in the ELBE accelerator hall in May 2014 and replaces the previous SRF Gun I. Beside the new cavity the ELBE SRF gun II differs from the previous gun by the integration of a superconducting solenoid. The paper presents the results of the first test run with a Cu photocathode.  
Novel Short Pulse Modulator for High Power Microwave Tubes  
  • G. Blokesch, M. Bader, A. Epp, M. Frei, W. Kaesler, D. Kraemer, M. Osemann
    Ampegon AG, Turgi, Switzerland
  • J. Biela, D. Gerber
    ETH, Zurich, Switzerland
  Ampegon in collaboration with the Laboratory for High Power Electronic Systems HPE/ETH Zurich, has developed a novel short pulse modulator based on a matrix transformer for high power microwave klystrons. The new modulator system complies with the future needs in the field of accelerators like FELs for research facilities, but also for medical and industrial applications in a most reliable, efficient and precise way. Special emphasis has been given to a modular and scalable design, a high level of redundancy and maintainability. This is achieved with a clear and extendable system layout, which allows easy access to all components, and the use of standardized components. The pulse to pulse stability and high systems efficiency in combination with a fast voltage rise time complies with the requirements of future efficient accelerator designs. After a successful test of a demonstrator modulator, the industrialized full scale modulator based on the C-band RF station specification of the SwissFEL project (PSI Paul Scherrer Institute, CH) has been built and is currently under test in the Ampegon factory. The poster will give an overview of the system concept and Shows first test results.  
THP063 Production of C-band Disk-loaded type CG Accelerating Structures 885
  • N. Shigeoka, S. Miura, D. Suzuki
    MHI, Hiroshima, Japan
  • T. Asaka, T. Inagaki, Y. Otake, T. Sakurai
    RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo, Japan
  • H. Ego
    JASRI/SPring-8, Hyogo-ken, Japan
  In April 2013, MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES, LTD. contracted with RIKEN to produce six C-band disk-loaded type and constant gradient (CG) accelerating structures for removal of SCSS. These structures were newly designed by RIKEN for operation with an acceleration gradient of over 45 MeV/m and a repletion rate of 120 pps. The first structure was delivered in August 2013 to RIKEN and the other five was also delivered in March 2014. The accelerating structures were stacked from one hundred accelerating cells and formed by the vacuum brazing method. These cells using oxygen free copper were ultra-precisely machined. Unlike the C-band choke-mode type structures, which MHI manufactured in past for SACLA, the accelerating cells of the CG structure can be tuned after the brazing by pushing dimpling at the tuning hole of each cell. Demands of a VSWR < 1.1 and a phase error < 3 degree are fulfilled after the tuning by using the nodal shift method, which corrects cell frequency shifts due to the machining errors of cells and a cell’s deformation by the heat cycle of the brazing. The detailed results of the production and low-power RF tests will be presented in this presentation.  
poster icon Poster THP063 [0.623 MB]  
THP064 High Repetition Rate S-band Photoinjector Design for the CLARA FEL 889
  • J.W. McKenzie, L.S. Cowie, P. Goudket, B.L. Militsyn
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • G. Burt
    Cockcroft Institute, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom
  • T.J. Jones
    STFC/DL, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • V.V. Paramonov
    RAS/INR, Moscow, Russia
  We present the design of a 1.5cell S-band photoinjector RF gun intended to be operated at repetition rates up to 400 Hz in single bunch mode. This gun is intended for use at the proposed CLARA (Compact Linear Accelerator for Research and Applications) FEL test facility at Daresbury Laboratory in the UK and will first be tested and characterised on VELA (Versatile Electron Linear Accelerator) in 2015. The final cavity design is presented including optimisation for CLARA beam dynamics, and choice of a novel coaxial H-shaped coupler.  
Towards a Novel THz-based Monitor for Subpicosecond Electron Bunches Working at MHz Repetition Rates and Low Bunch Charges  
  • B.W. Green, M. Gensch, S. Kovalev
    HZDR, Dresden, Germany
  • A.S. Fisher
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • T. Golz, N. Stojanovic
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • M. Kuntzsch
    TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany
  The control and measurement of electron bunch properties at the femtosecond (fs) level has become an important field in modern accelerator physics, in particular since these became crucial parameters for the operation of 4th Generation X-ray Light-sources. In order to operate modern-day photon factories such as LCLS and the future European X-FEL reliably, a number of novel approaches have been developed that allow the noninvasive measurement of electron bunch form and arrival time. Some of those are based on the electro-optic detection of the coulomb field of the electron bunches in the electron beamline; some detect the super-radiant THz pulses from the electron bunch. However, none of these concepts allows for pulse-to-pulse detection on a quasi-CW accelerator operating at the MHz repetition rates planned for the next generation of X-ray free electron lasers. In this contribution we present first results from a new monitor concept, based on the single-shot electro-optic detection of super-radiant THz pulses, that has the potential to operate at MHz repetition rates.  
