Applications of Accelerators

Paper Title Page
RPAP002 A CW RFQ Accelerator for Deuterons 794
  • P. Fischer, A. Schempp
    IAP, Frankfurt-am-Main
  • J. Haeuser
    NTG Neue Technologien GmbH & Co KG, Gelnhausen
  Funding: BMBF

A four-rod RFQ accelerator is being built to accelerate deuterons from 20 keV to 3 MeV. At an operating frequency of 176 MHz the length is 3.8 m and the power consumption 250 kW, the beam current 5 mA. A special feature is the CW-mode operation. The status of the project and properties of the RFQ will be discussed.

RPAP004 Simulations for the Frankfurt Funneling Experiment 901
  • J. Thibus, A. Schempp
    IAP, Frankfurt-am-Main
  Funding: BMBF

Beam simulations for the Frankfurt Funneling Experiment are done with RFQSim and FUSIONS. RFQSim is a particle dynamic program to compute macro particle bunches in the 6D phase space through a RFQ accelerator. Behind the RFQ the simulation software FUSIONS calculates both beam lines through a r.f. funneling deflector. To optimise beam transport of existing and new funneling deflector structures FUSIONS is presently being developed. The status of the development of FUSIONS and the results will be presented.

RPAP006 X-Band Linac Beam-Line for Medical Compton Scattering X-Ray Source 994
  • K. Dobashi
    NIRS, Chiba-shi
  • M. Akemoto, H. Hayano, T. Higo, J.U. Urakawa
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • F. Ebina, A. Fukasawa, T. Kaneyasu, H. Ogino, F. Sakamoto, M. Uesaka, Y. Yamamoto
    UTNL, Ibaraki
  Compton scattering hard X-ray source for 10~80 keV are under construction using the X-band (11.424 GHz) electron linear accelerator and YAG laser at Nuclear Engineering Research laboratory, University of Tokyo. This work is a part of the national project on the development of advanced compact medical accelerators in Japan. National Institute for Radiological Science is the host institute and U. Tokyo and KEK are working for the X-ray source. Main advantage is to produce tunable monochromatic hard ( 10-80 keV) X-rays with the intensities of 108-10 photons/s (at several stages) and the table-top size. Second important aspect is to reduce noise radiation at the beam dump by adopting the deceleration of electrons after the Compton scattering. The X-ray yield by the electron beam and Q-switch Nd:YAG laser of 2.5 J/10 ns is 107 photons/RF-pulse (108 photons/sec in 10 pps). X-band beam line for the demonstration is under commissioning. We also design to adopt a technique of laser circulation to increase the X-ray yield up to 109 photons/pulse (1010 photons/s). The construction of the whole system starts. X-ray generation and medical application will be performed in this year.  
RPAP007 Alternating-Phase-Focused Linac with Interdigital H-Mode Structure for Medical Injectors 1084
  • Y. Iwata, T. Fujisawa, T. Furukawa, S. H. Hojo, T. Honma, M. Kanazawa, N. M. Miyahara, T. Murakami, M. Muramatsu, K. Noda, H. Ogawa, M. Torikoshi, S. Yamada, K. Yamamoto
    NIRS, Chiba-shi
  • Y.F. Fujii, T. Mitsumoto, H. Tsutsui
    SHI, Tokyo
  • T. Fujimoto, H.O. Ogawa
    AEC, Chiba
  • V.V. Kapin
    MEPhI, Moscow
  Tumor therapy using Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) has been performed at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). With the successful clinical results over ten years, a project on developing compact accelerators has been started. To design these compact accelerators, a size of an injector as well as construction and operation costs plays an important role. To satisfy these requirements, we propose a compact injector consisting of a RFQ and Interdigital H-mode Drift-Tube-Linac (IH-DTL) having the resonant frequency of 200 MHz. The injector will accelerate carbon ion up to 4.0 AMeV. For the beam focusing of the IH-DTL, the method of Alternating-Phase-Focusing was employed. With the IH structure and rather high operating-frequency, the size of the cavities is compact; the radius is approximately 0.4 m, and the length of the RFQ and IH-DTL will be 2.5m and 3.5m respectively. The fabrication of the RFQ is in progress. For the IH-DTL, the full-scale model was fabricated. With the encouraging results of the electric field measurements, we are developing the final design of the IH-DTL. The fabrication of the entire injector will be completed at the end of 2005. The present status of our project will be shown.  
RPAP008 The CBS–The Most Cost Effective and High Performance Carbon Beam Source Dedicated for a New Generation Cancer Therapy 1108
  • M. Kumada
    NIRS, Chiba-shi
  • B.I. Grishanov, E.B. Leivichev, V.V. Parkhomchuk, F.V. Podgorny, S. Rastigeev, V.B. Reva, A.N. Skrinsky, V.A. Vostrikov
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk
  A Carbon ion beam is a superior tool to x-rays or a proton beam in both physical and biological doses in treating a cancer. A Carbon beam has an advantage in treating radiation resistant and deep-seated tumors. Its radiological effect is of a mitotic independent nature. These features improve hypofractionation, typically reducing the number of irradiations per patient from 35 to a few. It has been shown that a superior QOL(Quality Of Life) therapy is possible by a carbon beam.The only drawback is its high cost. Nevertheless, tens of Prefectures and organizations are eagerly considering the possibility of having a carbon ion therapy facility in Japan. Germany, Austria, Italy, China, Taiwan and Korea also desire to have one.A carbon beam accelerator of moderate cost is about 100 Million USD. With the "CBS" design philosophy, which will be described in this paper, the cost could be factor of 2 or 3 less, while improving its performance more than standard designs. Novel extraction techniques, a new approach to a high intensity beam, a new scanning method of a superμbeam and an extremely light weight carbon rotating gantry will be presented.This new CBS will have an impact on the medical accelerator community.  
RPAP009 Present Status of HIMAC and Carbon Ion Therapy
  • E. Takada
    NIRS, Chiba-shi
  HIMAC, Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, has been in operation since 1994. More than 2000 cancer patients have been treated with carbon beams from HIMAC. Requirements for therapeutical beam and recent development of the beam delivery will be reported together with research utilization of ion beams.  
RPAP010 Development of Femtosecond and Attosecond Pulse Radiolysis by Using Laser Photocathode RF Gun S-Band Electron Linac 1198
  • Y. Yoshida, T. Kondo, J. Yang
    ISIR, Osaka
  Funding: Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

