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Paper Title Other Keywords Page
MOP063 High-Power Lithium Target for Accelerator-Based BNCT target, linac, neutron, electron 223
  • C.A. Willis, D.A. Swenson
    Linac Systems, LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico

A 50 kW, water-cooled conical target for producing neutrons via the Li-7(p,n)Be-7 reaction at 2.5 MeV proton energy is under development at Linac Systems. This target is intended to accept a stationary, expanded CW beam with a diameter of 8 cm directly from an rf linac, resulting in peak surface heat flux of 7.5 MW m-2 (a 'waterbag' beam power distribution is assumed). The target is predicted to meet the intensity requirements for practical accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), in concert with Linac Systems' CW RFI linac. Lithium metal targets present well-known physical and mechanical challenges at high beam power density that are addressed in our design. For instance, lithium melts at 180 C, necessitating efficient removal of heat at a low ΔT relative to ambient temperature. CFD modeling indicates that with 50 kW incident beam power, the peak lithium temperature can be held below 150 C with a water flow rate near 80 l min-1 and corresponding pressure drop of 170 kPa. The target prototype has been fabricated and is undergoing experimental thermal-hydraulic testing using an electron beam at the Plasma Materials Test Facility, Sandia National Laboratory.

MOP067 High Gradient Excitation and RF Power Generation Using Dielectric Loaded Wakefield Structures electron, wakefield, klystron, laser 232
  • M.E. Conde, S.P. Antipov, F.J. Franchini, W. Gai, F. Gao, R. Konecny, W. Liu, J.G. Power, Z.M. Yusof
    ANL, Argonne
  • C.-J. Jing
    Euclid TechLabs, LLC, Solon, Ohio

Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.
Dielectric loaded wakefield structures are being developed to be used as high gradient accelerator components. The high current electron beam at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Facility was used to excite wakefields in cylindrical dielectric loaded wakefield structures in the frequency range of 8 to 14 GHz, with pulse duration of a few nanoseconds. Short electron bunches (13 ps FWHM) of up to 86 nC drove these wakefields, and accelerating fields as high as 100 MV/m were reached. These standing-wave structures have a field probe near the outer edge of the dielectric to sample the RF fields generated by the electron bunches. Monitoring of the field probe signal serves to verify the absence of electric breakdown. Similar structures were used to extract RF power from the electron beam; however, in this case they were travelling-wave structures, driven by electron bunch trains of up to 16 bunches. RF pulses of up to 40 MW were measured at the output coupler of these structures.

MOP074 Beam Dynamics Simulations of Sub-ps Electron Bunch Produced in a Photo-Injector emittance, simulation, electron, laser 248
  • R. Roux
    LAL, Orsay

A growing number of experiments require low emittance ultra-short electron bunches in the 100 fs range (rms value) for the production of coherent light or the injection in plasma for laser-plasma acceleration. Especially in the last case it is highly desirable to have a compact accelerator; hence a strong experimental activity is carried out to get such a beam directly from a photo-injector. We have performed beam dynamic simulations using the PARMELA code to study the performances of the alphaX photo-injector installed in the University of Strathclyde in UK. This rf gun is aimed to produce electron bunches of 100 pC bunch charge, 100 fs bunch length and 1 mmmrad transverse emittance. We will show the results of systematic parametric studies as a function of charge and laser pulse duration as well as the natural evolution of the beam phase space as a function of the distance from the photo-cathode.

MOP104 Parallel 3D Finite Element Particle-In-Cell Code for High-Fidelity RF Gun Simulations simulation, wakefield, space-charge, emittance 317
  • A.E. Candel, A.C. Kabel, K. Ko, L. Lee, Z. Li, C. Limborg-Deprey, C.-K. Ng, G.L. Schussman, R. Uplenchwar
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California

Funding: Work supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.
SLAC's Advanced Computations Department (ACD) has developed the first high-performance parallel Finite Element 3D Particle-In-Cell code, Pic3P, for simulations of rf guns and other space-charge dominated beam-cavity interactions. As opposed to standard beam transport codes, which are based on the electrostatic approximation, Pic3P solves the complete set of Maxwell-Lorentz equations and thus includes space charge, retardation and wakefield effects from first principles. Pic3P uses advanced Finite Element methods with unstructured meshes, higher-order basis functions and quadratic surface approximation. A novel scheme for causal adaptive refinement reduces computational resource requirements by orders of magnitude. Pic3P is optimized for large-scale parallel processing and allows simulations of realistic 3D particle distributions with unprecedented accuracy, aiding the design and operation of the next-generation of accelerator facilities. Applications to the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) rf gun are presented.

