Radio-Frequency Systems

Superconducting Cavities

Paper Title Page
TPPT051 High Power Coupler for the TESLA Superstructure Cavities 3141
  • Q.S. Shu, G. Cheng, J. T. Susta
    AMAC, Newport News, Virginia
  • S.J. Einarson
    CPI/BMD, Beverley, Massachusetts
  • T. Garvey
    LAL, Orsay
  • W.-D. Müller, D. Proch
    DESY, Hamburg
  • T.A. Treado
    CPI, Beverley, Massachusetts
  Funding: U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-00ER86102.

More and more accelerators are built with superconducting cavities operating at cryogenic temperatures, and the probability of a ceramic window failure presents increasing problems because of the resulting contamination of the cavities surfaces and the resulting accelerating electric field degradation. A cost effective design and fabrication method for the TESLA cavities has been developed in the framework of a DOE STTR grant. This new design replaces the present TESLA cylindrical ceramic windows with two planar disc windows separated by a vacuum space and is optimized for RF input power, vacuum characteristics, and thermal properties. This novel coupler will reduce the costs of fabrication and improve the RF performance of the coupler, the vacuum between the two windows, and the cleaning procedure. Two couplers with this design have been fabricated and are presently being conditioned for testing at DESY, Germany, and LAL, France, on the RF high power testing stand and on a test cryomodule.

TPPT052 Cryogenic, Magnetic and RF Performance of the ISAC-II Medium Beta Cryomodule at TRIUMF 3191
  • R.E. Laxdal, K. Fong, A.K. Mitra, T.C. Ries, I. Sekachev, G. Stanford, V. Zviagintsev
    TRIUMF, Vancouver
  The medium beta section of the ISAC-II Heavy Ion Accelerator consists of five cryomodules each containing four quarter wave resonators and one superconducting solenoid. The first cryomodule has been designed, assembled and cold tested at TRIUMF. The cryomodule vacuum space shares the cavity vacuum and contains a mu-metal shield, an LN2 cooled, copper thermal shield, plus the cold mass and support system. The bulk niobium cavities are fitted with an LN2 cooled coupling loop fed in series from the side thermal shield and a tuner plate coupled to an out-of-vacuum linear servo motor. All cavities have been locked at the ISAC-II frequency and gradient for extended periods. This paper will report the cryogenic and rf test results from the three cold tests. Of note are measurements of the magnetic field in the cryomodule and estimations of changes in the magnetic field during the test due to trapped flux in the solenoid and magnetization of the environment.  
TPPT053 Low-Beta SC Quarter-Wave Resonator and Cryomodule for SPIRAL 2 3238
  • S. Chel, P.-E. Bernaudin, P. Bosland, G. Devanz, P. Hardy, F. Michel, A. Mosnier
    CEA/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette
  In the framework of the SPIRAL 2 project to be built in GANIL, we studied a complete cryomodule for the low beta (0.07) superconducting linac. The 88 MHz quarter wave resonators were optimised for RF, mechanical and thermal considerations. A prototype resonator, which differs from the final resonator by the Helium tank and the removable end-plate geometry and material, has been built. We present the equipments developped for the preparation of this prototype as well as the results of the RF tests. We also detail the mechanical calculation and measurements of the tuning system, and the main aspects of the cryomodule designed to save longitudinal space.  
TPPT054 CW Operation of the TTF-III Input Coupler 3292
  • J. Knobloch, W. Anders, M. Martin
    BESSY GmbH, Berlin
  • S. Bauer, M. Pekeler
    ACCEL, Bergisch Gladbach
  • S.A. Belomestnykh
    Cornell University, Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Ithaca, New York
  • A. Buechner, H. Buettig, F.G. Gabriel
    FZR, Dresden
  • D. Kostin, W.-D. Müller
    DESY, Hamburg
  Many newly proposed light sources, operating in the CW regime, are based on superconducting TESLA technology. Since this was originally developed for pulsed, 1-% duty-factor operation, it is important to determine the limitations of the TESLA cryomodule and its components when operated CW. Among the critical components is the RF input coupler. Two tests have been performed to determine the average power limit of the TTF-III system. First, room temperature tests up to 4 kW were performed at the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf. These permitted the calibration of computer codes developed to calculate the temperature distribution in the coupler. The programs then were used to make predictions for the (normal) cold operation of the coupler. At BESSY, the coupler test stand was assembled inside the HoBiCaT horizontal cryostat test facility to operate the coupler in an environment close to that of a real accelerator. The results of the two tests are presented here.  
TPPT055 Electro-Polishing Surface Preparation for High Gradient Cavities at DESY 3304
  • A. Matheisen, h. Morales Zimmermann, B. Petersen, ms. Schmoekel, N. Steinhau-Kuehl
    DESY, Hamburg
  Improvement of acceleration gradients in super conducting accelerator structures was reached by applying electro polishing of the niobium surfaces. This technology is actually foreseen to serve as major surface preparation step for projects like the XFEL at DESY and the proposed ILC linear accelerator. At DESY an electro polishing apparatus was build up in 2003. After commissioning the apparatus operates regular for cavity surface treatment. We report on experiences with the electro-polishing set up, polishing parameters and results on the preparation of S.C. resonators for a high gradient module to be tested in the TTF2 accelerator at DESY.  
TPPT056 Design of a Low Loss SRF Cavity for the ILC 3342
  • J.S. Sekutowicz
    DESY, Hamburg
  • L. Ge, K. Ko, L. Lee, Z. Li, C.-K. Ng, G.L. Schussman, L. Xiao
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • I.G. Gonin, T.K. Khabiboulline, N. Solyak
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  • P. Kneisel
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  • Y. Morozumi, K. Saito
    KEK, Ibaraki
  An international team comprising DESY, KEK, JLAB, FNAL and SLAC is collaborating on the design, fabrication and test of a low loss, 1.3 GHz 9-cell SRF structure as a potential improvement for the ILC main linac. The advantages of this structure over the TTF structure include lower cryogenic loss, shorter rise time, and less stored energy. Among the issues to be addressed in this design are HOM damping, Lorentz force detuning and multipacting. We will report on HOM damping calculations using the parallel finite element eigenmode solver Omega3P and the progress made towards an optimized design. Studies on multipacting and estimates of the Lorentz force detuning will also be presented.  
TPPT057 Quality Control of the Electro Polishing Process at DESY 3369
  • N. Steinhau-Kuehl, A. Matheisen, B. Meyer, B. Petersen, ms. Schmoekel
    DESY, Hamburg
  Funding: Supported by the European Community Research activity Care under the FP 6 program(RII3-CT-2003-506395).

