Proton and Ion Accelerators and Applications

2B - Ion Linac Projects

Paper Title Page
MO204 The Injector Systems of the FAIR Project 31
  • W. Barth
    GSI, Darmstadt

Funding: EU-Research Infrastructure Activity under the FP6 "Structuring the European Research Area" program (CARE, contract number RII3-CT-2003-506395); EU-INTAS Project Ref. no. 06-1000012-8782
The present GSI accelerator chain will serve as an injector for FAIR. The linear accelerator UNILAC and the heavy ion synchrotron SIS18 should deliver up to 1012 U28+ particles/sec. In the past two years different hardware measures and a careful fine tuning of the UNILAC resulted in a 35% increase of the beam intensity to a new record of 1.25*1011 U27+ ions per 100μs or 2.3*1010 U73+ ions per 100μs. The increased stripper gas density, the optimization of the Alvarez-matching, the use of various newly developed beam diagnostics devices and a new charge state separator system in the foil stripper section comprised the successful development program. The contribution reports results of beam measurements during the high current operation with uranium beams (pulse beam power up to 0.65 MW). The UNILAC upgrade for FAIR will be continued by assembling a new front-end for U4+, stronger power supplies for the Alvarez quadrupoles, and versatile high current beam diagnostics devices. Additionally, the offered primary proton beam intensities will be increased by a new proton linac, which should be commissioned in 2013.


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MOP017 The Proposed ISAC-III (ARIEL) Low-Energy Area and Accelerator Upgrades 94
  • R.E. Laxdal, F. Ames, R.A. Baartman, M. Marchetto, M. Trinczek, F. Yan, V. Zvyagintsev
    TRIUMF, Vancouver

The ISAC-III proposal is a ten year plan to triple the amount of radioactive ion beam (RIB) time at the facility. The plan includes the addition of two new independent target stations with a design suitable for actinide target materials, a second 500 MeV proton beam line from the TRIUMF cyclotron and a new 50 MeV electron linac as a complementary driver to provide RIBs through photo-fission. The two new target stations will require a new mass-separator and low-energy beam-transport complex to deliver the additional beams to the ISAC experimental facilities. It is also proposed to install a new linear accelerator section to provide the capability for two simultaneous accelerated RIBs to experimenters. This paper will describe the proposed installations in the low-energy transport and accelerator sections of the ISAC complex.

MOP018 ISAC-II Superconducting Linac Upgrade - Design and Status 97
  • R.E. Laxdal, R.J. Dawson, M. Marchetto, A.K. Mitra, W.R. Rawnsley, T.C. Ries, I. Sekachev, V. Zvyagintsev
    TRIUMF, Vancouver

The ISAC-II superconducting linac, operational since April 2006, adds 20 MV accelerating potential to the ISAC Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility. An upgrade to the linac, in progress, calls for the addition of a further 20 MV of accelerating structure by the end of 2009. The new installation consists of twenty 141 MHz quarter wave cavities at a design beta of 11%. The cavities will be housed in three cryomodules with six cavities in the first two cryomodules and eight cavities in the last. A second Linde TC50 refrigerator has been installed and commissioned to provide cooling for the new installation. The design incorporates several new features as improvements to the existing cryomodules. They include a four point support frame for the cavity strongback, a modified LN2 circuit internal to the cryomodule and a new design for the mechanical motion of the rf coupling loop. A summary of the design and the current status of the cryomodule production and supporting infrastructure will be presented.

MOP019 The HITRAP Decelerator Project at GSI - Status and Commissioning Report 100
  • L.A. Dahl, W. Barth, P. Gerhard, F. Herfurth, M. Kaiser, O.K. Kester, H.J. Kluge, S. Koszudowski, C. Kozhuharov, G. Maero, W. Quint, A. Sokolov, T. Stöhlker, W. Vinzenz, G. Vorobjev, D.F.A. Winters
    GSI, Darmstadt
  • B. Hofmann, J. Pfister, U. Ratzinger, A.C. Sauer, A. Schempp
    IAP, Frankfurt am Main

For injection into the ion trap facility HITRAP, the GSI accelerator complex has the unique possibility to provide beams of highly stripped ions and even bare nuclei up to Uranium at an energy of 4 MeV/u. The HITRAP facility consists of linear 108 MHz-structures of IH- and RFQ-type to decelerate the beams further down to 6 keV/u for capturing in a large penning trap for cooling purpose. The installation is completed except of the RFQ-tank. During commissioning periods in 2007 64Ni28+ and 20Ne10+ beam was used to investigate the beam optics from the experimental storage ring extraction to the HITRAP double-drift-buncher system. In 2008 the IH-structure decelerator and the downstream matching section was examined with 197Au79+ beam. Comprehensive beam diagnostics were installed: Faraday cups, tubular and short capacitive pick ups, SEM grids, YAG scintillation screens, a single shot pepperpot emittance meter, and a diamond detector for bunch shape measurements. Results of the extensive measurements are presented.