Femtosecond pulse radiolysis system based on linear accelerator was developed in Osaka University for study of radiation-induced ultra fast physical and chemical reactions. 35 MeV single electron pulse with pulse width of 100 fs was generated by using a laser photocathode rf gun s-band linac with a magnet pulse compression system. Femtosecond laser synchronized with the linac was used as analyzing light. Transient absorption was measured by the equivalent velocity spectroscopy which was a new method to get high time-resolution. Also, we have started the preliminary experiment on atosecond pulse radiolysis The double decker beam which is a new concept to realize the twin linac by using one linac will be used.

RPAP011 Technical Development of Profile Measurement for the Soft X-Ray Via Compton Backward Scattering 1260
  • T. Saito, Y. Hama, K. Hidume, S. Minamiguchi, A. Oshima, D. Ueyama, M. Washio
    RISE, Tokyo
  • H. Hayano, J.U. Urakawa
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • S. Kashiwagi
    ISIR, Osaka
  • R. Kuroda
    AIST, Tsukuba, Ibaraki
  A compact X-ray source is called for such various fields as material development, biological science, and medical treatment. At Waseda University, we have already succeeded to generate the soft X-ray of the wavelength within so-called water window region (250-500eV) via Compton backward scattering between 1047nm Nd:YLF laser and 4.2MeV high quality electron beam. Although this method equips some useful characters, e.g. high intensity, short pulse, energy variableness, etc, the X-ray generating system is compact enough to fit in tabletop size. In the next step, there rises two principal tasks, that is, to make the soft X-ray intensity higher, and to progress X-ray profile measurement techniques as preliminary experiments for biomicroscopy. Specifically, we utilize two-pass amp for the former, and irradiate X-ray to a resist film which is previously exposed by UV lamp or get images with X-ray CCD for the latter. In this conference, we will show the experimental results and some future plans.  
RPAP012 Dual Energy X-Ray CT by Compton Scattering Hard X-Ray Source 1291
  • M. Uesaka, T. Kaneyasu
    UTNL, Ibaraki
  • K. Dobashi, M. Torikoshi
    NIRS, Chiba-shi
  We have developed a compact Compton scattering hard X-ray source at Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo. The compact hard X-ray source can produce tunable monochromatic hard X-rays. The monochromatic hard X-rays are required in large field of medical and biological applications. We are planning to perform dual-energy X-ray CT, which enables us to measure atomic number Z distribution and electron density re distribution in a material. The hard X-ray source has an advantage to perform dual-energy X-ray CT. The X-ray energy can be changed quickly by introducing a fundamental frequency and a second harmonic frequency lasers. This quick energy change is indispensable to medical imaging and very difficult in a large SR light source and others. The information on the atomic number and electron density will be used for treatment plan in radiotherapy as well as for identification of materials in a nondestructive test. We examined applicability of the dual-energy X-ray CT for atomic number measurement for low to medium Z elements (Z=30) by considering the X-ray profile generated by Compton scattering. Details of the numerical simulations and plans of the dual-energy X-ray CT will be reported in the conference.  
RPAP013 Characteristic Experimentations of Degrader and Scatterer at MC-50 Cyclotron 1356
  • S.-K. Lee, B.H. Choi, K. R. Kim, LHR. Lee, B.-S. Park
    KAERI, Daejon
  Funding: This work is a part of the "Proton Engineering Frontier Project" which is sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Korea under "21C Frontier R&D Program."