TU204 Design and Performance of L-Band and S-Band Multi-Beam Klystrons cathode, cavity, klystron, bunching 369
  • Y.H. Chin
    KEK, Ibaraki

In the last couple of years, great achievements have been realized through world-wide developments of multi-beam klystrons (MBK) in the L-band and S-band. These MBKs are developed by industries such as Toshiba, Thales and CPI for the European X-FEL project or at the Naval Research Lab or by the Chinese Academy of Sciences for high-power, low-voltage radar systems. Some of them are already in operation at full specifications and are commercially available. The MBKs are superior to conventional single-beam klystrons through their ability to increase the output power dramatically while the operating voltage can be kept at a similar level. This talk will review the performances of these multi-beam klystrons, their design features, and future development plans.


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TUP005 The New Single Bunch Injector for ELSA cathode, linac, single-bunch, solenoid 392
  • F. Klarner, O. Boldt, W. Hillert
    ELSA, Bonn
  • S. Aderhold
    DESY, Hamburg

Since 1966 a Varian factored injector is in use at the accelerator complex of the University of Bonn serving several experiments to investigate the subnuclear structure of matter. This injector will have to be replaced for several reasons. The new injector will operate in a single bunch mode of 2 A beam current and is currently under construction. Also a 2 μs long pulse mode of 500 mA beam current will be available for ordinary accelerator operation for hadron physics experiments. Produced by a pulsed thermionic 90 kV gun, compression of the pulses is achieved by a 500 MHz prebuncher as well as one β-matching travelling wave buncher running at the linac frequency of 3 GHz. The injector has been designed and optimised using the software package EGUN and numerical simulations based on the paraxial differential equations. The single bunch mode will allow to investigate single bunch instabilities within the Helmholtz alliance "Physics at the Terascale".

TUP008 Recent Changes to the e- / e+ Injector (Linac II) at DESY linac, target, positron, electron 401
  • M. Hüning, M. Schmitz
    DESY, Hamburg

The Linac II at DESY consists of a 6A/150kV DC electron gun, a 400 MeV primary electron linac, a 800 MW positron converter, and a 450 MeV secondary electron/positron linac. The Particle Intensity Accumulator (PIA) is also considered part of the injector complex accumulating and damping the 50 Hz beam pulses from the linac and transferring them with a rate of 6.25 Hz or 3.125 Hz into the Synchrotron DESY II. The typical positrons rates are 6·1010/s. DESY II and Linac II will serve as injectors for the two synchrotron light facilities PETRA III and DORIS. Since PETRA III will operate in top-up mode, Linac availability of 98-99% are required. DORIS requires positrons for operation. Therefore during top-up mode positrons are required for both rings. In order to maintain its reliability over the operation time of the new facility PETRA III, the major components of the linac were renovated. Some components were redesigned taking into account experience from 30 years of operation.

TUP028 Status of High Current R&D Energy Recovery Linac at Brookhaven National Laboratory electron, cavity, emittance, SRF 453
  • A. Kayran, D. Beavis, I. Ben-Zvi, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, A. Burrill, R. Calaga, P. Cameron, X. Chang, K.A. Drees, G. Ganetis, D.M. Gassner, J.G. Grimes, H. Hahn, L.R. Hammons, A. Hershcovitch, H.-C. Hseuh, A.K. Jain, R.F. Lambiase, D.L. Lederle, V. Litvinenko, G.J. Mahler, G.T. McIntyre, W. Meng, T.C. Nehring, B. Oerter, C. Pai, D. Pate, D. Phillips, E. Pozdeyev, T. Rao, J. Reich, T. Roser, T. Russo, Z. Segalov, A.K. Sharma, J. Smedley, K. Smith, T. Srinivasan-Rao, J.E. Tuozzolo, G. Wang, D. Weiss, N. Williams, Q. Wu, K. Yip, A. Zaltsman
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • H. Bluem, M.D. Cole, A.J. Favale, D. Holmes, J. Rathke, T. Schultheiss, A.M.M. Todd
    AES, Medford, NY
  • J.R. Delayen, L.W. Funk, H.L. Phillips, J.P. Preble
    JLAB, Newport News, Virginia

Funding: Work performed under contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the auspices of the DoE of United States.
An ampere class 20 MeV superconducting Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for testing concepts for high-energy electron cooling and electron-ion colliders. One of the goals is to demonstrate an electron beam with high charge per bunch (~5 nC) and extremely low normalized emittance (~5 mm-mrad) at an energy of 20 MeV. Flexible lattice of ERL loop provides a test-bed for testing issues of transverse and longitudinal instabilities and diagnostics of intense cw e-beam. The superconducting 703 MHz rf photoinjector is considered as an electron source for such a facility. At first we develop the straight pass (gun – 5 cell cavity – beam stop) test for the SRF Gun performance studies. Then the novel injection line concept of emittance preservation at the lower energy will be tested at this ERL. In this paper we present the status and our plans for construction and commissioning of this facility.