The technology of electro-polishing of super-conducting resonators made from Niobium is foreseen as basic surface preparation technology for the Xfel accelerator project at DESY. Here about 1000 resonators will be build and installed into the accelerator section. For an industrial application of this technique a quality control has to be developed and established.A method to control the acid quality and improve the life time of the acid is under development. We report on the test setup and measurements done on samples and the implementation of this quality control to the DESY electro polishing process.

TPPT058 First Tests of the Superconducting CH-Structure 3414
  • H. Podlech, H. Deitinghoff, H. Klein, H. Liebermann, U. Ratzinger, A.C. Sauer, R. Tiede
    IAP, Frankfurt-am-Main
  Funding: GSI, BMBF contr. No. 06F134I, EU contr. No. EFDA/99-507ERB5005, CT990061 and RII3-CT-2003-506395.

The Crossbar-H-type CH-structure is a new H-mode drift tube-structure operating in the H11-mode. Due to its mechanical rigidity room temperature as well as superconducting cavities can be realized. The superconducting CH-structure has been developed at the IAP in Frankfurt, Germany. To prove the promising results obtained by simulations a 19-cell, 352 MHz (beta=0.1) prototype cavity has been designed and built. This is the first superconducting low energy multi-cell cavity. We present the first cold tests of the cavity which have been performed in the cryogenic laboratory in Frankfurt.

TPPT059 Improvement of the Blade Tuner Design for Superconducting RF Cavities 3456
  • C. Pagani, A. Bosotti, P. Michelato, N. Panzeri, P. Pierini
    INFN/LASA, Segrate (MI)
  Funding: This work is partially supported by the European Community-Research Infrastructure Activity under the FP6 "Structuring the European Research Area" programme (CARE, contract number RII3-CT-2003-506395).

As of today, no complete technological solution exists for a cold tuning system fulfilling the requirements envisaged for the International Linear Collider, based on the superconducting RF technology. We present here the design improvements for the blade tuner, a coaxial device, which can provide both the slow structure tuning and the fast tuning capabilities needed for Lorentz Force Detuning (LFD) compensation and microphonics stabilitization (by means of the integration with a piezoelectric system). The system has been originally built by INFN and installed and tested at DESY on the superstructures, since it is located around the cavity helium vessel and does not require longitudinal clearance. Its design here is parametrically reviewed in terms of the requirements for higher accelerating fields and of the mechanical integration with a piezoelectric based system for the LFD and microphonics compensation.

TPPT060 Design of a Multi-Cell, HOM Damped Superconducting Cavity for the Strong RF Focusing Experiment at DAFNE 3505
  • A. Gallo, D. Alesini, C. Biscari, R. Boni, F. Marcellini, M. Zobov
    INFN/LNF, Frascati (Roma)
  • C. Pagani
    DESY, Hamburg
  A strong RF focusing experiment to be performed at the DAFNE Phi-factory has been proposed to create and observe a bunch length modulation along the ring. The very large RF gradient required to reach the strong focusing regime can only be obtained by using a multi-cell superconducting cavity. Moreover, in order to demonstrate the feasibility of a high luminosity collider based on this principle, a total multibunch current of the order of 1A has to be stored under stable conditions in this regime. A 1.3 GHz 7-cells cavity has been designed for this purpose, based on the TESLA geometry with small modifications of the basic cell to comply with the DAFNE revolution frequency. The number of cells has been changed from 9 to 7 to reduce the number of the cavity HOMs, while the beam tubes have been enlarged to let most of the HOMs propagate and be damped by room-temperature ferrite rings. The modes of the first longitudinal band, which include the accelerating TM010_pi, do not propagate in the beam tubes and have been studied with special care to prevent the overlap with the bunch revolution harmonics and to cure the effects of coupling to the synchrotron tune sidebands.  
TPPT061 Prototyping of a 352 MHz, beta=0.17 Superconducting Coaxial Half Wave Resonator 3547
  • A. Facco, F. Scarpa, D. Zenere
    INFN/LNL, Legnaro, Padova
  • V. Zviagintsev
    TRIUMF, Vancouver
  We have designed a 352 MHz superconducting coaxial half wave resonator with beta=0.17. The cavity has a mechanical design similar to the LNL beta=0.31 one developed in 2004. It is very compact (232 mm real-estate length) and it is equipped with a side tuner not exposed to liquid helium, to make it insensitive to pressure fluctuations. Operation is foreseen at 4.2 K. The beta=0.17 cavity fills the gap from 5 to ~25 MeV between the LNL proton RFQ, under construction, and and the existing beta=0.31 half wave resonator. This allows a 5100 MeV proton linac working at 352 MHz with 2 types of coaxial HWR cavities with large velocity acceptance, thus able to accelerate also other ion species (e.g. deuterons). A similar scheme was previously proposed for Spoke resonators; the aim of the HWR choice is compactness and cost reduction. The beta=0.17 cavity is presently under construction in the SPES R&D program at LNL; first test results are expected by the end of 2005.  
TPPT062 High Power Test of the Prototype Cryomodule for ADS Superconducting Linac 3579
  • E. Kako, S. Noguchi, N. Ohuchi, T. Shishido, K. Tsuchiya
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • N. Akaoka, H. Kobayashi, N. Ouchi
    JAERI/LINAC, Ibaraki-ken
  • E. Chishiro, T. Hori, M. Nakata, M. Yamazaki
    JAERI, Ibaraki-ken
  A prototype cryomodule containing two 9-cell superconducting cavities of beta=0.725 and fo=972MHz had been constructed under the collaboration of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) on the development of superconducting LINAC for Accelerator Driven System (ADS). Cool-down tests to 2.0K of the cryomodule and high power tests with a 972MHz pulsed klystron have been successfully carried out. Rf power of 350kW in a pulsed operation of 3msec and 25Hz was transferred to the nine-cell cavity through an input coupler. Accelerating gradients of about 14MV/m higher than the specification (10MV/m) were achieved in both cavities. Design and performance of the prototype cryomodule and the test results with high rf power will be reported.  
TPPT063 Higher-Order-Mode Damping of L-Band Superconducting Cavity using a Radial-Line HOM Damper 3606
  • K. Umemori, M. Izawa, K. Saito, S. Sakanaka
    KEK, Ibaraki
  For the energy recovery linacs, strong damping of higher-order-modes (HOMs) is indispensable to avoid beam breakup instabilities. We studied a new HOM damping scheme using a radial-line HOM damper with a choke structure. Both models of the radial-line damper and the TESLA-type 9-cell cavity were prepared and the HOM characteristics of this scheme were experimentally investigated. Measurement results showed a promising performance of the radial-line HOM damper.  
TPPT066 Successful Operation of the 500 MHz SRF Module at TLS 3706
  • C. Wang, L.-H. Chang, S.-S. Chang, C.-T. Chen, F.-T. Chung, F.-Z. Hsiao, G.-Y. Hsiung, K.-T. Hsu, C.-C. Kuo, H.C. Li, M.-C. Lin, R.J. Lin, Y.K. Lin, G.-H. Luo, M.H. Tsai, J.Y. Yang, T.-T. Yang, M.-S. Yeh
    NSRRC, Hsinchu
  A superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity of CESR-III design was installed sucessfully in the electron storage ring at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC) in Taiwan. The project goals are to double the photon flux by raising the electron beam current and to increase the beam stability by taking advantage of the well-damped high-order modes of SRF cavity. Nowadays, SRF cavity has become the key technology for new synchrotron light sources under construction or planning worldwide. The first operational experience of the SRF cavity at the NSRRC will be presented.  
TPPT067 High Power Coupler Studies for the ERLP 3736
  • J.H.P. Rogers, C.D. Beard, P.A. Corlett
    CCLRC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire
  Funding: ASTeC, CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory.