poster icon Poster THP065 [1.966 MB]  
Recent Developments for the Improved Bunch Arrival Time Monitors at FLASH and for the European XFEL  
  • M.K. Czwalinna, H. Dinter, C. Gerth, H. Schlarb
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • S. Bou Habib
    Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Electronic Systems, Warsaw, Poland
  • J. Szewiński
    NCBJ, Świerk/Otwock, Poland
  At today's free-electron lasers, pump-probe experiments and seeding schemes put high demands on the timing stability of electron bunches. At FLASH and the upcoming European XFEL a reliable and precise arrival time detection down to the femtosecond level has to cover a broad range of bunch charges, which may even change from 1 nC down to 20 pC within a bunch train. At FLASH, the new bunch arrival time monitor has to cope with the special operation mode where the MHz repetition rate bunch train is separated into two segments for FLASH1 and FLASH2 beam lines. Each of the two segments will exhibit individual timing jitter characteristics since they are generated from two different injector lasers and can be accelerated with individual energy gain settings. This operation mode places high demands on both, the hardware and the required servers for the bunch arrival time monitor, with regard to automated control and exception handling. In this paper, we describe the adapted electro-optical subsystem and show latest results from the newly implemented read-out electronics based on the MTCA.4 platform.  
THP069 Performance Study of High Bandwidth Pickups Installed at FLASH and ELBE for Femtosecond-Precision Arrival Time Monitors 893
  • M.K. Czwalinna, C. Gerth, H. Schlarb, C. Sydlo
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • A. Angelovski, R. Jakoby, A. Penirschke
    TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany
  • M. Gensch, M. Kuntzsch
    HZDR, Dresden, Germany
  • M. Kuntzsch
    TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany
  • T. Weiland
    TEMF, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany
  At today's free-electron lasers, high-resolution electron bunch arrival time measurements have become increasingly more important in fast feedback systems for a timing jitter reduction down to the femtosecond level as well as for time-resolved pump-probe experiments. This is fulfilled by arrival time monitors which employ an electro-optical detection scheme by means of synchronised ultrashort laser pulses. Even more, at FLASH and the European XFEL the measurement has to cover a wide range of bunch charges from 1 nC down to 20 pC with equally sub-10 fs resolution. To meet these requirements, recently a high bandwidth pickup electrode with a cut-off frequency above 40 GHz has been developed. These pickups are installed at the macro-pulsed SRF accelerator of the free-electron laser FLASH and at the macro-pulsed continuous wave SRF accelerator ELBE. In this paper we present an evaluation of the pickup performance by direct signal measurements with high bandwidth oscilloscopes and by use of the electro-optical arrival time monitor.  
THP070 A Tool for Real Time Acquisitions and Correlation Studies at FERMI 898
  • E. Allaria, W.M. Fawley, E. Ferrari
    Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Basovizza, Italy
  • E. Ferrari
    Università degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste, Italy
  In this work we report the recent implementation of a Matlab based acquisition program that, exploiting the real time capabilities of TANGO, can be used at FERMI for acquiring various machine parameter and electron beam properties together with most FEL signals. Analysis of the saved datafiles is performed with a second code that allows to retrieve correlations and to study dependence of FEL properties on machine parameters. An overview of the two codes is reported.  
Installation and First Measurements of an Electron Beam Detector at the FLASH II Beam Dump  
  • F. Perlick, N. Leuschner, M. Sachwitz
    DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen, Germany
  • G. Kube, M. Schmitz, K. Wittenburg, T. Wohlenberg
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  For the electron absorber at FLASH II a detector has been developed to control the position, dimensions and profile of the electron beam. Scintillation light, emitted from a luminescent screen in front of the dump window, is reflected by a mirror, located in two meter distance from the screen, and passes through a vacuum window. For optical analysis, the beam image is then transferred by an optical fibre bundle to a CCD camera, which is located in one meter distance from the beam line. To test the survivability of the fibre bundle in such a highly radioactive environment, an irradiation test was performed by installing a similar fibre bundle onto a radioactive hot spot at FLASH. The test revealed that the fibre’s optical qualities after irradiation of approximately one megagray degraded by less than ten percent. After the optical system had been simulated in an experimental setup in the lab, showing satisfactory results, the monitor has recently been installed and adjusted at FLASH II. The results of the first measurements will be presented in the paper.  