TUP029 Electron Linac Based Coherent Radiation Light Source Project at OPU radiation, electron, linac, synchrotron 456
  • S. Okuda, T. Kojima, Y. Sakamoto, R. Taniguchi
    Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai

The coherent synchrotron and transition radiation from electron bunches of a linear accelerator (linac) has continuous spectra in a submillimeter to millimeter wavelength range at relatively high peak-intensities. This light source has been applied to absorption spectroscopy by the authors for various kinds of matters with relatively strong light absorbance such as water and aqueous solutions. The other important characteristics of the coherent radiation are picosecond pulsed light and the high peak intensity of the electric field which can be introduced into matters. In our new project the light source using the pulsed coherent synchrotron and transition radiation will be developed by using the electron beams of a 18 MeV S-band electron linac at Osaka Prefecture University (OPU). The pulse shape of the radiation has been evaluated from the shape of the electron bunch. The system of the light source has been optimized and is under construction. The light source will be applied to the pulsed excitation of matters and to the pump-probe experiment using the electron beam and the coherent radiation.

TUP035 New Experimental Results from PITZ emittance, cathode, cavity, laser 474
  • F. Stephan, J.W. Bähr, C.H. Boulware, H.-J. Grabosch, M. Hänel, Ye. Ivanisenko, M. Krasilnikov, B. Petrosyan, S. Riemann, S. Rimjaem, T.A. Scholz, R. Spesyvtsev
    DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen
  • G. Asova, L. Staykov
    INRNE, Sofia
  • K. Flöttmann, S. Lederer
    DESY, Hamburg
  • L. Hakobyan, M.K. Khojoyan
    YerPhI, Yerevan
  • F. Jackson
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire
  • P.M. Michelato, L. Monaco, C. Pagani, D. Sertore
    INFN/LASA, Segrate (MI)
  • R. Richter
    BESSY GmbH, Berlin
  • J. Rönsch
    Uni HH, Hamburg
  • A. Shapovalov
    MEPhI, Moscow

Funding: This work was partly supported by the European Community, contracts RII3-CT-2004-506008 and 011935, and by the 'Impuls- und Vernetzungsfonds' of the Helmholtz Association, contract number VH-FZ-005.
The Photo Injector Test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site, (PITZ) was built to develop and optimize high brightness electron sources for Free Electron Lasers (FELs) like FLASH and the European XFEL. In the last shutdown a new RF gun cavity with improved water cooling was installed and conditioned. It is the first rf gun where the surface cleaning was done with dry ice technique instead of high pressure water rinsing and it showed a 10 times lower dark current emission than its precursor gun, even at cathode gradients as high as 60M V/m. In addition, a new photo cathode laser system was installed and will be available for operation in spring 2008. It will allow flat-top temporal laser shapes with 2ps rise/fall time. According to beam dynamics simulations this will further improve the beam quality reported at earlier conferences* and will lead to unprecedented low transverse projected emittance beams at a charge level of 1nC. This contribution will summarize the experimental results from the summer 2008 running period covering transverse projected emittance optimization, thermal emittance from the photocathode, longitudinal phase space and first transverse slice emittance measurements.

* L. Staykov et al., "Measurements of the Projected Normalized Transverse Emittance at PITZ", Proceedings of the FEL 2007, Novosibirsk, Russia, August 2007.


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TUP038 MIR-FEL with 4.5-Cell Thermionic RF-Gun FEL, electron, undulator, klystron 477
  • T. Kii, K. Higashimura, R. Kinjo, K. Masuda, H. Ohgaki, H. Zen
    Kyoto IAE, Kyoto

An MIR-FEL facility, Kyoto University FEL (KU-FEL), has been developed for applications in "sustainable energy science", such as fundamental studies on high-efficiency solar cells. The KU-FEL, consisting of an S-band thermionic rf gun, a 3 m accelerator tube and a planer undulator, aims to generate 4-13 μmeter tunable FEL. The first lasing was achieved on March, 2008 at 12.4 μmeters by using a beamloading compensation method both in the rf gun and in the accelerator tube. *Furthermore, we introduced detuning to the rf gun and succeeded to generate an electron beam with macropulse duration of 5.1 μseconds, average current of 100 mA and energy spread of 0.5% which led to power saturation in FEL. In the conference, the improvements of the electron beam properties and power saturation of the KU-FEL will be discussed.

*H. Ohgaki et al., 'First Lasing at 12 um Mid Infrared Free Electron Laser at Kyoto University', Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, accepted for publication. (2008).