Two Superconducting RF modules of the ELBE type have been ordered from Accel Instruments GmbH for use on the Energy Recovery Linac Prototype (ERLP) being built at Daresbury Laboratory. One structure is to be used as a booster module, with an energy gain of 8 MeV, and the other is to act as an energy recovery linac operating at electron beam energy of up to 35 MeV. High power couplers capable of handling up to 10 kW CW are required to provide successful operation of the ERLP. Once received from Accel four couplers including RF windows will be conditioned and tested at FZR Dresden; this paper describes the test procedure anticipated.

TPPT068 Optimized Shape of Cavity Cells for Apertures Smaller than in TESLA Geometry 3748
  • V.D. Shemelin
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
  The accelerating rate (Eacc) of TESLA cavities can be increased for the same iris aperture if 1) some increase of Epk/Eacc is permitted so that the value of Hpk/Eacc can be lowered in comparison with the original cells (Epk and Hpk are maximal surface electric and magnetic fields); 2) shape of the cells is described by two elliptic arcs; 3) the reentrant cells obtained as a result of consecutive optimization with this geometry are treated as a possible version of cells in spite of some complications for fabrication. Not only the value of Hpk/Eacc can be improved but also values of cell-to-cell coupling and the geometry constants R/Q and G grow with the transition to the reentrant shapes. And these are not all benefits of this shape. The increased coupling prompts that the aperture of the original cell is big enough to be decreased without loss of field flatness in comparison with the original design. This decrease will lead to further increase of the Eacc for the same Hpk also as to improvement of others important parameters. Here, results of calculations for the original and for smaller apertures are presented and proposals for a better choice of TESLA cavity cells are derived.

Cornell University

TPPT069 Design Considerations for the Mechanical Tuner of the RHIC Electron Cooler SRF Cavity 3786
  • J. Rank, I. Ben-Zvi, M. Blaskiewicz, H. Hahn, G.T. McIntyre
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work is supported by the DOD Joint Technology Office and by the U.S. Department of Energy.

The ECX Project, Brookhaven Lab's predecessor to the RHIC e-Cooler, includes a prototype RF tuner mechanism capable of both coarse and fine tuning of the superconducting RF cavity. This tuner is adapted originally from a DESY design concept but with a longer stroke and significantly higher loads due to our very stiff cavity shape. Structural design, kinematics, controls, thermal and RF issues are discussed and certain improvements are proposed.

TPPT070 Development of the Superconducting 3.9 GHz Accelerating Cavity at Fermilab 3825
  • N. Solyak, T.T. Arkan, P. Bauer, L. Bellantoni, C. Boffo, E. Borissov, H. Carter, H. Edwards, M. Foley, I.G. Gonin, T.K. Khabiboulline, S.C. Mishra, D.V. Mitchell, V. Poloubotko, A.M. Rowe, I. Terechkine
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: U.S. Department of Energy.

A superconducting third harmonic accelerating cavity (3.9 GHz) was proposed to improve beam quality in the TTF-like photoinjector. Fermilab has developed, built and tested several prototypes, including two copper 9-cell cavities, and niobium 3-cell and 9-cell cavities. The helium vessel and frequency tuner for the 9-cell cavity was built and tested as well. In cold tests, we achieved a peak surface magnetic field of ~120mT, well above the 70mT specification. The accelerating gradient was limited by thermal breakdown. Studies of the higher order modes in the cavity revealed that the existing cavity design with two HOM couplers will provide sufficient damping of these modes. In this paper we discuss the cavity design, results of the studies and plans for further development.

TPPT071 Preliminary Results on the Simultaneous Excitation of the TM010 and TE011 Modes in a Single Cell Niobium Cavity 3844
  • G. Ciovati, P. Kneisel
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. DOE Contract No DE-AC05-84ER40150.

Simultaneous excitation of both TM010 and TE011 modes has been proposed recently for superconducting photoinjector applications to take advantage of the accelerating field of the TM mode, combined with the focusing magnetic field of the TE mode. Simultaneous excitation of both modes has been carried out on a CEBAF single cell cavity. The cavity has two beam pipe side-ports for each mode for input and pick-up couplers. Coupling to the TE011 mode is done by magnetic loop couplers while for the TM010 mode coaxial antennas are used. The TE011 mode has the property of having zero surface electric field, surface magnetic field orthogonal to the one in the TM010 mode and concentrated in the iris/wall regions of the cavity. The presence of both modes in the cavity at the same time can also be used to investigate the so-called high field Q-drop in the TM010 mode. This paper will present some preliminary result on the test of the single cell cavity at 2K.

TPPT072 Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields on the Performance of a Superconducting Cavity 3874
  • G. Ciovati, P. Kneisel
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  • J.S. Sekutowicz, W. Singer
    DESY, Hamburg
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. DOE Contract No DE-AC05-84ER40150.

A special two-cell cavity was designed to obtain surface field distributions suitable for investigation of electric and magnetic field effects on cavity performance. The cavity design and preliminary results were presented in a previous contribution. The bulk niobium cavity was heat-treated in a vacuum furnace at 1250C to improve the thermal conductivity. Three seamless hydroformed NbCu cavities of the same design were fabricated to investigate the role of the electron beam welds located in high field areas.

TPPT073 Testing of the New Tuner Design for the CEBAF 12 GeV Upgrade SRF Cavities 3910
  • E. Daly, G.K. Davis, W.R. Hicks
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Funding: This manuscript has been authorized by SURA, Inc. under Contract No. DE-AC05-84ER-40150 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

The new tuner design for the 12 GeV Upgrade SRF cavities consists of a coarse mechanical tuner and a fine piezoelectric tuner. The mechanism provides a 30:1 mechanical advantage, is pre-loaded at room temperature and tunes the cavities in tension only. All of the components are located in the insulating vacuum space and attached to the helium vessel, including the motor, harmonic drive and piezoelectric actuators. The requirements and detailed design are presented. Measurements of range and resolution of the coarse tuner are presented and discussed.