THP073 Optics Measurements at FLASH2 902
  • M. Scholz, B. Faatz, M. Vogt, J. Zemella
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  FLASH2 is a newly build second beam line at FLASH, the soft X-ray FEL at DESY, Hamburg. Unlike the existing beam line FLASH1, it is equipped with variable gap undulators. This beam line is currently being commissioned. Both undulator beam lines of FLASH are driven by a common linear accelerator. Fast kickers and a septum are installed at the end of the linac to distribute the electron bunches of every train between FLASH1 and FLASH2. A specific beam optic in the extraction arc with horizontal beam waists in the bending magnets is mandatory in order to mitigate CSR effects. Here we will show first results of measurements and compare to simulations.  
THP074 Infrared Diagnostics Instrumentation Design for the Coherent Electron Cooling Proof of Principle Experiment 905
  • T.A. Miller, D.M. Gassner, V. Litvinenko, M.G. Minty, I. Pinayev, B. Sheehy
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  Funding: Work supported by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy
The Coherent Electron Cooling Proof-of-Principle experiment [*] based on an FEL is currently under construction in the RHIC tunnel at BNL. Diagnostics for the experimental machine [**] are currently being designed, built and installed. This paper focuses on the design of the infrared diagnostic instrumentation downstream of the three tandem 2.8m long helical wiggler sections that will act on a 22MeV 68uA electron beam co-propagating with the 40GeV/u RHIC gold beam. The 14 um FEL radiation, or wiggler light, will be extracted from RHIC via a viewport in a downstream DX magnet cryostat and analysed by instrumentation on a nearby optics bench. Instruments concentrating on three parameters, namely intensity, spectral content, and transverse profile, will extract information from the wiggler light in an attempt to quantify the overlap of the electron and ion beams and act as an indicator of coherent cooling.
* V. Litvinkenko, et al THOBN3, PAC2011, New York, NY
** D. M. Gassner, et al WEAP01, BIW2012, Newport News, VA
THP075 Design of TDS-based Multi-screen Electron Beam Diagnostics for the European XFEL 909
  • J. Wychowaniak
    TUL-DMCS, Łódź, Poland
  • C. Gerth, M. Yan
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  Dedicated longitudinal electron beam diagnostics is essential for successful operation of modern free-electron lasers. Demand for diagnostic data includes the longitudinal bunch profile, bunch length and slice emittance of the electron bunches. Experimental setups based on transverse deflecting structures (TDS) are excellent candidates for this purpose. At the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), such a longitudinal bunch profile monitor utilizing a TDS, a fast kicker magnet and an off-axis imaging screen, has been put into operation. It enables the measurement of a single bunch out of a bunch train without affecting the remaining bunches. At the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) multiscreen stations in combination with TDS are planned to be installed. In order to allow for flexible measurements of longitudinal bunch profile and slice emittance, a configurable timing and trigger distribution to the fast kicker magnets and screen stations is required. In this paper, we discuss various operation patterns and the corresponding realization based on MTCA.4 technology.  
THP076 Measurements of the Timing Stability at the FLASH1 Seeding Experiment 913
  • C. Lechner, A. Azima, M. Drescher, L.L. Lazzarino, Th. Maltezopoulos, V. Miltchev, T. Plath, J. Rönsch-Schulenburg, J. Roßbach, M. Wieland
    Uni HH, Hamburg, Germany
  • S. Ackermann, J. Bödewadt, H. Dachraoui, N. Ekanayake, B. Faatz, M. Felber, K. Honkavaara, T. Laarmann, J.M. Mueller, H. Schlarb, S. Schreiber, S. Schulz
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • G. Angelova Hamberg
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
  • K.E. Hacker, S. Khan, R. Molo
    DELTA, Dortmund, Germany
  • P.M. Salen, P. van der Meulen
    FYSIKUM, AlbaNova, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  Funding: Supported by Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany under contract No. 05K10PE1, 05K10PE3, 05K13GU4 and 05K13PE3 and the German Research Foundation programme graduate school 1355.