TUP039 Status of the LINAC-800 Construction at JINR electron, linac, acceleration, FEL 480
  • G.V. Trubnikov, N. Balalykin, A.G. Kobets, V. Kobets, I.N. Meshkov, V. Minashkin, G. Shirkov, G.I. Sidorov
    JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region
  • V. Shabratov
    JINR/LHE, Moscow

800 MeV electron linac (LINAC-800) is under construction at JINR. It will be used as a driver for Volume FEL and as a test bench for commissioning of elements of the ILC. Presently the electron injector is commissioned and the electron beam of 50 keV of the energy at current of about 15 mA was obtained. The results of the injector operation at nominal parameters (400 keV, 300 mA) and commissioning of the first accelerating section at 20 MeV are discussed.

TUP040 Linear Accelerator for the PSI-XFEL FEL3 Beamline linac, FEL, emittance, laser 483
  • Y. Kim, A. Adelmann, B. Beutner, M.M. Dehler, R. Ganter, T. Garvey, R. Ischebeck, M. Pedrozzi, J.-Y. Raguin, S. Reiche, L. Rivkin, V. Schlott, A. Streun, A.F. Wrulich
    PSI, Villigen

In the planned PSI-XFEL facility, three FEL branches will supply coherent, ultra-bright, and ultra-short XFEL photons at wide wavelength range. FEL branch 1 will use a 6.0 GeV driving linac to generate hard X-rays from 0.1 nm to 0.3 nm, while FEL branch 2 is foreseen for X-rays from 0.3 nm to 1.0 nm. However, FEL branch 3 was designed to supply spatially as well as temporally coherent soft X-rays from 1.0 nm to 10 nm with the High-order Harmonic Generation based seeded HGHG scheme. To reach emittances of 0.2 mm.mrad and to squeeze consequently the whole facility within an 800 m long tunnel, PSI is presently developing an advanced low emittance gun (LEG) based on a 1 MV high gradient pulsed diode and field emission. The advanced LEG will be used to drive FEL branch 1 and 2, while an RF photoinjector will be used to drive the FEL branch 3. In this paper, we describe a CTF3 RF gun based injector, two bunch compressors, two diagnostic sections, and linacs for the PSI-XFEL FEL branch 3.

TUP042 High Repetition Rate Electron Injectors for FEL Based Next Generation Light Sources emittance, cavity, SRF, simulation 489
  • B.L. Militsyn, C.D. Beard, J.W. McKenzie
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire

Several laboratories concentrate their efforts on development of high repetition rate FEL based next generation light sources. One particular concept under development at STFC Daresbury Laboratory specifies high brightness electron bunches with a charge of 0.2-1 nC which arrive with a frequency up to 1 MHz. As emittance of the bunches should not exceed 1 um, traditional high repetition rate thermionic injectors, similar to the ones used at high micropulse repetition rate FELs like ELBE or FELIX, may not be used. We consider three options of high repetition rate injectors based on photocathode guns - a high voltage dc gun, a one and half cell superconducting rf gun and a normal conducting VHF gun, recently proposed at LBNL. We consider practical injector schemes for all three guns and provide the results of beam dynamic simulations. We also discuss the photocathodes which may be used in each gun, as this critical component defines achievable beam parameters and operational efficiency of the injectors.

TUP044 The NPS-FEL Injector Upgrade cathode, laser, injection, FEL 495
  • J.W. Lewellen, W.B. Colson, S.P. Niles
    NPS, Monterey, California
  • A.E. Bogle, T.L. Grimm
    Niowave, Inc., Lansing, Michigan
  • W. Graves
    MIT, Middleton, Massachusetts
  • T.I. Smith
    Stanford University, Stanford, Califormia

Funding: This research is supported by the Office of Naval Research and the Joint Technology Office.
The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) has begun the design and assembly of the NPS Free-Electron Laser (NPS-FEL). As part of this effort, the original dc gun-based injector system is being refurbished and upgraded. As described in the accompanying paper 'Status of the NPS-FEL' (these Proceedings), the overall NPS-FEL design parameters are for 40 MeV beam energy, 1 nC bunch charge, and 1 mA average beam current, in an energy-recovery linac configuration. As we move towards this configuration, the injector system will be incrementally upgraded to add photocathode capability, have a higher final beam energy, and improve the beam brightness, to meet the demands of the overall experimental program. This paper describes the current status of the injector system, the initial set of experiments planned, and the projected upgrade path.

TUP066 Commissioning of 10-MeV L-band Electron Linac for Industrial Applications electron, klystron, linac, high-voltage 548
  • S.H. Kim, M.-H. Cho, W. Namkung, H.R. Yang
    POSTECH, Pohang, Kyungbuk
  • S.D. Jang, S.J. Park, Y.G. Son
    PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk
  • J.-S. Oh
    NFRI, Daejon

Funding: This work is supported by KAPRA and POSTECH Physics BK21 Program.
An intense L-band electron linear accelerator is now being commissioned at CESC (Cheorwon Electron-beam Service Center) for industrial applications. It is capable of producing 10 MeV electron beams with 30 kW average beam power. For a high-power capability, we adopted the traveling-wave structure operated with the 2π/3 mode at 1.3 GHz. The structure is powered by a 25 MW pulsed klystron with 60 kW average rf power. The rf pulse length is 7 μs while the beam pulse length is 6 μs due to the filling time in the accelerating structure. The accelerating gradient is 4.2 MV/m at the beam current of 1.45 A which is the fully beam-loaded condition. In this paper, we present details of the accelerator system and commissioning results.