TPPT074 Simulation Study of Electronic Damping of Microphonic Vibrations in Superconducting Cavities 3916
  • A.S. Hofler, J.R. Delayen
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Funding: This work was supported by the Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-84ER-40150.

Electronic damping of microphonic vibrations in superconducting rf cavities involves an active modulation of the cavity field amplitude in order to induce ponderomotive forces that counteract the effect of ambient vibrations on the cavity frequency. In lightly beam loaded cavities, a reduction of the microphonics-induced frequency excursions leads directly to a reduction of the rf power required for phase and amplitude stabilization. Jefferson Lab is investigating such an electronic damping scheme that could be applied to the JLab 12 GeV upgrade, the RIA driver, and possibly to energy-recovering superconducting linacs. This paper discusses a model and presents simulation results for electronic damping of microphonic vibrations.

TPPT075 Influence of Ta Content in High Purity Niobium on Cavity Performance 3955
  • P. Kneisel, G. Ciovati, G. Myneni
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  • T. Carneiro
    Reference Metals, Bridgeville, Pennsylvania
  • D. Proch, W. Singer, X. Singer
    DESY, Hamburg
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. DOE Contract No DE-AC05-84ER40150.

In a previous paper* we have reported about initial tests of single cell 1500 MHz cavities made from high purity niobium with three different Ta contents of 160 ppm, ~600 ppm and ~1400 ppm. These cavities had been treated by buffered chemical polishing several times and 100 mm, 200 mm and 300 mm of material had been removed from the surfaces. This contribution reports about subsequent tests following post purification heat treatments with Ti and “in situ” baking. As a result, all cavities exhibited increased quench fields due to the improved thermal conductivity after the heat treatment. After the "in situ" baking at 120C for ~40 hrs the always present Q-drop at high fields disappeared and further improvements in accelerating gradient could be realized. Gradients as high as Eacc = 35 MV/m were achieved and there were no clear indications that the cavity performance was influenced by the Ta content in the material. A multi-cell cavity from the high Ta content material is being fabricated and results will be presented at this conference.

*P. Kneisel et al., Linac 2004.

TPPT076 Preliminary Results from Single Crystal and Very Large Crystal Niobium Cavities 3991
  • P. Kneisel, G. Ciovati, G. Myneni
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  • T. Carneiro
    Reference Metals, Bridgeville, Pennsylvania
  • J.S. Sekutowicz
    DESY, Hamburg
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. DOE Contract No DE-AC05-84ER40150.

We have fabricated and tested several single cell cavities using material from very large grain niobium ingots. In one case the central grain exceeded 7" in diameter and this was used for a 2 GHz cavity. This activity had a dual purpose: to investigate the influence of grain boundaries on the often observed Q-drop at gradients Eacc > 20 MV/m in the absence of field emission, and to study the possibility of using ingot material for cavity fabrication without going through the expensive process of sheet fabrication. The sheets for these cavities were cut from the ingot by wire electro-discharge machining (EDM) and subsequently formed into half–cells by deep drawing. The following fabrication steps were standard: machining of weld recesses, electron beam welding of beam pipes onto the half cells and final equator weld to join both half cell/beam pipe subunits.The cavities showed heavy Q–disease caused by the EDM; after hydrogen degassing at 800C for 3 hrs in UHV the cavities showed promising results, however, a Q-drop above Eacc ~ 20 MV/m was still present. Testing of the cavities is still ongoing – so far accelerating gradients of 30 MV/m have been achieved.

TPPT077 Testing of HOM Coupler Designs on a Single Cell Niobium Cavity 4012
  • P. Kneisel, G. Ciovati, G. Myneni, G. Wu
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  • J.S. Sekutowicz
    DESY, Hamburg
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. DOE Contract No DE-AC05-84ER40150.

Coaxial higher order mode (HOM) couplers were developed initially for PETRA cavitiesand subsequently for TESLA cavities. They were adopted later for SNS and Jlab upgrade cavities. The principle of operation is the rejection of the fundamental mode by the tunable filter configuration of the coupler and the transmission of the HOMs. It has been recognized recently that, in high average power applications, the pick-up probe of the HOM coupler must be superconducting in order to avoid substantial heat dissipation by the fundamental mode fields and deterioration of the cavity Q. In addition, the thermal conduction of existing rf feedthrough designs is only marginally sufficient to keep even the niobium probe tip superconducting in cw operation. We have equipped a single-cell niobium cavity with different HOM coupler configurations and tested the different designs by measuring Q vs Eacc behavior at 2 K for different feedthroughs and probe tipmaterials

TPPT079 Performance Overview of the Production Superconducting RF Cavities for the Spallation Neutron Source Linac 4048
  • J.P. Ozelis, J.R. Delayen, J. Mammosser
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Funding: Work supported by U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-84ER40150.

As part of its efforts for the SNS construction project, Jefferson Lab has produced 23 cryomodules for the superconducting linac. These modules contained 81 industrially produced multicell Nb accelerating cavities. Each of these cavities was individually tested before assembly into a cryomodule to verify that they achieved the required performance. This ensemble of cavities represents the 3rd largest set of production superconducting cavities fabricated and tested to date. The timely qualification testing of such a collection of cavities offers both challenges and opportunities. Their performance can be characterized by achieved gradient at the required Qo, achieved peak surface field, onset of field emission, and observations of multipacting. Possible correlations between cavity performance and process parameters, only really meaningful in the framework of a large scale production effort, will also be presented. In light of the potential adoption of these cavities for projects such as the Rare Isotope Accelerator or Fermilab Proton Driver, such an analysis is crucial to their success.

TPPT081 Fabrication and Testing of the SRF Cavities for the CEBAF 12 GeV Upgrade Prototype Cryomodule Renascence 4081
  • C.E. Reece, E. Daly, S. Manning, R. Manus, S. Morgan, J.P. Ozelis, L. Turlington
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Funding: This manuscript has been authorized by SURA, Inc. under Contract No. DE-AC05-84ER-40150 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

Twelve seven-cell niobium cavities for the CEBAF 12 GeV upgrade prototype cryomodule Renascence have been fabricated at JLab and tested individually. This set includes four of the "Low Loss" (LL) design and eight of the "High Gradient" (HG) design. The fabrication strategy was an efficient mix of batch job-shop component machining and in-house EBW, chemistry, and final-step machining to meet mechanical tolerances. Process highlights will be presented. The cavities have been tested at 2.07 K, the intended CEBAF operating temperature. Performance exceeded the tentative design requirement of 19.2 MV/m cw with less than 31 W dynamic heat dissipation. These results, as well as the HOM damping performance will be presented.