For seeding of a free-electron laser, the spatial and temporal overlap of the seed laser pulse and the electron bunch in the modulator is critical. To establish the temporal overlap, the time difference between pulses from the seed laser and spontaneous undulator radiation is reduced to a few pico-seconds with a combination of a photomultiplier tube and a streak camera. Finally, for the precise overlap the impact of the seed laser pulses on the electron bunches is observed. In this contribution, we describe the current experimental setup, discuss the techniques applied to establish the temporal overlap and analyze its stability.
A High Repetition Rate, Single-Shot Recording Scheme for Short Pulses  
  • E. Roussel, S. Bielawski, C. Evain, M. Le Parquier, C. Szwaj
    PhLAM/CERCLA, Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France
  • J.B. Brubach, L. Cassinari, M.-E. Couprie, M. Labat, L. Manceron, J.P. Ricaud, P. Roy, M.-A. Tordeux
    SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  We demonstrate high repetition rate (up to 88 MHz) single shot recordings of pulses shapes, using a novel opto-electronic strategy. The technique is based on the classical spectral encoding technique, but at a much higher repetition rate than with the state-of-art strategy (which is limited by camera speed). In the present demonstration, the signals are coherent THz pulses emitted at SOLEIL, and the resolution is in the ps range. However the technique is not specific to THz pulses and can be potentially adapted to other wavelengths and situations, provided it is possible to imprint the ultrafast signal on chirped laser pulses (through electro-optic sampling, frequency mixing, transient reflectivity, etc.).  
Observation of Laser-Sliced Electron Bunch using a YBCO Detector at UVSOR-III  
  • E. Roussel, S. Bielawski, C. Evain, C. Szwaj
    PhLAM/CERCLA, Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France
  • M. Adachi, M. Katoh, S.I. Kimura, T. Konomi
    UVSOR, Okazaki, Japan
  • M. Hosaka, Y. Takashima, N. Yamamoto
    Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
  • K.S. Ilin, J. Raasch, A. Scheuring, M. Siegel, P. Thoma
    KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany
  • H. Zen
    Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
  When the current of a storage ring is near the microbunching instability threshold, a strong burst of CSR instability may be seeded by an external laser pulse*. Here we present real time recordings of the coherent synchrotron radation (CSR) pulse shapes emitted by sliced electron bunch using a new technology based on YBCO thin film detector combined with the state-of-the-art oscilloscope. This allows to make measurements in real time of the sliced electron bunch dynamics over several turns. These experimental observations open a new way to make severe comparisons with existing and future models of the microbunching instability. Tests of a Vlasov-Fokker-Planck model are presented.
* Byrd et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 074802 (2006)
THP080 A Low-Cost, High-Reliability Femtosecond Laser Timing System for LCLS 917
  • K. Gumerlock, J.C. Frisch, B.L. Hill, J. May, D.J. Nelson, S.R. Smith
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  Funding: Work supported by DOE Contract DE-AC02-76-SF00515
LCLS has developed a low-cost, high-reliability radio-frequency-based locking system which provides phase locking with sub-25-femtosecond jitter for the injector and experiment laser systems. This system does not add significantly to the X-ray timing jitter from the accelerator RF distribution. The system uses heterodyne RF locking at 3808 MHz with an I/Q vector phase shifter and variable event receiver triggers to control the timing of the emission of the amplified laser pulse. Controls software provides full automation with a single process variable to control the laser timing over a 600 microsecond range with up to 4 femtosecond resolution, as well as online diagnostics and automatic error correction and recovery. The performance of this new locking system is sufficient for experiments with higher-precision timing needs that use an X-ray/optical cross-correlator to record relative photon arrival times.
Beam Loss Monitors for the SwissFEL  
  • C. Ozkan, M. Calvi, R. Ischebeck, D. Llorente Sancho, F. Löhl, G.L. Orlandi, P. Pollet, V. Schlott, T. Schmidt
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  There are currently three types of monitors planned for tracking and minimizing beam losses at the SwissFEL. Fiber-based loss monitors will provide information on the longitudinal loss location, help reduce losses at undulators and measure losses due to insertion of wire scanners for transverse beam profile measurements. They shall be integrated to the Machine Protection System due to their fast response capabilities. The dose deposited over time at the undulators shall be measured with RadFETs and readout using the DOSFET L-02 reader. Characterization of all three types of loss monitors have been carried out at the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility. This contribution shall provide in-depth description of the monitors along with their complete readout chain and results from the characterization studies.  