TUP087 Spectral and Charge-Dependence Aspects of Enhanced OTR Signals from a Compressed Electron Beam linac, optics, radiation, cathode 603
  • A.H. Lumpkin
    Fermilab, Batavia
  • W. Berg, M. Borland, Y.L. Li, S.J. Pasky, N. Sereno
    ANL, Argonne

Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357
Strong enhancements of the optical transition radiation (OTR) signal sampled after bunch compression in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac chicane have been observed as has been reported in LCLS injector commissioning. A FIR CTR detector and interferometer were used to monitor the bunch compression process of the PC gun beam down to sub-0.5 ps (FWHM) and correlate the appearance of spatially localized spikes of OTR signal (5 to 10 times brighter than adjacent areas) within the beam image footprint. We also observed that a beam from a thermionic cathode gun with much lower charge per micropulse (but a similar total macropulse charge to the PC gun) showed no enhancement of the OTR signal after compression. Reconstructions of the temporal profiles from the autocorrelations of both beams were performed and will be presented. Spectral-dependence measurements of the enhanced OTR were done initially at the 375-MeV station using a series of bandpass filters inserted before the CCD camera. Tests with an Oriel spectrometer with ICCD readout are now being planned to extend those studies. Discussions of the possible mechanisms for the OTR enhancements will be presented.

TUP094 Development of a Photocathode RF Gun for an L-Band Electron Linac cavity, electron, cathode, emittance 621
  • G. Isoyama, S. Kashiwagi, R. Kato
    ISIR, Osaka
  • H. Hayano, T. Muto, J. Urakawa
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • M. Kuriki
    HU/AdSM, Higashi-Hiroshima

Funding: This research is partly supported by the accelerator support program to universities conducted by the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization in Japan.
We have begun a three-year project to develop a photocathode rf electron gun for the 40 MeV L-band linac at ISIR, Osaka University in collaboration with KEK. The L-band linac with an rf frequency of 1.3 GHz is equipped with a thermionic electron gun and it can accelerate a high-intensity single-bunch electron beam with charge up to 91 nC/bunch. Because the large emittance of ~100 pi mm x mrad is a limiting factor in the experiments, it is required to develop a new electron gun capable of providing an electron beam with much lower emittance. Since a group at the Accelerator Laboratory of KEK is developing a photocathode rf electron gun in the L-band for the International Linear Collider Project, we have joined the group to learn how to develop such an rf gun and also to obtain support from KEK. In this first year, characteristics of the rf gun will be measured at KEK for ILC fabricated by FNAL. We plan to optimize the structure of the rf gun for ISIR with computer simulation. We will report the plan and progress to develop a photocathode rf gun for the L-band linac.

TUP095 Development of a Cs-Te Cathode RF Gun at Waseda University cavity, electron, cathode, resonance 624
  • Y. Kato, A. Fujita, Y. Hama, T. Hirose, C. Igarashi, A. Masuda, A. Murata, T. Nomoto, K. Sakaue, T. Suzuki, M. Washio
    RISE, Tokyo
  • H. Hayano, T. Takatomi, N. Terunuma, J. Urakawa
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • Y. Kamiya
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo
  • S. Kashiwagi
    ISIR, Osaka
  • M. Kuriki
    HU/AdSM, Higashi-Hiroshima
  • R. Kuroda
    AIST, Tsukuba, Ibaraki

Funding: Work supported by MEXT High Tech Research Project HRC707, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)(2) 16340079
At Waseda University, we have been developing a high quality electron source based on photo-cathode rf gun which has a Cs-Te cathode with high quantum efficiency. Until now, at the Waseda University we have succeeded the soft X-ray generation via inverse-Compton scattering and pulse radiolysis system for studying the early processes of radiation chemistry with electron beams generated by copper cathode rf gun. Cs-Te rf gun is expected to generate higher charge electron bunches with a low emittance than a copper cathode because of its high quantum efficiency and also the high-quality multi-bunch electron beams. That enables us to extend the range of electron beam parameters for our application experiments. However, a Cs-Te cathode has a short life compared with a copper, so it has to be exchanged occasionally, thus we have developed a new rf-gun cavity which can be attached the compact cathode load-lock system. Moreover, we improved the design of an existing rf-gun cavity for the reduction of the dark current and the higher electric field. In this conference, the performance of the improved cavity and the result of electron beam generation experiments will be reported.