Building proton beam user facilities, especially deciding beam energy level, depends on the attached proton accelerator and users' needs. To adjust beam energy level, two methods are generally used. One is to directly adjust the beam in the accelerator. The other is to adjust beam energy after extracting from the accelerator. Degrader/Scatterer System has been installed in the MC-50 Cyclotron to adjust energy level of the beam used for various application fields. Its degrader and scatterer are made of Al foils and Au foils, respectively. Al thickness are 2, 1, 0.5, 0.3, 0.2, 0.1, 0.05, 0.03, 0.02, 0.01mm and Au thickness are 0.2, 0.1, 0.05, 0.03, 0.02, 0.01mm, respectively. In this study, suitable beam condition was adjusted through overlapping Al/Au foils of various thickness through simulation results. After that, LET(Linear Energy Transfer) value was indirectly acquired by measuring the bragg peak of the external beam through PMMA plastic Phantom and profile was measured by film dosimetry.

RPAP014 Uniform Irradiation Systems Using a Rotatable Stage for Test Facilities of PEFP 1383
  • B.-S. Park, B.H. Choi, K. R. Kim, S.-K. Lee
    KAERI, Daejon
  Funding: This work is a part of the "Proton Engineering Frontier Project" which is sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Korea under '21C Frontier R&D Program."

A new irradiation facility has been developed using not only electric magnets but also a rotatable stage. Generally, the scanning method using magnet has been widely used in most of facilities. However, in this study another new methods have been developed: Three scanning method using rotatable stage have been proved to make uniform irradiation-as large as 20 cm in diameter with more than 90% uniformity. The mechanical wobbler system makes the same effect as the wobbler system. And the beam is swept along the spiral path with a fixed and variable angular frequency during the scanning in two spiral scanning systems, respectively.

RPAP015 Modeling of Internal Injection and Beam Dynamics for High Power RF Accelerator 1419
  • M.A. Tiunov, V. Auslender, M.M. Karliner, G.I. Kuznetsov, I. Makarov, A.D. Panfilov, V.V. Tarnetsky
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk
  Funding: The work is supported by ISTC grant #2550.

A new high power electron accelerator for industrial applications is developed in Novosibirsk. Main parameters of the accelerator are: operating frequency of 176 MHz, energy of electrons of 5 MeV, average beam power up to 300 kW. The accelerator consists of a chain of accelerating cavities, connected by the on-axis coupling cavities with coupling slots in the walls. A triode RF gun on the base of grid-cathode unit placed on the wall of the first accelerating cavity is used for internal injection of electrons. The paper presents the results of modeling and optimization of the accelerating structure, internal injection, and beam dynamics.

RPAP016 High Power Electron Accelerator Prototype 1502
  • V.O. Tkachenko, V. Auslender, V.G. Cheskidov, G.I. Korobeynikov, G.I. Kuznetsov, A.N. Lukin, I. Makarov, G. Ostreiko, A.D. Panfilov, A. Sidorov, V.V. Tarnetsky, M.A. Tiunov
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk
  Funding: The work is supported by ISTC grant #2550.

In recent time the new powerful industrial electron accelerators appear on market. It caused the increased interest to radiation technologies using high energy X-rays due to their high penetration ability. However, because of low efficiency of X-ray conversion for electrons with energy below 5 MeV, the intensity of X-rays required for some industrial applications can be achieved only when the beam power exceeds 300 kW. The report describes a project of industrial electron accelerator ILU-12 for electron energy up to 5 MeV and beam power up to 300 kW specially designed for use in industrial applications. On the first stage of work we plan to use the existing generator designed for ILU-8 accelerator. It is realized on the GI-50A triode and provides the pulse power up to 1.5-2 MW and up to 20-30 kW of average power. In the report the basic concepts and a condition of the project for today are reflected.