THP082 Measurements of Compressed Bunch Temporal Profile using Electro-Optic Monitor at SITF 922
  • Ye. Ivanisenko, V. Schlott
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  • P. Peier
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  Funding: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n.°290605 (PSI-FELLOW/COFUND)
The SwissFEL Injector Test Facility (SITF) is an electron linear accelerator with a single bunch compression stage at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. Electro-optic monitors (EOMs) are available for bunch temporal profile measurements before and after the bunch compressor. The profile reconstruction is based upon spectral decoding technique. This diagnostic method is non-invasive, compact and cost-effective. It does not have high resolution and wide dynamic range of an RF transverse deflecting structure (TDS), but it is free of transverse beam size influence, what makes it a perfect tool for fast compression tuning. We present results of EOM and TDS measurements with down to 150 fs long bunches after the compression stage at SITF.
THP083 Coherent Radiation Diagnostics for Longitudinal Bunch Characterization at European XFEL 925
  • P. Peier, H. Dinter, C. Gerth
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  European XFEL comprises a 17.5 GeV linear accelerator for the generation of hard X-rays. Electron bunches from 20 pC to 1 nC will be produced with a length of a few ps in the RF gun and compressed by three orders of magnitude in three bunch compressor (BC) stages. European XFEL is designed to operate at 10 Hz delivering bunch trains with up to 2700 bunches separated by 222 ns. The high intra-bunch train repetition rate offers the unique possibility of stabilizing the machine with an intra-bunch train feedback, which puts in turn very high demand on fast longitudinal diagnostics. Two different systems will be installed in several positions of the machine. Five bunch compression monitors (BCM) will monitor the compression factor of each BC stage and used for intra-bunch train feedbacks. A THz spectrometer will be used to measure parasitically the longitudinal bunch profile after the energy collimator at 17.5 GeV beam energy. We will present concepts for fast longitudinal diagnostic for European XFEL based on coherent radiation, newest developments for high repetition rate measurements and simulations for the feedback capability of the system.  
THP084 Longitudinal Diagnostics of RF Electron Gun using a 2-cell RF Deflector 929
  • M. Nishiyama, K. Sakaue, T. Takahashi, T. Toida, M. Washio
    Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan
  • T. Takatomi, J. Urakawa
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  Funding: This work was supported by JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) 10001690 and the Quantum Beam Technology Program of MEXT.
We have been studying a compact electron accelerator based on an S-band Cs-Te photocathode rf electron gun at Waseda University. We are using this high quality electron bunch for many application researches. It is necessary to measure the bunch length and temporal distribution for evaluating application researches and for improving an rf gun itself. Thus we adopted the rf deflector system. It kicks the electron bunch with resonated rf electromagnetic field. Using this technique, the longitudinal distribution is mapped into the transverse space. The rf deflector has a 2-cell standing wave π-mode structure, operating in TM120 dipole mode at 2856 MHz. It provides a maximum vertical kick of 1.00MV with 750 kW input rf-power which is equivalent to the temporal resolution of around 58 femtoseconds bunch length. In this conference, we report the details of our rf deflector, the latest progress of longitudinal phase space diagnostics and future prospective.
THP085 Commissioning and Results from the Bunch Arrival-time Monitor Downstream the Bunch Compressor at the SwissFEL Test Injector 933
  • V.R. Arsov, M. Aiba, M.M. Dehler, F. Frei, S. Hunziker, M.G. Kaiser, A. Romann, V. Schlott
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  A high bandwidth Bunch Arrival-Time Monitor has been commissioned at the Swiss FEL test injector. A new acquisition front end allowing utilization of the ADC full dynamic range has been implemented. The resolution is measured as a function of the charge for different EOM front-ends. Downstream the magnetic chicane the bunch arrival time is sensitive to the amplitude and phases of the RF structures, responsible for creation of an energy chirp, used for bunch compression, as well as the ones of the harmonic cavity, used for phase space linearization. The time of flight as a function of the angle of the magnetic chicane has also been measured.  