TUP096 RF Gun Development with Improved Parameters cavity, simulation, cathode, vacuum 627
  • V.V. Paramonov, Y.Z. Kalinin
    RAS/INR, Moscow
  • K. Flöttmann
    DESY, Hamburg
  • M. Krasilnikov, T.A. Scholz, F. Stephan
    DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen

During development and operation of DESY L-band rf gun cavities, desires for further improvements were formulated. The next step of development is based on the proven advantages of existing cavities, but includes significant changes. The L-band 1.6 cell rf gun cavity is intended for operation in pulse mode with electric fields at the cathode of up to 60 MV/m, rf pulse length of ~1 ms and average rf power higher than existing gun cavities. In the new design the cell shape is optimized to have the maximal surface electric field at the cathode and lower rf loss power. The cavity cells are equipped with rf probes. Cooling circuits are designed to combine cooling efficiency with operational flexibility. In the report, the main design ideas and simulation results are described.

TUP099 Design and Optimization of an S-Band Photoinjector emittance, cavity, solenoid, laser 636
  • J.H. Han
    Diamond, Oxfordshire

Many X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) projects are under construction or are being proposed. A photoinjector with low transverse emittance is one of the key elements for successful XFEL operation. For the last two decades, photoinjectors have been developed to reach the XFEL requirement, typically with a normalised emittance of 1 mm mrad for a 1 nC bunch and high peak current. Here, we make a further numerical optimization of an S-band photoinjector to achieve 0.5 mm mrad for 1 nC bunch in a structure that should permit high repetition rates to be achieved. Optimizations for alternative operation conditions with lower charge and lower emittance are also shown.

TUP100 The Optimization of a DC Injector for the Energy Recovery Linac Upgrade to APS emittance, laser, linac, electron 639
  • Y.-E. Sun, M. Borland, K.C. Harkay, Y.L. Li, H. Shang
    ANL, Argonne

Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.
An energy recovery linac based light source is a potential revolutionary upgrade to the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory. The concept relies on several key research areas, one of which is the generation of ultra-low emittance, high-average-current electron beams. In this paper, we present our investigation of a dc-gun-based system for ultra-low emittance bunches in the 20 pC range. A parallel multi-objective numerical optimization is performed in multi-parameter space. Parameters varied include experimentally feasible drive-laser shapes, the dc gun voltage, and the thermal energy of the emitted photo-electrons. Our goal is to deliver a 10 MeV, 20 pC bunch at the entrance of the linac with an emittance of 0.1 μm or lower, rms bunch length of 2 to 3 ps, and energy spread no larger than 140 keV. We present the machine parameters needed to generate such an injector beam, albeit without a merger.

TUP101 Photocathode R&D Program at LBNL electron, photon, emittance, cathode 642
  • W. Wan, C.E. Coleman-Smith, C.M.R. Greaves, H.A. Padmore, E. Pedersoli, A. Polyakov
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  • G. Ferrini, M. Montagnese, S. Pagliara, F. Parmigiani
    Università Cattolica-Brescia, Brescia

Funding: US Deparment of Energy
The photocathode R&D program at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is presented, including the status of the lab and experimental results. We will also present experimental result obtained at Brescia Italy and theoretical work on predicting minimum thermal emittance from metal cathodes and emittance growth due to stochastic Coulomb interaction.

TUP106 Simulation of Field-Emission Cathodes for High Current Electron Injectors cathode, electron, simulation, FEL 652
  • D. Mihalcea, P. Piot
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois

Funding: Work supported by the Department of Defense under contract N00014-06-1-0587 with Northern Illinois University
From the prospect of the high average current electron injectors, the most important advantage of the field-emission cathodes is their capability to generate very large current densities. Simulation of field-emission cathodes is complicated by the large range of spatial dimensions: from sub-micron scale, for a single field-emission tip, to millimeter scale, for a field-emitter array. To overcome this simulation challenge our numerical model is split in two steps. In the first step, only electrons emitted by a single tip are considered. In the second step, the beams originating from many single emitting tips are merged together to mimic the field-emitter array configuration. We present simulation results of injector based on field array emitters cathodes.

TUP110 Modeling of a Low Frequency SRF Electron Gun for the Wisconsin FEL emittance, cavity, cathode, FEL 658
  • R.A. Legg
    UW-Madison/SRC, Madison, Wisconsin

Funding: This work is supported by the University of Wisconsin-Madison and MIT, and by the US NSF under award No. DMR-0537588
The Wisconsin FEL project is a 2.2 GeV, HHG seeded, FEL designed to provide six individual beamlines with photons from 5 to 900 eV. The FEL requires electron bunches with 1 kA peak bunch current and less than 1 mm*mrad transverse slice emittance. To meet those requirements a low frequency, SRF electron gun is proposed which uses "blow-out" mode bunches*. Blow-out mode produces ellipsoidal bunches which are easily emittance compensated**. They also have a very smooth density and energy distribution. Results of the modeling of the injector and a diagnostic beamline will be presented.