MOP020 Post-Accelerator LINAC Development for the RIB Facility Project at VECC, Kolkata 103
  • A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Chakrabarti, T.K. Mandi, M. Mondal, H.K. Pandey
    DAE/VECC, Calcutta

An ISOL (Isotope Separator On Line) type of RIB (Radioactive Ion Beam) facility* is being developed at our centre. The post-acceleration scheme will consist of a Radio Frequency Quadrupole** (RFQ) followed by a few IH LINAC cavities - further augumentation of energy using SC QWRs will be taken up at a later stage. The first two IH cavities have been designed for 37.6 MHz frequency like the preceding RFQ to keep the rf defocusing smaller. Explosively bonded copper on steel has been used for the fabrication of the IH cavities (1.72 m inner diameter, 0.6 m and 0.87 m lengths) and the inner components have been made out of ETP grade copper. Also, we have adopted an octagonal cavity structure to avoid fabrication complicacies. Thermal analysis of the cavities have been carried out and cooling configurations have been optimized accordingly to control the temperature rise of the LINACs. Detailed mechanical analysis has been carried out to reduce the deflection of the LINAC components under various loads. Design and fabrication aspects of these two cavities and results of the low power tests will be reported in this paper.

* Alok Chakrabarti et. al. ; Proc. Part. Accl. Conf. 2005, pp-395.
** Alok Chakrabarti et. al. ; Nucl. Instr. & Meth., A535 (2004) 599.

MOP021 Towards the Development of Rare Isotope Beam Facility at VECC Kolkata 106
  • V. Naik, A. Bandyopadhyay, D. Bhowmick, A. Chakrabarti, M. Chakrabarti, S. Dechoudhury, J.S. Kainth, P. Karmakar, T. Kundu Roy, T.K. Mandi, M. Mondal, H.K. Pandey, D. Sanyal
    DAE/VECC, Calcutta

An ISOL type Rare Isotope Beam (RIB) Facility is being developed at VECC, Kolkata around the existing K=130 room temperature cyclotron. The possibility of using the photo-fission production route using a 50 MeV electron linac is also being explored. The production target and a 6.4 GHz ECR based charge-breeder system will lead to two beam lines. The first one, a low energy beam transport (LEBT) line consisting of a 1.7 m long, 33.7 MHz RFQ, will be dedicated to material science & other ion-beam based experiments. The second, post-acceleration beam line will accelerate the beams to 1.3 MeV/u using a longer, 3.4 m RFQ and a series of IH linear accelerators. In the first stage, the beam energy will be about 400 keV/u using three modules of linacs. Subsequently the energy will be boosted to about 1.3 MeV/u. Some of the systems have already been installed and made operational. The LEBT line has been tested and stable ion beams accelerated to 29 keV/u with high efficiency in the 1.7 m RFQ. The 3.4 m RFQ and the first IH Linac tank are under installation in the post-acceleration beam line. In this contribution an overview of the present status of the facility will be presented.

MOP022 The ALPI Super-Conducting Accelerator Upgrade for the SPES Project 109
  • P.A. Posocco, G. Bisoffi, A. Pisent
    INFN/LNL, Legnaro, Padova
  • P.A. Posocco
    Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Padova

The SPES project* at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro foresees the contruction of a RIB facility based on a fission target driven by a 40 MeV proton beam. After the 238U carbide target the 1+ charged ions will be selected by a high resolution mass spectometer, charge enhanced by a charge breeder and accelerated up to 10 MeV/A for 132Sn. The Legnaro superconducting accelerator complex, PIAVE injector and ALPI main accelerator, in its present configuration fits the requirements for SPES post acceleration. Nevertheless an upgrade of its performaces both in overall transmission and final energy is needed and a solution which minimizes the impact on the present structures will be presented.