A Novel ‘Metamaterial’ for Electro-Optic Electron Bunch Profile Monitors  
  • M.A. Tyrk, A. Abdolvand, W.A. Gillespie, S.A. Zolotovskaya
    University of Dundee, Nethergate, Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • E.W. Snedden
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  Current techniques for ultra-short electron bunch profiles allow the measurement of ~60-fs (rms) electron bunches. Future electron and photon sources will generate bunches in the 1-5 fs regime and even shorter, and therefore new methods need to be devised to characterise such ultra-short bunches with good precision. We present a novel electro-optic (EO) material in the form of metallic nanoparticles embedded in glass substrates (metal-glass nanocomposites – MGNs) for future use in EO monitors. Uniform shape modification of the nanoparticles from spherical to spheroidal shapes led to changes in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of the nanoparticles. Second harmonic generation (SHG) - as an indicator of a first-order EO effect – in both transmission and reflection geometries has been observed on excitation by a polarised 10 ps pulsed laser beam at 1064 nm with a repetition rate of 200 kHz. This new ‘metamaterial’ shows promising results for future measurements of ultra-short electron bunches, due to the SPR enhancement of the electro-optical coefficients.
S.P. Jamison et al., Nuclear Instruments and Methods A 557, 305-308 (2006).
A. Podlipensky et al., Optics Letters 28, 9 (2003)
THP087 Electron Beam Diagnostics for COXINEL 937
  • M. Labat, C. Bourassin-Bouchet, L. Cassinari, M.-E. Couprie, M.E. El Ajjouri, N. Hubert, A. Loulergue
    SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  On the path towards more compact free electron lasers (FELs), the project COXINEL was recently funded: a transfer line will be installed to adapt a plasma accelerated beam (from LOA) into an in-vacuum undulator built by SOLEIL. This experiment should enable to demonstrate the first FEL based on a plasma accelerator. Because plasma beams are intrinsically very different from RF acceletor beams (much shorter, divergent and smaller with a higher energy spread and energy jitter), their transport and matching in the undulator is critical if willing to obtain a significant amplification. This is why special care has to be taken in the design of the beam diagnostics to be able to measure the transverse beam sizes, energy spread and jitter, emittance and bunch length. For these purposes, several diagnostics will be implemented from the plasma accelerator exit down to the undulator exit. In each station, several screen types will be available and associated to high resolution imaging screens. In this paper, we present the experimental layout and associated simulation of the diagnostics performances.  
THP088 Comparison of Quadrupole Scan and Multi-screen Method for the Measurement of Projected and Slice Emittance at the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility 941
  • M. Yan, B. Beutner, C. Gerth
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • R. Ischebeck, E. Prat
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  High-brightness electron bunches with small transverse emittance are required to drive X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs). For the measurement of the transverse emittance, the quadrupole scan and multi-screen methods are the two most common procedures. By employing a transverse deflecting structure, the measurement of the slice emittance becomes feasible. The quadrupole scan is more flexible in freely choosing the data points during the scan, while the multi-screen method allows on-line emittance measurements utilising off-axis screens in combination with fast kicker magnets. The latter is especially the case for high-repetition multi-bunch FELs, such as the European XFEL, which offer the possibility of on-line diagnostics. In this paper, we present comparative measurements of projected and slice emittance applying these two methods at the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility and discuss the implementation of on-line diagnostics at the European XFEL.  
Compact Synchronization of Optical Lasers to the Accelerator RF based on MTCA.4  
  • C. Gerth, Ł. Butkowski, M. Felber, U. Mavrič, P. Peier, H. Schlarb, B. Steffen
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • E. Janas
    Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Electronic Systems, Warsaw, Poland
  • T. Kozak, P. Prędki, K.P. Przygoda
    TUL-DMCS, Łódź, Poland
  X-ray free-electron laser facilities utilize a variety of optical short-pulse lasers to fully exploit the femtosecond time structure of the electron bunches and photon pulses. For temporal overlap, a precision synchronization of the optical lasers to the radio-frequency (RF) system of the FEL accelerator is required. A compact scheme for laser to external RF synchronization has been developed based on a digital controller implemented in MTCA.4 technology. An RF section is employed for the generation of electrical signals from the laser pulses. Further processing of the RF signals and phase locking to the reference is realized with commercially available MTCA.4 compliant modules. In this paper, we present a performance evaluation of the newly designed RF section, which consists of three printed circuit boards, as well as results from the synchronization of an Yb-fiber (1030 nm) and Er-fiber (1550 nm) laser to an RF reference source.  