RPAP017 Industrial Electron Accelerators Type ILU 1572
  • V. Auslender, A.A. Bryazgin, V.G. Cheskidov, B.L. Faktorovich, V. Gorbunov, I.V. Gornakov, V.E. Nekhaev, A.D. Panfilov, A.V. Sidorov, V.O. Tkachenko, A.F.A. Tuvik, L.A. Voronin
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk
  The report describes the electron accelerators of ILU series covering the energy range from 0.5 to 5 MeV with beam power up to 50 kW. The pulse linear accelerators type ILU are developed since 1970 in Budker institute of Nuclear Physics and are supplied to the industry. The ILU machines are purposed for wide application in various technological processes and designed for long continuous and round-the-clock work in industrial conditions. A principle of acceleration of electrons in the gap of HF resonator is used in the ILU machines. The HF resonator has toroidal form. The electron gun is placed in one of the protruding electrodes forming the accelerating gap of the resonator. The resonator is fed from HF autogenerator realized on the industrial triode, the feedback signal is given from the resonator. The absence of outer beam injection and usage of self-excited HF generator simplify the design of accelerator and ensure its reliable operation.  
RPAP018 Identification of Nano-Objects in Substances by Using of X-Ray Electron Radiation 1610
  • V.K. Grishin
    MSU, Moscow
  Funding: Russian Foundation for Basic Researches, grant 03-02-16587.

Using opportunity of X-ray emission, arising at process of fast charge interaction with media atomic electrons, for nano-object discovery and diagnostics in substances is discussed. This kind of of X-ray emission termed as polarization bremsstrahlung radiation (PB) depends very strongly on media structure. As result spectra of PB in a media containing nano-inhomogeneities (as fullerenes, nanotubes, composite structures as fullerites) reflex structural characteristics of last ones. Fullerenes in carbon soot as example of an amorphous substance with mentioned structure inhomogeneities are considered. It is shown that spectra of PB on fullerenes contain a series of oscillations which give the valuable information about single- ore multilayers fullerene structures. The main peak of emission is placed in energy area of PB photons less than 1-1.5 keV. Here PB obtains a coherent character due to which one PB intensity is very high because it becomes to proportional square of all fullerene electrons number. Due to PB intensity depends weakly enough on observation angle, that permits to pick up PB signal from traditional bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate measurement conditions.

RPAP020 Fixed Field Alternating Gradient Accelerators (FFAG) for Fast Hadron Cancer Therapy 1667
  • E. Keil
    CERN, Geneva
  • A. Sessler
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  • D. Trbojevic
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: * AMS supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF0009

Cancer accelerator therapy continues to be ever more prevalent with new facilities being constructed at a rapid rate. Some of these facilities are synchrotrons, but many are cyclotrons and, of these, a number are FFAG cyclotrons. The therapy method of "spot scanning” requires many pulses per second (typically 200 Hz), which can be accomplished with a cyclotron (in contrast with a synchrotron). We briefly review commercial scaling FFAG machines and then discuss recent work on non-scaling FFAGs, which may offer the possibility of reduced physical aperture and a large dynamic aperture. However, a variation of tune with energy implies the crossing of resonances during the acceleration process. A design can be developed such as to avoid intrinsic resonances, although imperfection resonances must still be crossed. Parameters of two machines are presented; a 250 MeV proton therapy accelerator and a 400 MeV carbon therapy machine.

RPAP021 A Portable Electron Radiography System 1715
  • F.E. Merrill, C.L. Morris
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
  • K. Folkman, F. Harmon, A.W. Hunt, B. King
    ISU, Pocatello, Idaho
  The technique of charged particle radiography has been developed and proven with 800 MeV protons at LANSCE and 24 GeV protons at the AGS. Recent work at Los Alamos National Laboratory in collaboration with the Idaho Accelerator Center has extended this diagnostic technique to electron radiography through the development of an inexpensive and portable electron radiography system. This system has been designed to use 30 MeV electrons to radiograph thin static and dynamic systems. The system consists of a compact 30 MeV pulsed electron linear accelerator coupled to a quadrupole lens magnifier constructed from permanent magnet quadrupoles. The design features and operational characteristics of this radiography system are presented as well as the radiographic performance parameters.  
RPAP022 A Study of Storage Ring Requirements for an Explosive Detection System Using NRA Method 1790
  • T.-S. F. Wang, J. T. Kwan
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
  Funding: US Department of Energy