TPPT082 High Thermal Conductivity Cryogenic RF Feedthroughs for Higher Order Mode Couplers 4108
  • C.E. Reece, E. Daly, T. Elliott, J.P. Ozelis, H.L. Phillips, T.M. Rothgeb, K. Wilson, G. Wu
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Funding: This manuscript has been authorized by SURA, Inc. under Contract No. DE-AC05-84ER-40150 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

The use of higher-order-mode (HOM) pickup probes in the presence of significant fundamental rf fields can present a thermal challenge for cw or high average power SRF cavity applications. The electric field probes on the HOM-damping couplers on the JLab "High Gradient" and "Low Loss" seven-cell cavities for the CEBAF upgrade are exposed to approximately 10% of the peak magnetic field in the cavity. To avoid significant dissipative losses, these probes must remain superconducting during operation. Typical cryogenic rf feedthroughs provide a poor thermal conduction path for the probes, and provide inadequate stabilization. We have developed solutions that meet the requirements, providing a direct thermal path from the niobium probe, thorough single-crystal sapphire, to bulk copper which can be thermally stationed (or heat sunk). Designs, electromagnetic and thermal analyses, and performance data will be presented.

TPPT083 RF Conditioning and Testing of Fundamental Power Couplers for SNS Superconducting Cavity Production 4132
  • M. Stirbet, G.K. Davis, M. A. Drury, C. Grenoble, J. Henry, G. Myneni, T. Powers, K. Wilson, M. Wiseman
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  • I.E. Campisi, Y.W. Kang, D. Stout
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  Funding: This work was supported by U.S. DOE contract DE-AC0500R22725.

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) makes use of 33 medium beta (0.61) and 48 high beta (0.81) superconducting cavities. Each cavity is equipped with a fundamental power coupler, which should withstand the full klystron power of 550 kW in full reflection for the duration of an RF pulse of 1.3 msec at 60 Hz repetition rate. Before assembly to a superconducting cavity, the vacuum components of the coupler are submitted to acceptance procedures consisting of preliminary quality assessments, cleaning and clean room assembly, vacuum leak checks and baking under vacuum, followed by conditioning and RF high power testing. Similar acceptance procedures (except clean room assembly and baking) were applied for the airside components of the coupler. All 81 fundamental power couplers for SNS superconducting cavity production have been RF power tested at JLAB Newport News and, beginning in April 2004 at SNS Oak Ridge. This paper gives details of coupler processing and RF high power-assessed performances.

TPPT084 Surface Study of Nb/Cu Films for Cavity Deposition by ECR Plasma 4153
  • A.T. Wu, R.C. Ike, H.L. Phillips, A-M. Valente, H. Wang, G. Wu
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Funding: This manuscript has been authorized by SURA, Inc. under Contract No. DE-AC05-84ER-40150 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

Deposition of thin niobium (Nb) films on copper (Cu) cavities, using an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma appears to be an attractive alternative technique for fabricating superconducting radio frequency cavities to be used in particle accelerators. The performance of these Nb/Cu cavities is expected to depend on the surface characteristics of the Nb films. In this paper, we report on an investigation of the influence of deposition energy on surface morphology, microstructure, and chemical composition of Nb films deposited on small Cu disks employing a metallographic optical microscope, a 3-D profilometer, a scanning electron microscope, and a dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometer. The results will be compared with those obtained on Nb surfaces treated by buffered chemical polishing, electropolishing, and buffered electropolishing. Possible implications from this study for Nb deposition on real Cu cavities will be discussed.

TPPT085 Niobium Thin Film Coating on a 500-MHz Copper Cavity by Plasma Deposition 4167
  • H. Wang, H.L. Phillips, R.A. Rimmer, A-M. Valente, A.T. Wu, G. Wu
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Funding: This work was supported by DOE contract DE-AC05-84ER40150 Modification No. M175, under which the Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA) operates the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

A system for the deposition, using an ECR plasma source, of a thin film of niobium inside a copper cavity for superconducting accelerator applications has been designed and is being constructed. The system uses a 500-MHz copper cavity as the substrate and the vacuum chamber. The ECR plasma will be created to produce direct niobium ion deposition. The central cylindrical grid is biased to realize the energy controlled deposition. This report describes the design of several subcomponents including the vacuum chamber, RF supply, biasing grid and magnet coils. Operational parameters are compared between a working small-sample deposition system and this system. Initial plasma simulation also suggested that plasma ignition in this cavity system is feasible.

TPPT086 Elliptical Cavity Shape Optimization for Acceleration and HOM Damping 4191
  • H. Wang, R.A. Rimmer, G. Wu
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Funding: Supported by the Office of Naval Research, the Joint Technology Office, the Commonwealth of Virginia, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and by DOE Contract DE-AC05-84ER40150.

A normal design process for a superconducting cavity shape is to maximize the R/Q (shunt impedance/intrinsic quality factor) and geometry factor G for a given RF field limit of Bpeak/Eacc or Epeak/Eacc. For the application of an Ampere-class, high current energy recovery linac or storage ring, heavy HOM damping is required. This paper reports on a survey of single cell shapes developed for multi-cell cavities for different projects. Using a set of normalized parameters, we compare the designs for different frequencies and ß structures for the fundamental mode. Using dispersion curve (frequency verse phase advance) calculated by MAFIA for a single cell, we explore further how to optimize the cavity shape to avoid a light cone line crossing at the dangerous resonance frequencies determined by the beam bunch structure or the dangerous (trapped or high R/Q) modes with a low group velocity. We expect such a formulation to inform our development of a 5-cell, optimized cavity shape, with good real estate accelerating gradient and strong HOM damping waveguide structure for the JLab 1MW ERL-FEL project.

TPPT088 Power Dependence of the RF Surface Resistance of MgB2 Superconductor 4215
  • T. Tajima, A. Findikoglu, A.J. Jason, F.L. Krawczyk, F. M. Mueller, A. H. Shapiro
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
  • R.L. Geng, H. Padamsee, A.S. Romanenko
    Cornell University, Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Ithaca, New York
  • B. Moeckly
    STI, Santa Barbara, California
  MgB2 is a superconducting material that has a transition temperature (Tc) of ~40 K. Recently, it has been shown at 4 K, liquid helium temperature, that the surface RF resistance can be lower than Nb that has the Tc of 9.2 K and has been used for most superconducting RF cavities in the past decades. One of the problems with other high-Tc materials such as YBCO was its rapid increase in RF surface resistance with higher surface magnetic fields. Recently, we have shown that MgB2 shows little increase up to about 120 Oe, equivalent of an accelerating field of about 3 MV/m. The highest field tested was limited by available power. This result is encouraging and has made us consider fabricating a cavity coated with MgB2 and test it. Also, there might be a potential that this material has a higher critical magnetic field that enables the cavity to run at a higher gradient than Nb cavities.  
TPPT089 Commissioning and Operations Results of the Industry-Produced CESR-Type SRF Cryomodules 4233
  • S.A. Belomestnykh, R.P.K. Kaplan, H. Padamsee, P. Quigley, J.J.R. Reilly, J. Sears, V. Veshcherevich
    Cornell University, Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Ithaca, New York
  • S. Bauer, M. Pekeler, H. Vogel
    ACCEL, Bergisch Gladbach
  • L.-H. Chang, C.-T. Chen, F.-Z. Hsiao, M.-C. Lin, G.-H. Luo, C. Wang, T.-T. Yang, M.-S. Yeh
    NSRRC, Hsinchu
  • E. Matias, J. Stampe, M.S. de Jong
    CLS, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
  Funding: Work is partially supported by the National Science Foundation.