MOP023 Present Status of RIKEN Heavy-Ion Linac 112
  • O. Kamigaito, M.K. Fujimaki, T. Fujinawa, N. Fukunishi, A. Goto, H. Haba, Y. Higurashi, E. Ikezawa, M. Kase, M. Kidera, M. Komiyama, R. Koyama, H. Kuboki, K. Kumagai, T. Maie, M. Nagase, T. Nakagawa, J. Ohnishi, H. Okuno, N.S. Sakamoto, Y. Sato, K. Suda, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Yano, S. Yokouchi
    RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama

Present status of the RIKEN heavy-ion linac (RILAC) will be reported, which has been used for the injector to the RIKEN RI-beam factory since 2006 as well as for the nuclear physics experiments on superheavy elements since 2002. An alternative injector to the RI-beam factory, consisting of a superconducting ECR ion source, an RFQ, and three DTLs, will be also discussed. The construction of the ion source will be completed in this year and the extraction test of the beams will be started from 2009. An RFQ linac, originally developed for the ion implantation*, was given to RIKEN through the courtesy of Kyoto University. Reconditioning of this RFQ is underway, which will be modified for the new injector in the near future.

*H. Fujisawa: Nucl. Instrum. Methods A345, 23 (1994).

MOP024 Low Energy Spread Beam Dynamics and RF Design of a Trapezoidal IH-RFQ 115
  • Y.R. Lu, J.E. Chen, J.X. Fang, S.L. Gao, Z.Y. Guo, K.X. Liu, Y.C. Nie, X.Q. Yan, K. Zhu
    PKU/IHIP, Beijing

Funding: Supported by NSFC (10775009)
The methodology for low energy spread RFQ beam dynamics design has been studied for 14C+ AMS application. This paper will present a low energy beam dynamics and rf design for a new trapezoidal IH-RFQ. It will accelerate 14C from 40 keV to 500 keV with the length of 1.1 m; operate at 104 MHz with the rf peak power less than 27 kW. The transmission efficiency is better than 95% and the energy spread is as low as 0.6%. The rf structure design and its rf efficiency have been studied by electromagnetic simulation. It shows such trapezoidal IH-RFQ has higher operating frequency than normal IH-RFQ, and it will have more longitudinal accelerating efficiency.

MOP025 An Intermediate Structure SFRFQ Between RFQ and DTL 118
  • Y.R. Lu, J.E. Chen, J.X. Fang, S.L. Gao, Z.Y. Guo, M. Kang, S.X. Peng, Z. Wang, X.Q. Yan, M. Zhang, J. Zhao, K. Zhu
    PKU/IHIP, Beijing

Funding: supported by NSFC 10455001
Longer the RFQ length is, lower kinetic energy gain per unit length is; lower the injection energy DTL is, much higher accelerating efficiency is; more accelerating gaps at DTL entrance means stronger transverse focusing is needed for the beam. SFRFQ is such an intermediate structure, which combines RFQ and DTL together, it can increase the accelerating efficiency at RFQ high energy end by inserting gap acceleration between RFQ electrodes while provide strong focusing by RFQ focusing field. One prototype cavity has been manufactured and will be used as a post accelerator of ISR RFQ to accelerate O+ from 1 MeV to 1.6 MeV in 1meter. A code SFRFQCODEV1.0 was developed for the beam dynamics design. The rf conditioning and full rf power test has been carried out. The intervane or gap voltage have reached 86 kV at 29 kW with 1/6 duty cycle and repetition frequency 166 Hz. The initial beam test results will also be presented in this paper.

MOP027 Heavy Ion Injector for NICA/MPD Project 121
  • G.V. Trubnikov, E.D. Donets, E.E. Donets, A. Govorov, V. Kobets, I.N. Meshkov, V. Monchinsky, A.O. Sidorin
    JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region
  • O.K. Belyaev, Yu.A. Budanov, A. Maltsev, I.A. Zvonarev
    IHEP Protvino, Protvino, Moscow Region

Goal of the NICA/MPD project under realization at JINR is to start in the coming 5-7 years an experimental study of hot and dense strongly interacting QCD matter and search for possible manifestation of signs of the mixed phase and critical endpoint in heavy ion collisions. The Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) and the Multi Purpose Detector (MPD) are proposed for these purposes. The NICA collider is aimed to provide experiment with heavy ions like Au, Pb or U at energy up to 3.5 x 3.5 GeV/u with average luminosity of 1027 cm-2s-1. The existing Nuclotron injection complex consists of HV fore-injector and Alvarez-type linac LU-20. The LU-20 accelerates the protons up to the energy of 20 MeV and ions at Z/A=0.33 up to the energy of 5 MeV/u. New injector designed for efficient operation of the NICA facility is based on Electron String Ion Source providing short (< 10 ns) and intensive (up to 10 mA) pulses of U32+ ions, one section of RFQ and four sections of RFQ Drift Tube Linac accelerating the ions at Z/A=0.12 up to 6 MeV/u of the kinetic energy. General parameters of the injector are discussed.