The technical feasibility of an explosives detection system based on the nuclear resonance absorption (NRA) of gamma rays in nitrogen-rich materials was demonstrated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 1993 by using an RFQ proton accelerator and a tomographic imaging prototype.* The study is being continued recently to examine deployment of such an active interrogation system in realistic scenarios. The approach is to use a cyclotron and electron-cooling-equipped storage rings(s) to provide the high quality and high current proton beam needed in a practical application. In this work, we investigate the storage ring requirements for a variant of the airport luggage inspection system considered in the earlier LANL experiments. Estimations are carried out based on the required inspection throughput, the gamma ray yield, the proton beam emittance growth due to scattering with the photon-production target, beam current limit in the storage ring, and the electron cooling rate. Studies using scaling and reasonable parameter values indicate that it is possible to use no more than a few storage rings in a practical NRA luggage inspection system.

*R. E. Morgado et al., SPIE Conf. Proc. 2092, International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, 1993, p. 503.

RPAP023 RF-Based Accelerators for HEDP Research 1829
  • J.W.  Staples, R. Keller, A. Sessler
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  • W. Chou
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  • P.N. Ostroumov
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: This work sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098.

Accelerator-driven High-Energy Density Physics experiments require typically 1 nanosecond, 1 microcoulomb pulses of mass 20 ions accelerated to several MeV to produce eV-level excitations in thin targets, the "warm dense matter" regime. Traditionally the province of induction linacs, RF-based acceleration may be a viable alternative with recent breakthroughs in accelerating structures and high-field superconducting solenoids. A reference design for an RF-based accelerator for HEDP research is presented using 15 T solenoids and multiple-gap RF structures configured with either multiple parallel beams (combined at the target) or a single beam and a small stacking ring that accumulates 1 microcoulomb of charge. In either case, the beam is ballistically compressed with an induction linac core providing the necessary energy sweep and injected into a plasma-neutralized drift compression channel resulting in a 1 mm radius beam spot 1 nanosecond long at a thin foil or low-density target.

RPAP024 The ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility (MIRF) High Voltage Platform Project 1853
  • F.W. Meyer, M.E. Bannister, J.W. Hale, J.W. Johnson
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  • D. Hitz
    CEA Grenoble, Grenoble
  Funding: This research was sponsored by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, and the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences of the U.S. DOE under contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC.

We report on initial testing and implementation of a new high voltage platform recently installed at the ORNL MIRF. The platform is powered by a 250 kV, 30 kVA isolation transformer and features an all permanent magnet Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source, designed and fabricated at CEA/Grenoble, that utilizes microwave power levels of up to 750W in the frequency range 12.75 – 14.5 GHz to provide intense dc beams of singly and multiply charged ions for acceleration to energies up to 270 x q keV. The primary application of these ion beams is to study fundamental collisional interactions* of multicharged ions with electrons, atoms, and surfaces. More applied investigations in the area of ion implantation,** and ion beam development for use in semiconductor doping operations are carried out as well. Design details of the HV platform and the associated beamline-switchyard will be presented at the conference, together with performance characteristics of the all permanent magnet ECR source, of the beam transport from ion source to end-station, and of a novel electrostatic spherical sector beam switcher for directing beam to the various on-line experiments.

*F.W . Meyer, Trapping Highly Charged Ions: Fundamentals and Applications, J. Gillaspy, ed., Nova Science Pub., New York, 2000, pp. 117-164. **F. W. Meyer et al., AIP Conf. Proc. 635, p. 125 (2002).