* O.J. Luiten, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 93, 094802-1 (2004)
** C. Limborg-Deprey, P. Bolton, NIM-A, 557 (2006) 106-116

TUP111 Longitudinal Bunch Lengthening Compensation in a High Charge RF Photoinjector emittance, booster, electron, solenoid 661
  • S. Pei, C. Adolphsen
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California

Funding: Work supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-76SF00515
In high charge rf photo-injectors, due to the strong longitudinal space charge, bunch lengthening can readily occur. This paper presents beam dynamics studies of such bunch lengthening and methods to compensate it. With these methods, not only can the bunch length be preserved, but it can be shortened at the photo-injector exit.

TUP117 Development of Ultra-Low Emittance Injector for Future X-Ray FEL Oscillator emittance, linac, electron, cavity 676
  • P.N. Ostroumov, K.-J. Kim
    ANL, Argonne
  • P. Piot
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois

Funding: This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, under Contract No. DE-AC-02-06CH11357.
An XFELO proposed recently* requires a continuous sequence of electron bunches with ultra-low transverse emittance less than 0.1 mm-mr, a bunch charge of 40 pC, an rms energy spread of 1.4 MeV, repeating at a rate between 1 MHz to 100 MHz. The bunches are to be compressed to an rms lengths less than 2 ps at the final energy of 7 GeV. Following the successful commissioning of the pulsed injector based on a thermionic gun** we discuss a concept for ultra-low emittance injector to produce 100 MHz CW electron bunches. The electron beam is extracted by ~1MV rf voltage using low frequency ~100 MHz room temperature rf cavity. The injector also includes a chicane and slits to form a short ~1 nsec bunch, a pre-buncher a booster buncher to form low longitudinal emittance of the bunched beam, an accelerating section to ~50 MeV using higher harmonic cavities, and an rf cosine-wave chopper to form any required bunch repetition rate between 1 MHz and 100 MHz. The results of initial optimizations of the beam dynamics with the focus on extracting and preserving ultra-low emittance will be presented.

*K.-J. Kim, Y. Shvyd'ko, and S. Reiche, to be published in Physical Review Letters (2008)
**K. Togawa, et al., Phys. Rev. STAB 10, 020703 (2007)

WE103 First Results from the ERL Prototype (ALICE) at Daresbury linac, cavity, vacuum, cathode 694
  • D.J. Holder
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire

The energy recovery linac prototype at Daresbury is now called ALICE (Accelerators and Lasers In Combined Experiments). This paper presents the results obtained in the past year, including the second (fourth) period of gun commissioning. Following the completion of gun commissioning in November 2007, the dedicated gun diagnostic line was removed and the electron gun attached to the booster cavity and hence the rest of the machine. The paper outlines some of the challenges experienced during the commissioning of both the photoinjector system and the superconducting cavities and presents the current status of the project as well as the very latest results from commissioning during the summer of 2008.


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WE104 First Tests of the Cornell University ERL Injector cavity, laser, emittance, cathode 699
  • B.M. Dunham, I.V. Bazarov, S.A. Belomestnykh, M.G. Billing, E.P. Chojnacki, Z.A. Conway, J. Dobbins, R.D. Ehrlich, M.J. Forster, S.M. Gruner, G.H. Hoffstaetter, V.O. Kostroun, Y. Li, M. Liepe, X. Liu, D.G. Ouzounov, H. Padamsee, D.H. Rice, V.D. Shemelin, C.K. Sinclair, E.N. Smith, K.W. Smolenski, A.B. Temnykh, M. Tigner, V. Veshcherevich, T. Wilksen
    CLASSE, Ithaca, New York

Funding: Work supported by the National Science Foundation under contract PHY 0131508
Cornell University is planning to build an Energy-Recovery Linac (ERL) X-ray facility. The very small electron-beam emittance would produce an X-ray source that is significantly better than any existing storage-ring based light source. One major difference between an ERL and a typical light source is that the final electron beam emittance, and thus the X-ray beam brightness, is determined by the electron injector rather than the storage ring. We are currently constructing and commissioning an injector for an ERL with the goal of demonstrating the low emittances and high beam power required. The injector is designed to accelerate up to 100 mA cw electron bunches of 77 pC/bunch with an energy of 5 MeV (33 mA at 15 MeV) using 1.3 GHz superconducting cavities. A full suite of diagnostics will allow a complete phase space characterization for comparison with simulations and with the requirements. We will describe the current status of the injector along with results, difficulties and challenges to date.