Upon signing a technology transfer agreement with Cornell University, ACCEL began producing turn-key 500 MHz superconducting cavity systems. Four such cryomodules have been delivered, commissioned and installed in accelerators for operation to date. Two more cryomodules are scheduled for testing in early 2005. One of them will be put in operation at Canadian Light Source (CLS); the other will serve as a spare at Taiwan Light Source (TLS). The commissioning results and operational experience with the cryomodules in CESR, CLS and TLS are presented.

TPPT090 Progress of 2-Cell Cavity Fabrication for Cornell ERL Injector 4248
  • R.L. Geng, P. Barnes, M. Liepe, V. Medjidzade, H. Padamsee, A.K. Seaman, J. Sears, V.D. Shemelin, N. Sherwood
    Cornell University, Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Ithaca, New York
  Five 1300 MHz superconducting niobium cavities are to be used for the injector of Cornell ERL. The beam power requirement (100 kW each cavity) and the need to minimize emittance dilution due to the cavity structure have important impacts to the design and fabrication of these cavities. We plan to use Conflat stainless-steel flanges brazed to niobium tubes of niobium cavities. The first copper prototy cavity has been built and measured. Most parts for the first niobium cavity have been manufactured also. In this report, we will present the progress of the prototyping copper as well as niobium cavities.  
TPPT094 Design of the CW Cornell ERL Injector Cryomodule 4290
  • M. Liepe, S.A. Belomestnykh, R.L. Geng, V. Medjidzade, H. Padamsee, V.D. Shemelin, V. Veshcherevich
    Cornell University, Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Ithaca, New York
  Funding: This work is supported by Cornell University.

The Cornell ERL Prototype injector will accelerate bunches from an electron source to an energy of several MeV, while preserving the ultra-low emittance of the beam. The injector linac will be based on superconducting RF technology with five 2-cell RF cavities operated in cw mode. The beam tubes on one side of the cavities have been enlarged to propagate Higher-Order-Mode power from the cavities to broadband RF ring-absorbers located at 80 K between the cavities. The axial symmetry of these ferrite based absorbers, together with two symmetrically placed input couplers per cavity, avoids transverse on-axis fields, which would cause emittance growth. Each cavity is surrounded by a LHe vessel and equipped with a frequency tuner. The cryomodule provides the support and alignment for the cavity string, the LN cooling of the ferrite loads, and the 2K LHe cryogenic system for the high cw heat load of the cavities. In this paper we give an overview of the ERL injector cryomodule design.

TPPT095 Test of a Fast Ferrite Reactive Tuner for Control of Microphonics at the S-Dalinac
  • T. Zwart, dc. Cheever, N.T. Cliffer, M. Farkhondeh, W. Graves, W. North, C. Tschalaer, D. Wang, D. Wang, F. Wang, A. Zolfaghari, J. van der Laan
    MIT, Middleton, Massachusetts
  • H.-D. Gräf
    TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt
  Funding: DOE

A fast ferrite inductive tuner assembly has been constructed for use at the 3 GHz superconducting S-Dalinac accelerator. This device was installed and tested at the S-Dalinac in April 2005. At a fixed accelerating field of 1.4 MV/m using a simple analog control loop the amplitude of the cavity peak-to-peak phase fluctuations with respect to the phase of the incident RF was reduced from 80 degrees to 10 degrees. The 50 Hz noise which dominated the open loop microphonics was reduced by more than 30 dB. The open loop response of the reactive tuner has also been characterized, yielding a tuning range of ?f greater than 300 Hz at a Qext of 1.5e7. The ferrite tuner was then relocated on the waveguide to a distance of (n+1/4)? from the input coupler. This allowed fast control of the coupling with range of Qext from 1.5 - 8e7.

TPPT096 Cryomodule Design for a Superconducting Linac with Quarter-Wave, Half-Wave, and Focusing Elements 4317
  • M. J. Johnson, J. Bierwagen, S. Bricker, C. Compton, P. Glennon, T.L. Grimm, W. Hartung, D. Harvell, A. Moblo, J. Popielarski, L. Saxton, R.C. York, A. Zeller
    NSCL, East Lansing, Michigan
  The low-energy section of the driver linac for the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) incorporates the following superconducting elements: quarter-wave resonators, half-wave resonators, and 9 T solenoids. A prototype cryomodule has been designed to house all of these elements. A 31 T/m superferric quadrupole is also included as an alternative focusing element, since its stray magnetic field is more easily shielded. The cryomodule design is based on the RIA v/c=0.47 prototype cryomodule that was successfully tested in 2004.* The design uses a titanium rail structure to support the beam line elements. The beam line assembly is done in a class 100 clean room to maintain resonator cleanliness for optimal high-field performance. The cavities will be equipped with RF input couplers, tuners, and magnetic shields. High Tc current leads are used for both magnets. The cryomodule design takes into account static heat leak requirements and alignment tolerances for the beam line elements. A heat exchanger and J-T throttle valve will be used to provide a continuous supply of liquid helium for 2 K operation.

*T.L. Grimm et al., "Experimental Study of an 805 MHz Cryomodule for the Rare Isotope Accelerator", in Proceedings of the XXII International Linear Accelerator Conference, Lubeck, Germany (2004).

TPPT098 VORPAL as a Tool for Three-Dimensional Simulations of Multipacting in Superconducting RF Cavities 4332
  • C. Nieter, J.R. Cary, P. Stoltz
    Tech-X, Boulder, Colorado
  • G.R. Werner
    CIPS, Boulder, Colorado
  Considerable resources are required to run three dimensional simulations of multipacting in superconducting rf cavities. Three dimensional simulations are needed to understand the possible roles of non-axisymmetric features such as the power couplers. Such simulations require the ability to run in parallel. We consider the versatile plasma simulation code VORPAL* as a possible platform to study such effects. VORPAL has a general 3D domain decomposition and can run in any physical dimension. VORPAL uses the CMEE library** to model the secondary emission of electrons from metal surfaces. We will present a three dimensional simulation of a simple pillbox rf cavity to demonstrate the potential of VORPAL to be a major simulation tool for superconducting rf cavities.