RPAP025 A 7MeV S-Band 2998MHz Variable Pulse Length Linear Accelerator System 1895
  • M. Hernandez, H. Deruyter, D. Skowbo, R.R. Smith
    Accuray, Inc, Mountain View, California
  • A.V. Mishin, A.J. Saverskiy
    AS&E, Billerica, Massachusetts
  American Science and Engineering High Energy Systems Division (AS&E HESD) has designed and commissioned a variable pulse length 7 MeV electron accelerator system. The system is capable of delivering a 7 MeV electron beam with a pulse length of 10 nS FWHM and a peak current of 1 ampere. The system can also produce electron pulses with lengths of 20, 50, 100, 200, 400 nS and 3 uS FWHM with corresponding lower peak currents. The accelerator system consists of a gridded electron gun, focusing coil, an electrostatic deflector system, Helmholtz coils, a standing wave side coupled S-band linac, a 2.6 MW peak power magnetron, an RF circulator, a fast toroid, vacuum system and a PLC/PC control system. The system has been operated at repetition rates up to 250pps. The design, simulations and experimental results from the accelerator system are presented in this paper.  
RPAP027 Portable X-Band Linear Electron Accelerators for Radiographic Applications 1985
  • A.J. Saverskiy, H. Deruyter, M. Hernandez, A.V. Mishin, D. Skowbo
    AS&E, Billerica, Massachusetts
  The MINAC series portable linear electron accelerator systems designed and manufactured at American Science and Engineering, Inc. High Energy Systems Division (AS&E HESD) are discussed in this paper. Each system can be configured as either an X-ray or electron beam source. The powerful 4 MeV and 6 MeV linacs powered by a 1,5 MW magnetron permit operation in a dose rate range from 100 R/min at 80 cm to 600 R/min at 80 cm. Each MINAC is a self-contained source with radiation leakage outside of the X-ray head less than 0,1% of the maximum dose. Along with these systems a 1 MeV ultra compact MINAC has been successfully tested. The unit is available with radiation leakage less then 0.01% and permits producing X-ray beam in an energy range (12) MeV at a high output dose rate. Design and experimental parameters are presented. The common and system specific features are also discussed.  
RPAP032 Hardware Tracking Related to Compact Medical Pulse Synchrotron 2260
  • K. Endo, K. Egawa, Z. Fang
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • S. Yamanaka
    NIRS, Chiba-shi
  A compact 200 MeV proton synchrotron for the radiotherapy is being developed. Dipole and quadrupole magnets were already manufactured and are ready to measure their field properties under the pulse excitation. Preliminary field measurement was already done on the prototype dipole. Small RF cavity with a wide bandwidth (2~18 MHz) was successfully developed. Concerning to the simultaneous pulse operation of these components, there are some issues to be solved beforehand. These are the tracking between dipole field and the quadruple field gradient, the RF frequency generation sensing the dipole current (or field), the sextupole field correction of the dipole and etc. These issues studied experimentally using the dipole current will be presented in conjunction with the progress of the development.  
RPAP033 Investigation of X-Ray Harmonics of the Polarized Inverse Compton Scattering Experiment at UCLA 2303
  • A. Doyuran, R.J. England, C. Joshi, J. Lim, J.B. Rosenzweig, S. Tochitsky, G. Travish, O. Williams
    UCLA, Los Angeles, California
  Funding: U.S. Dept. of Energy grant DE-FG03-92ER40693.

An Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) experiment, which will investigate nonlinear properties of scattering utilizing a terawatt CO2 laser system with various polarizations, is ongoing at the UCLA Neptune Laboratory. When the normalized amplitude of the incident laser’s vector potential a0 is larger than unity the scattering occurs in the nonlinear region; therefore, higher harmonics are also produced. ICS can be used, e.g., for a polarized positron source by striking a thin target (such as tungsten) with the polarized X-rays. As such, it is critical to demonstrate the production of polarized scattered photons and to investigate the ICS process as it enters the nonlinear regime. We present the description of the experimental set up and equipment utilized, including diagnostics for electron and photon beam detection. We present the current status of the experiment.

RPAP034 Use Recirculator "SALO" in the Mode of the Neutron Source 2354
  • I.S. Guk, A. Dovbnya, S.G. Kononenko, F.A. Peev, A.S. Tarasenko
    NSC/KIPT, Kharkov
  • J.I.M. Botman, M.J. Van der Wiel
    TUE, Eindhoven
  The opportunity of use developed in NSC KIPT recirculator SALO* with superconducting accelerating structure TESLA for reception of intensive neutron streams surveyed. As an injector it is supposed to use RF-gun with superconducting accelerating structure. An electron beam with the peak energy 130 ??? is transported on a target located apart of 100 m from recirculator. System of the focusing are designed allowing to gain on a target the required density of a beam. Tolerances on precision of an alignment of magnetooptical devices are calculated.

*I. S. Guk, A. N. Dovbnya, S. G. Kononenko, A. S. Tarasenko, M. van der Wiel, J. I. M. Botman, NSC KIPT Accelerator on Nuclear and High Energy Physics, Proceedings of EPAC 2004, Lucerne, Switzerland, p.761-764.