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THP013 Various Applications of Dry-Ice Cleaning in the Field of Accelerator Components at DESY cavity, cathode, SRF, superconductivity 803
  • A. Brinkmann, D. Reschke, J. Ziegler
    DESY, Hamburg

Funding: We acknowledge the support of the European Community Research Infrastructure Activity under FP6 'Structuring the European Research Area' program (CARE, contract number RII-CT-2003-506395
Dry-Ice cleaning offers a dry and waterless cleaning option removing hydrocarbons and particles without residues. Complex excavations like Cu rf gun cavities and Nb multicell cavities in horizontal installation position can be cleaned in an effective way. In the recent past rf gun cathodes and cathode transportboxes could be cleaned satisfactory. A status report will be given.

THP052 Development of a High-Pressure Chemical Etching Method as a Surface Treatment for High-Field Accelerating Structures Made of Copper cathode, cavity, acceleration, RF-structure 903
  • H. Tomizawa, H. Dewa, H. Hanaki, A. Mizuno, T. Taniuchi
    JASRI/SPring-8, Hyogo-ken

The acceleration gradient is limited by breakdown in an accelerating rf structure, including its surface condition of the inner wall. The surface treatment is an important technique to achieve the maximal acceleration gradient of an accelerating structure. We chose chemical etching as a method of surface treatment for accelerating rf structures made of copper. To study rf breakdown and effect of surface treatments, we used a pillbox-type single cell rf gun cavity. The highest cathode surface field (190 MV/m) of rf gun cavity was accomplished with this surface treatment under rf-conditioning elapsed time (21 days) in 2004. SPring-8 rf gun has been operating with the highest gradient in the world. This indicates that our treatment is considerably effective to improve the inner cavity surface made of copper. Further, we developed the high-pressure chemical etching for more complicated inner structures in 2006. Using a cartridge-type photocathode rf gun, high-field experiments were performed with cathode plugs chemical etching treated under deferent pressure condition. We report these results on highest gradient, using test copper samples treated with high-pressure chemical etching.

THP079 Operation Experience with the FLASH RF Waveguide Distribution System at DESY cavity, klystron, superconducting-cavity, cryogenics 978
  • S. Choroba, F. Eints, T. Frölich, A. Gamp, T. Grevsmühl, V.V. Katalev
    DESY, Hamburg

The rf stations for the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY provide rf power up to more than 5 MW, 1.3 ms and 10 Hz at 1.3 GHz for forty-eight superconducting cavities grouped into six cryogenic modules and for one normal conducting rf gun. A WR650 waveguide distribution system distributes the power generated by five active rf stations using 5 MW single beam and a 10 MW multibeam klystron to the cavities and the gun. Since FLASH is based on the Tesla Test Facility, TTF, a number of different distribution layouts for the different modules and the gun have been developed and used over the years in terms of type of components and distribution scheme. This paper presents the layout and summarizes the experience with the existing waveguide distribution system.


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FR103 Operation of FLASH as an FEL User Facility FEL, electron, radiation, photon 1100
  • K. Honkavaara
    DESY, Hamburg

FLASH, the FEL user facility at DESY, is operated with an electron beam energy up to 1 GeV corresponding to a photon wavelength down to 6.5 nm. The full year 2008 is dedicated to beam operation: about half of the time is scheduled for FEL users, and the rest for accelerator and FEL physics studies. Operational experience gathered at FLASH is very important not only for further improvements of the FLASH facility itself, but also for the European XFEL and for the ILC R&D effort. This talk reports our experience operating FLASH as a user facility. Failure statistics are included as well.


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FR104 Review of Advanced Laser Technologies for Photocathode High-Brightness Guns laser, polarization, electron, cathode 1105
  • H. Tomizawa, H. Dewa, H. Hanaki, A. Mizuno, T. Taniuchi
    JASRI/SPring-8, Hyogo-ken

I developed a 3-D pulse shaping system in UV as an ideal laser for yearlong stable photoinjector. At SPring-8, the laser's pulse-energy stability has been improved to 0.7~1.4% at the UV (263 nm) under the laser environmental control included humidity. In addition, the ideal spatial and temporal profiles of an UV-laser pulse are essential to suppress emittance growth in an rf gun. I apply a deformable mirror that automatically shapes the spatial profile with a feedback routine, based on a genetic algorithm, and a pulse stacking system consisting of three birefringence Alpha-BBO crystal rods for temporal shaping at the same time. The 3D shape of the laser pulse is spatially top-hat (flattop) and temporally a square stacked chirped pulse. Using a 3D-shaped laser pulse with diameter of 0.8 mm on the cathode and pulse duration of 10 ps (FWHM), we obtain a normalized emittance of 1.4 pi mm mrad with a beam energy of 26 MeV. To keep the mirror away from beam axis, I developed a new hollow laser incidence with an axicon final focusing. Furthermore, I am developing a laser-induced Schottky-effect-gated photocathode gun using Z-polarization of the laser source with the hollow incidence.


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