*C. Nieter and J.R. Cary, J. Comp. Phys. 196 (2004), p. 448. **P.H. Stoltz, ICFA electron cloud work shop, Napa, CA (2004).

TPPT099 Prototype Superconducting Triple-Spoke Cavity for Beta = 0.63 4338
  • K.W. Shepard, Z.A. Conway, J.D. Fuerst, M. Kedzie, M.P. Kelly
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract no. W-31109ENG_38.

This paper reports the development status of a 345 MHz, three-spoke-loaded, TEM-class superconducting cavity with a transit-time factor peaked at beta = v/c = 0.62. The cavity has a 4 cm diameter beam aperture, a transverse diameter of 45.8 cm, and an effective (interior) length of 85 cm. The cavity is the second of two three-spoke loaded cavities being developed for the RIA driver linac and other high-intensity ion linac applications. Construction of a prototype niobium cavity has been completed and the cavity has been chemically processed. Results of initial cold tests will be discussed

TPPT100 Superconducting Triple-Spoke Cavity for Beta = 0.5 Ions 4344
  • K.W. Shepard, Z.A. Conway, J.D. Fuerst, M. Kedzie, M.P. Kelly
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract no. W-31-109-ENG-38.

This paper reports results of cold tests of a 345 MHz, three-spoke-loaded TEM-class superconducting niobium cavity being developed for the RIA driver linac and for other high-intensity ion linac applications. The cavity has a beam aperture of 4 cm diameter, an interior length of 67 cm, and the transit-time factor peaks at beta = v/c = 0.5. In tests at 4.2 K, the cavity could be operated cw above the nominal design accelerating gradient of 9.3 MV/m, which corresponds to peak surface fields of 27.5 MV/m electric and 826 gauss magnetic. At this gradient the cavity provides more than 6 MV of accelerating potential. The cavity Q at 9.3 MV/m exceeded the nominal performance goal of 7.3E8. Operation at the design gradient at 4.2 K causes substantial boiling and two-phase flow in the liquid helium coolant, with the potential for microphonic-induced fluctuations of the rf frequency. Total microphonic eigenfrequency fluctuations were measured to be less than 1 Hz RMS in cw operation at 9.7 MV/m at 4.2 K.

WPAT082 An Improved Pneumatic Frequency Control for Superconducting Cavities 4090
  • G. Zinkann, E. Clifft, S.I. Sharamentov
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: U.S. Department of Energy.

The ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System) superconducting cavities use a pneumatic system to maintain the cavity eigenfrequency at the master oscillator frequency. The present pneumatic slow tuner control has a limitation in the tuning slew rates. In some cases, the frequency slew rate is as low as 30 Hz/sec. The total tuning range for ATLAS cavities varies from 60 KHz to as high as 450 KHz depending on the cavity type. With the present system, if a cavity is at the extreme end of its tuning range, it may take an unacceptable length of time to reach the master oscillator frequency. We have designed a new slow tuner control system that increases the frequency slew rates by at least a factor of ten to a factor of three hundred in the more extreme cases. This improved system is directly applicable for use on the RIA (Rare Isotope Accelerator) cavities. This paper discusses the design of the system and the results of a prototype test.

WPAT083 Steering and Focusing Effects in TESLA Cavity Due to High Order Mode and Input Couplers 4135
  • P. Piot
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  • M. Dohlus, K. Floettmann, M. Marx, S.G. Wipf
    DESY, Hamburg
  Funding: This work was supported by Universities Research Association Inc. under contract DE-AC02-76CH00300 with the U.S. Department of Energy, and by NICADD.

Many state-of-art electron accelerator proposals incorporate TESLA-type superconducting standing wave cavities. These cavities include input coupler (to feed the RF power into the cavity) and a pairs of high order mode couplers (HOM) to absorb the energy associated to HOM field excited as the bunch passes through the cavity. In the present paper we investigate, using numerical simulations, the impact of the input and HOM couplers on the beam dynamics. We show the overall effects are: a dipole kick (zeroth order) and normal and skew quadrupole-type focusing (first order). We present parametric studies of the strength of these effect for various operating gradients and incoming beam energies. We finally study the impact of this non-asymmetric field on the beam dynamics, taking as an example the low energy section of the European X-FEL injector.

  • H. Matsumoto, S. Kazakov, K. Saito
    KEK, Ibaraki
  Funding: Toshiba Electron Tube & Devices Co. Ltd., Tochigi, Otawa, Japan.

An attractive structure using capacitive coupling has been found for the input coupler for the 45 MV/m versions of the International Linear Collider (ILC) project. The coupler supports an electrical field gradient of ~1 kV/m around the rf window ceramic with 500 kW through power, a VSWR of 1.1 and a frequency bandwidth of 460 MHz. No unwanted resonances were found in the rf window near the first and second harmonics of the operation frequency.

WPAT085 4.2 K Operation of the SNS Cryomodules 4173
  • I.E. Campisi, S. Assadi, F. Casagrande, M. Champion, C. Chu, S.M. Cousineau, M.T. Crofford, C. Deibele, J. Galambos, P.A. Gurd, D.R. Hatfield, M.P. Howell, D.-O. Jeon, Y.W. Kang, K.-U. Kasemir, Z. Kursun, H. Ma, M.F. Piller, D. Stout, W.H. Strong, A.V. Vassioutchenko, Y. Zhang
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  Funding: SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge.

The Spallation Neutron Source being built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory employs eighty one 805 MHz superconducting cavities operated at 2.1 K for the H- beam to gain energy in the main linac from 187 MeV to about 1 GeV. The superconducting cavities and cryomodules with two different values of beta .61 and .81 have been designed and constructed at Jefferson Lab for operation at 2.1 K with unloaded Q’s in excess of 5x109. To gain experience in testing cryomodules in the SNS tunnel before the final commissioning of the 2.1 K Central Helium Liquefier, integration tests were conducted on a medium beta (.61) cryomodule at 4.2 K. This is the first time that a superconducting cavity system specifically designed for 2.1 K operation has been extensively tested at 4.2 K without superfluid helium. Even at 4.2 K it was possible to test all of the functional properties of the cryomodule and of the cavities. In particular, at a nominal BCS Qo7x108, simultaneous pulse operation of all three cavities in the cryomodule was achieved at accelerating gradients in excess of 12 MV/m. These conditions were maintained for several hours at a repetition rate of 30 pps. Details of the tests will be presented and discussed.