THP090 Femtosecond Timing Distribution for the European XFEL 945
  • C. Sydlo, M.K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, C. Gerth, T. Lamb, H. Schlarb, S. Schulz, F. Zummack
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • S. Jabłoński
    Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Electronic Systems, Warsaw, Poland
  Accurate timing synchronization on the femtosecond timescale is an essential installation for time-resolved experiments at free-electron lasers (FELs) such as FLASH and the upcoming European XFEL. To date the required precision levels can only be achieved by a laser-based synchronization system. Such a system has been successfully deployed at FLASH and is based on the distribution of femtosecond laser pulses over actively stabilized optical fibers. Albeit its maturity and proven performance this system had to undergo a major redesign for the upcoming European XFEL due to the enlarged number of stabilized optical fibers and an increase by a factor of up to 10 in length. The experience and knowledge gathered from the operation of the optical synchronization system at FLASH has led to an elaborate and modular precision instrument which can stabilize polarization maintaining fibers for highest accuracy as well as economic single mode fibers for shorter lengths. This paper reports on the laser-based synchronization system focusing on the active fiber stabilization units for the European XFEL, discusses major complications, their solutions and and the most recent performance results.  
THP091 Design and Test of Wire-Scanners for SwissFEL 948
  • G.L. Orlandi, M. Baldinger, H. Brands, P. Heimgartner, R. Ischebeck, A. Kammerer, F. Löhl, R. Lüscher, P. Mohanmurthy, C. Ozkan, B. Rippstein, V. Schlott, L. Schulz, C. Seiler, S. Trovati, P. Valitutti, D. Zimoch
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  The SwissFEL light-facility will provide coherent X-rays in the wavelength region 7-0.7 nm and 0.7-0.1 nm. In SwissFEL, view-screens and wire-scanners will be used to monitor the transverse profile of a 200/10pC electron beam with a normalized emittance of 0.4/0.2 mm.mrad and a final energy of 5.7 GeV. Compared to view screens, wire-scanners offer a quasi-non-destructive monitoring of the beam transverse profile without suffering from possible micro-bunching of the electron beam. The main aspects of the design, laboratory characterization and beam-test of the SwissFEL wire-scanner prototype will be presented.  
THP092 Transition Radiation of an Electron Bunch and Imprint of Lorentz-Covariance and Temporal-Causality 952
  • G.L. Orlandi
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  The study of Transition Radiation (TR) of a bunch of N electrons offers a precious insight into the role that Lorentz-covariance and temporal-causality play in an electromagnetic radiative mechanism of a relativistic beam. The contributions of the N single electrons to the radiation field are indeed characterized by emission phases from the metallic surface which are in a causality relation with the temporal sequence of the N particle collisions onto the radiating screen. The Lorentz-covariance characterizing the virtual quanta field of the relativistic charge is also expected to imprint the radiation field and the related energy spectrum. The main aspects of a Lorentz-covariance and temporal-causality consistent formulation of the TR energy spectrum of an electron bunch will be described.  
THP093 Coherent Electron Cooling Proof of Principle Phase 1 Instrumentation Status 956
  • D.M. Gassner, J.C. Brutus, R.L. Hulsart, V. Litvinenko, R.J. Michnoff, T.A. Miller, M.G. Minty, I. Pinayev, M. Wilinski
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  Funding: Work supported by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy
The purpose of the Coherent electron Cooling Proof-of- Principle (CeC PoP) [1] experiment being designed at RHIC is to demonstrate longitudinal (energy spread) cooling before the expected CD-2 for eRHIC. The scope of the experiment is to longitudinally cool a single bunch of 40 GeV/u gold ions in RHIC. The cooling facility will be installed inside the RHIC tunnel in 3 phases. The status of the instrumentation systems planned for phase 1 commissioning efforts will be described. This paper will also describe updates to the instrumentation systems proposed to meet the diagnostics challenges during the final phase of cooling commissioning [2]. These include measurements of beam intensity, emittance, energy spread, bunch length, position, and transverse alignment of electron and ion beams.
THP095 Evolvement of the Laser and Synchronization System for the Shanghai DUV-FEL Test Facility 960
  • B. Liu, L. Feng, T. Lan, X.Q. Liu, D. Wang, X.T. Wang, W.Y. Zhang, S.P. Zhong
    SINAP, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
  Funding: supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11175241)
Many attractive experiments including HGHG, EEHG, cascaded HGHG, chirped pulse amplification etc. are carried out or planned on the Shanghai Deep Ultra-Violet Free Electron Laser test facility. These experiments are all utilizing a laser as seed, and need precise synchronization between the electron beam and the laser pulse. We will describe the history and current status of the seeding and synchronization scheme for the SDUV-FEL together with some related experiment results in this paper.