MOP028 A SC Upgrade for the REX-ISOLDE Accelerator at CERN 124
  • M. Pasini, S. Calatroni, N. Delruelle, M. Lindroos, V. Parma, T. Trilhe, D. Voulot, F.J.C. Wenander
    CERN, Geneva
  • R.M. Jones
    UMAN, Manchester
  • P.A. McIntosh
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire

The High Intensity and Energy ISOLDE (HIE-ISOLDE) proposal is a major upgrade of the existing ISOLDE and REX-ISOLDE facilities with the objective of increasing the energy and the intensity of the delivered radioactive ion beam. For the energy increase a staged construction of a superconducting linac based on sputtered quarter wave cavities is foreseen downstream of the present normal conducting linac. A funded R&D program has been launched at the end of 2007 in order to prepare a full Technical Design Report covering all the issues of such a linac, including cavity prototyping and testing, cryomodule design, beam dynamics and beam diagnostics. We report here on the status and planning of the R&D activities for the SCREX-ISOLDE linac.


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MOP030 Multiple User Beam Distribution System for FRIB Driver Linac 130
  • D. Gorelov, V. Andreev, S. Chouhan, X. Wu, R.C. York
    NSCL, East Lansing, Michigan

Funding: Work was supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-04ER41324
The proposed Facility for Radioactive Ion Beams (FRIB)* will deliver up to 400 kW of any stable isotope to multi-target experimental complex. Operational efficiency will be best served by a system that can distribute the beam current, variable in a large dynamic range, to several independent targets simultaneously. The proposed FRIB Beam Switchyard (BSY) utilizes an rf kicker with subsequent magnetostatic septum system to split the beam on micro-bunch to micro-bunch basis. The micro-bunches can be differentially loaded at the front-end of the Driver Linac**. The detailed analysis of the beam dynamics performance in the proposed BSY system is presented.

*D.Gorelov, et al, proc of EPAC 2002, Paris, France, 2002.
**M. Doleans, et al, LINAC 2006, Knoxville, TN, USA, 2006.

MOP031 Estimates of Energy Fluence at the Focal Plane in Beams Undergoing Neutralized Drift Compression 133
  • J.J. Barnard
    LLNL, Livermore, California
  • J.E. Coleman, D. Ogata, P.A. Seidl
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  • D.R. Welch
    Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, New Mexico

Funding: Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at LLNL, and University of California contract DE-AC03-76SF00098 at LBNL.
We estimate the energy fluence (energy per unit area) at the focal plane of a beam undergoing neutralized drift compression and neutralized solenoidal final focus, as is being carried out in the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at LBNL. In these experiments, in order to reach high beam intensity, the beam is compressed longitudinally by ramping the beam velocity (i.e. introducing a velocity tilt) over the course of the pulse, and the beam is transversely focused in a high field solenoid just before the target. To remove the effects of space charge, the beam drifts in a plasma. The tilt introduces chromatic aberrations, with different slices of the original beam having different radii at the focal plane. The fluence can be calculated by summing the contribution from the various slices. We develop analytic formulae for the energy fluence for beams that have current profiles that are initially either constant or parabolic in time. We compare with envelope and particle-in-cell calculations. The expressions derived are useful for predicting how the fluence scales with accelerator and beam parameters.

TU102 Status of the Construction of the SPIRAL2 Accelerator at GANIL 348
  • T. Junquera
    IPN, Orsay

The superconducting linac for the SPIRAL2 radioactive ion beam facility at GANIL is in the construction phase. The prototype components have been constructed and are being tested. A status report on the activities and future plans will be given.


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FR201 The IFMIF 5 MW Linacs 1114
  • A. Mosnier
    CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette

The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is based on two high power cw accelerator drivers, each delivering a 125 mA deuteron beam at 40 MeV to the common lithium target. The present design of the 5 MW IFMIF Linacs, as well as the description of the prototype accelerator to be built in Japan are presented: the injector including the 140 mA ion source and the magnetic focusing LEBT, the RFQ for the bunching and acceleration to 5 MeV, the MEBT for the proper injection into the Drift-Tube-Linac where the beam is accelerated to the final energy of 40 MeV. Recently, the Alvarez type DTL was replaced by a superconducting Half-Wave Resonator Linac to benefit from the advantages of the SRF technology, in particular the rf power reduction, plug power saving, ability to accelerate high intensity cw beams with high flexibility and reliability. Last, a HEBT section transports and tailors the beam as a flat rectangular profile on the flowing Lithium target. The design and technology choices will be validated during the EVEDA phase, which includes the construction of one full-intensity deuteron linac, but at a lower energy (9 MeV) at Rokkasho Mura in Japan.


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