WPAT086 Superconducting RF Cavity Frequency and Field Distribution Sensitivity Simulation 4194
  • S. An
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  Funding: Under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Frequency and electromagnetic field distribution sensitivity of a superconducting RF (SRF) cavity due to cavity’s small deformation are the fundamental phyical paramethers in cavity and tuner design. At low temperature, the frequency sensitivity can be obtained by measuring prototype cavity, but it is not easy to test the filed distribution sensitivity. This paper presents and describes a simulation method combining ANSYS and SUPERFISH to calculate the cavity frequency and field distribution variation due to cavity’s small deformation caused by mechanical force, radiation force, thermal expansion etc.. As an example, the simulation results of the frequency and field flatness sensitivity on the SNS cavities were confirmed by their test results.

WPAT088 Performance of TESLA Cavities After Fabrication and Preparation in Industry 4221
  • M. Pekeler, S. Bauer, P. vom Stein
    ACCEL, Bergisch Gladbach
  • W. Anders, J. Knobloch
    BESSY GmbH, Berlin
  • W.-D. Müller
    DESY, Hamburg
  In order to demonstrate cw operation of TESLA cavities in linear accelerators driving FEL applications, two TESLA cavities were manufactured and prepared by ACCEL for BESSY. After production, both cavities were prepared for vertical test at ACCEL's premises using state of the art chemical polishing and high pressure water rinsing techniques. The cavities were tested in DESY's vertical RF test installation. Accelerating gradients close to 25 MV/m were reached. One cavity was completed with a helium vessel modified for cw operation and prepared with chemical polishing, high pressure water rinsing, and assembled with the required High Power Coupler at ACCEL. The fully dressed cavity was then shipped under vacuum to BESSY and tested in the horizontal cryostat HoBiCaT. Horizontal RF test results will be presented and compared with the vertical test results.  
WPAT089 Test Bed for Superconducting Materials 4227
  • C.D. Nantista, V.A. Dolgashev, R. Siemann, S.G. Tantawi, J. Weisend
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • I.E. Campisi
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC03-76SF00515.

Superconducting rf cavities are increasingly used in accelerators. Gradient is a parameter of particular importance for the ILC. Much progress in gradient has been made over the past decade, overcoming problems of multipacting, field emission, and breakdown triggered by surface impurities. However, the quenching limit of the surface magnetic field for niobium remains a hard limitation on cavity fields sustainable with this technology. Further exploration of materials and preparation may offer a path to surpassing the current limit. For this purpose, we have designed a resonant test cavity. One wall of the cavity is formed by a flat sample of superconducting material; the rest of the cavity is copper or niobium. The H field on the sample wall is 74% higher than on any other surface. Multipacting is avoided by use of a mode with no surface electric field. The cavity will be resonated through a coupling iris with high-power rf at superconducting temperature until the sample wall quenches, as detected by a change in the quality factor. This experiment will allow us to measure critical magnetic fields up to well above that of niobium with minimal cost and effort.

WPAT091 Fabrication and Final Field Tuning of Copper Cavity Models for a High-Current SRF ERL at 703.75 MHz 4257
  • M.D. Cole, A. Burger, M. Falletta, D. Holmes, E. Peterson, R. Wong
    AES, Medford, NY
  • I. Ben-Zvi
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Advanced Energy Systems is currently under contract to BNL to fabricate a five cell superconducting cavity and cryomodule for the RHIC eCooler SRF Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) program.* The cavity is designed and optimized for ampere class SRF ERL service. As part of this program, we have fabricated two low power copper models of the RF cavities. During the fabrication process a series of frequency measurements were made and compared to the frequency expected at that point in the fabrication process. Where possible, the cavity was modified either before or during, the next fabrication step to tune the cavity frequency toward the target frequency. Following completion of the cavities they were tuned for field flatness and frequency. This paper will review the measurements made, frequency tuning performed, and discuss discrepancies between the expected and measured results. We will also review the as fabricated field profiles and the results of the tuning steps. Further, the cost and benefits of extensive in process tuning will be discussed from an industrial perspective.

*Electron cooling of RHIC, Ilan Ben-Zvi, these proceedings.

WPAT092 Fabrication Tuning of Four 748.5 MHz Single Cell SRF Booster Cavities for a 100 mA SRF FEL Injector 4272
  • M.D. Cole, E. Peterson, J. Rathke, T. Schultheiss
    AES, Medford, NY
  Funding: This work is supported by NAVSEA, NSWC Crane, the Office of Naval Research, and the DOD Joint Technology Office.

Advanced Energy Systems has recently completed the fabrication of four 748.5 MHz single cell superconducting cavities which are to be used in the JLAB FEL SRF Injector Test Stand. During the fabrication process a series of frequency measurements were made and compared to the frequency expected at that point in the fabrication process. Where possible, the cavity was modified either before or during, the next fabrication step to tune the cavity frequency toward the target frequency. The target frequency is calculated making a series of assumptions about the frequency effects of subsequent fabrication and processing steps.

WPAT093 A Three-Cell Superconducting Deflecting Cavity Design for the ALS at LBNL 4287
  • J. Shi, H. Chen, S. Zheng
    TUB, Beijing
  • J.M. Byrd, D. Li
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  Deflecting RF cavities can be used to generate sub-pico-second x-rays by creating correlations between longitudinal and transverse phase space of electron bunches in radiation devices. Up to 2-MV defecting voltage at 1.5-GHz is required for 1.9-GeV electron beam at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at LBNL. We present a conceptual design for a 1.5-GHz three-cell superconducting RF cavity and its coupler. The cavity geometry and deflecting shunt impedance are optimized using MAFIA code. The cavity impedance from lower and higher order modes (LOM and HOM) are computed. Possible schemes for damping most harmful LOM and HOM modes are discussed and simulated.  
WPAT094 Traveling Wave Accelerating Structure for a Superconducting Accelerator 4296
  • A. Kanareykin
    Euclid TechLabs, LLC, Solon, Ohio
  • P.A. Avrakhov
    LPI, Moscow
  • N. Solyak
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  We are presenting a superconducting traveling wave accelerating structure (STWA) concept, which may prove to be of crucial importance to the International Linear Collider. Compared to the existing design of a TESLA cavity, the traveling wave structure can provide ~20-40% higher accelerating gradient for the same aperture and the same peak surface magnetic RF field. The recently achieved SC structure gradient of 35 MV/m can be increased up to ~50 MV/m with the new STWA structure design. The STWA structure is supposed to be installed into the superconducting resonance ring and is fed by the two couplers with appropriate phase advance to excite a traveling wave inside the structure. The system requires two independent tuners to be able to adjust the cavity and feedback waveguide frequencies and hence to reduce the unwanted backward wave. In this presentation we discuss the structure design, optimization of the parameters, tuning requirements and plans for further development.