Development of an S-band Cavity-type Beam Position Monitor for a Table-top Terahertz Free-electron Laser  
  • S.Y. Noh, E.-S. Kim
    Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea
  • S. Bae, K.H. Jang, Y.U. Jeong, H.W. Kim, K. Lee, J. Mun, S. H. Park, N. Vinokurov
    KAERI, Daejon, Republic of Korea
  A cavity-type beam position monitor (BPM) has been developed for a compact terahertz (THz) free-electron laser (FEL) system and ultrashort-pulsed electron linac system at the Korea Atomic Energy research Institute (KAERI). The cavity-type BPM has higher sensitivity and faster response time even at low charges, comparing with other types of BPMs. The designed position resolution of the cavity BPM is less than 10 μm. The material of the BPM is aluminium and the vacuum could be kept by indium sealing without brazing process, which result in easy modification and saving cost. The resonance frequency of the cavity BPM is 2.801 GHz and has a dimension of 200 x 220 mm (length x height) with a pipe radius of 38 mm. When electron beam passing through the cavity BPM with an offset, the amplitude of a dipole mode which depends linearly on the beam offset inside the cavity BPM is excited. With the KAERI THz FEL, signals from the BPM was measured by using an oscilloscope as a function of the beam offset. The position sensitivity was calculated to be 6.19 mV/mm/mA. By measuring the thermal noise of the system, position resolution of the cavity BPM was estimated to be less than 1 μm.  
THP097 Longitudinal Response Matrix Simulations for the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility 964
  • Á. Saá Hernández, F. Frei, R. Ischebeck
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  • B. Beutner
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  The Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) method has been applied to the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility to identify and better expose the various relationships among the possible jitter sources affecting the longitudinal phase space distribution and the longitudinal diagnostic elements that measure them. To this end, several longitudinal tracking simulations have been run using the Litrack code. In these simulations the RF and laser jitter sources are varied one-by-one within a range spanning twice their expected stability. The particle distributions have been dumped at the diagnostic locations and the measured quantities analyzed. A matrix has been built by linearly fitting the response of each measured quantity to each jitter source. This response matrix is normalized to the jitter source stability and the instrumentation accuracy, and it is inverted and analyzed using SVD. From the eigenvalues and eigenvectors the sensitivity of the diagnostics to the jitters can be evaluated and their specifications and locations optimized.  
THP098 CameraLink High-Speed Camera for Bunch Profiling 968
  • D. Llorente Sancho, H. Brands, R. Ischebeck, P. Pollet, V. Schlott
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  In the context of upcoming SwissFEL linear accelerator, we are working on a high-speed high-resolution instrument capable of delivering good sensitivity even in dark conditions. The camera selected is a PCO. Edge with SCMOS technology and an ultra-low noise sensor with 2560x2160 pixel resolution working at 100Hz. This allows for single bunch monitoring in SwissFEL, allowing eventually for on-the-fly inter-bunch image processing. The communication between the PCO. Edge camera and a last-generation Kintex7 FPGA has been demonstrated using a prototyping evaluation board and an 850-nm optical link connected to a 10Gbit SFP+ transceiver. Rudimentary packet processing has been implemented to confirm the satisfactory operation of the new link-layer protocol X-CameraLinkHS, specifically development for high-speed image transmission. We aim for online image processing and investigating the feasibility of achieving inter-bunch feedback (< 10 ms).  
Progress Towards Transverse Beam Profile Measurements with Dynamic Range of 10+6  
  • P.E. Evtushenko, J.E. McKisson, D.W. Sexton
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  Funding: Work supported by US DOE office of Basic Energy Sciences under the early career program; DOE award number FWP#JLAB-BES11-05
Future high average brightness FELs, operated with CW electron beams, and other high average current LINACs will require extremely good control of beam halo. Based on JLab FEL experience of operating IR FEL with average beam current of 9 mA, it was suggested that, beam diagnostics with large dynamic range (LDR) of 10+6 or higher, are necessary to improve understanding of beam halo formation, its sources and evolution. In this contribution we describe status of two LDR transverse beam profile diagnostics, which are under development at Jefferson Lab. First is beam imaging, where diffraction usually causes a strong limitation of the dynamic range. It was suggested that amplitude apodization of the imaging optics will allows to achieve much higher dynamic range. We present results of such apodized optics evaluation on an optical test bench. Wire-scanners are also capable of LDR measurements. We argue that the best dynamic range (DR) will be given by PMT based detection scheme, when a combination of counting and analog mode for PMT signal processing is used. We present designs of several PMT current measurements techniques with DR larger than 10+6 and results of their laboratory tests.