RPAP035 Photonuclear and Radiation Effects Testing with a Refurbished 20 MeV Medical Electron Linac 2363
  • T. Webb, L.C. DeVeaux, F. Harmon, J.E. Petrisko, R.J. Spaulding
    IAC, Pocatello
  • R. Assink
    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico
  • W. Beezhold
    ISU, Pocatello, Idaho
  An S-band 20 MeV electron linear accelerator formerly used for medical applications has been recommissioned to provide a wide range of photonuclear activation studies as well as various radiation effects on biological and microelectronic systems. Four radiation effect applications involving the electron/photon beams are described. Photonuclear activation of a stable isotope of oxygen provides an active means of characterizing polymer degradation. Biological irradiations of microorganisms including bacteria were used to study total dose and dose rate effects on survivability and the adaptation of these organisms to repeated exposures. Microelectronic devices including bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and diodes were irradiated to study photocurrent from these devices as a function of peak dose rate with comparisons to computer modeling results. In addition, the 20 MeV linac may easily be converted to a medium energy neutron source which has been used to study neutron damage effects on transistors.  
RPAP036 A Compact 5 MeV S-Band Electron Linac Based X-Ray Source for Industrial Radiography 2428
  • L. Auditore, R.C. Barnà, D. De Pasquale, U. Emanuele, A. Trifirò, M. Trimarchi
    INFN & Messina University, S. Agata, Messina
  • A. Italiano
    INFN - Gruppo Messina, S. Agata, Messina
  A compact and reliable X-ray source, based on a 5 MeV, 1 kW, S-band electron linac, has been set up at the Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit\‘a di Messina. This source, coupled with a GOS scintillator screen and a CCD camera, represents an innovative transportable system for industrial radiography and X-ray tomography. Optimization of the parameters influencing the e-gamma conversion and the X-ray beam characteristics have been studied by means of the MCNP-4C2 code. The converter choice is the result of the study of the e-gamma conversion performances for different materials and materials thicknesses. Also the converter position with respect to the linac exit window was studied. The chosen converter consists in a Ta-Cu target inserted close to the linac window. The Cu layer acts as a filter both on the electrons from the source and on the low energy X-rays. The X-ray beam angular profile was studied by means of GafChromic films with and without collimation. In the final source project, a collimation system provides a 14 cm diameter X-ray spot at the sample position and first radiographyc results were obtained by inspecting different density materials and thicknesses.  
RPAP037 Study of the Dynamics in a Linac Booster for Proton Therapy in the 30-62 MeV Energy Range 2494
  • V.G. Vaccaro
    Naples University Federico II and INFN, Napoli
  • T. Clauser, A. Rainò
    Bari University, Science Faculty, Bari
  • C. De Martinis, D. Giove, M. Mauri
    INFN/LASA, Segrate (MI)
  • S. Lanzone
    Naples University Federico II, Napoli
  • M.R. Masullo
    INFN-Napoli, Napoli
  • V. Variale
    INFN-Bari, Bari
  Funding: Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (Naples, Milan and Bari).

Recent results in accelerator physics have shown the feasibility of a coupling scheme between a cyclotron and a linac for proton acceleration. Cyclotrons with energies up to 30 MeV, mainly devoted to radioisotopes production, are available in a large number of medical centres. These two evidences have suggested the idea to study and design a linac booster able to increase the initial proton energy up to the values required for the treatment of tumors, like the ocular ones. Among the challenges in such a project one of the main ones is related to meet the requirement of having sufficient mean current for therapy from a given injection current coming from the cyclotron. In this paper we will review the rationale of the project in order to optimize the transmittance and to minimize the duty-cycle. In this frame we will discuss the basic design of a compact 3GHz linac with a new approach to the cavities used in a SCL (Side Coupled Linac) structure.

RPAP038 An Advantage of the Equivalent Velocity Spectroscopy for Femtsecond Pulse Radiolysis 2533
  • T. Kondoh, T. Kozawa, S. Tagawa, T. Tomosada, J. Yang, Y. Yoshida
    ISIR, Osaka
  Funding: Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

For studies of electron beam induced ultra-fast reaction process, femtosecond(fs) pulse radiolysis is under construction. To realize fs time resolution, fs electron and analyzing light pulses and their jitter compensation system are needed. About a 100fs electron pulse was generated by a photocathode RF gun linac and a magnetic pulse compressor. Synchronized Ti: Sapphire laser have a puleswidth about 160fs. And, it is significant to avoid degradation of time resolution caused by velocity difference between electron and analyzing light in a sample. In the ‘Equivalent velocity spectroscopy’ method, incident analyzing light is slant toward electron beam with an angle associated with refractive index of sample. Then, to overlap light wave front and electron pulse shape, electron pulse shape is slanted toward the direction of travel. As a result of the equivalent velocity spectroscopy for hydrated electrons, using slanted electron pulse shape, optical absorption rise time was about 1.4ps faster than normal electron pulse shape. Thus, the 'Equivalent velocity spectroscopy’ is effective for femtosecond pulse radiolysis.

RPAP039 Accelerator and Ion Beam Tradeoffs for Studies of Warm Dense Matter 2568
  • J.J. Barnard, D. A. Callahan, A. Friedman, R.W. Lee, M. Tabak
    LLNL, Livermore, California
  • R.J. Briggs
    SAIC, Alamo, California
  • R.C. Davidson, L. Grisham
    PPPL, Princeton, New Jersey
  • E. P. Lee, B. G. Logan, P. Santhanam, A. Sessler, J.W.  Staples, J.S. Wurtele, S. Yu
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  • C. L. Olson
    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico
  • D. Rose, D.R. Welch
    ATK-MR, Albuquerque, New Mexico
  Funding: Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under University of California contract W-7405-ENG-48 at LLNL, University of California contract DE-AC03-76SF00098 at LBNL, and contract DEFG0295ER40919 at PPPL.

One approach to heat a target to "Warm Dense Matter" conditions (similar, for example, to the interiors of giant planets or certain stages in Inertial Confinement Fusion targets), is to use intense ion beams as the heating source. By consideration of ion beam phase space constraints, both at the injector, and at the final focus, and consideration of simple equations of state, approximate conditions at a target foil may be calculated. Thus target temperature and pressure may be calculated as a function of ion mass, ion energy, pulse duration, velocity tilt, and other accelerator parameters. We examine the variation in target performance as a function of various beam and accelerator parameters, in the context of several different accelerator concepts, recently proposed for WDM studies.

RPAP040 Design of a Fast Neutral He Beam System for Feasibility Study of Charge-Exchange Alpha-Particle Diagnostics in a Thermonuclear Fusion Reactor 2630
  • K. Shinto, S. Kitajima, M. Sasao, H. Sugawara, Takenaga, M. Takenaga, S. Takeuchi
    Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai
  • O. Kaneko, M. Nishiura
    NIFS, Gifu
  • S. Kiyama
    AIST, Tsukuba
  • M. Wada
    Doshisha University, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto
  For alpha-particle diagnostics in a thermonuclear fusion reactor, neutralization using a fast (~2 MeV) neutral He beam produced by the spontaneous electron detachment of a He- is considered most promising. However, the beam transport of produced fast neutral He has not been studied, because of difficulty for producing high-brightness He- beam. Double-charge-exchange He- sources and simple beam transport systems were developed and their results were reported in the PAC99* and other papers.** To accelerate an intense He- beam and verify the production of the fast neutral He beam, a new test stand has been designed. It consists of a multi-cusp He+ source, alkali metal gas cell for double charge exchange, a stigmatic 90 degree bending magnet as an ion separator, an accelerating tube and a free-flight tube to produce fast neutral He beam by autodetachment. The beam parameters of the He- beam are planed to be 150 keV of the beam energy and 10 uA of the beam current. A He+ beam of about 10 mA is extracted from the ion source and accelerated up to 15~25 keV for the effective charge exchange. Details of the design of the test stand and the brief result of the beam optics will be presented.

*M. Sasao et al., Proc. of PAC99, pp. 1306-1308. **M. Sasao et al., Rev. Sci. Instr. Vol.69, pp.1063-1065 (1998).

FOAB001 Compact Neutron Generators for Medical, Home Land Security, and Planetary Exploration 49
  • J.P. Reijonen
    LBNL, Berkeley, California
  Funding: This work is being support by U.S. Department of Energy under contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098.

The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed various types of advanced D-D (neutron energy 2.5 MeV), D-T (14 MeV) and T-T (0 – 9 MeV) neutron generators for wide range of applications. These applications include medical (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy), homeland security (Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis, Fast Neutron Activation Analysis and Pulsed Fast Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy) and planetary exploration in form of neutron based, sub-surface hydrogen detection systems. These neutron generators utilize RF induction discharge to ionize the deuterium/tritium gas. This discharge method provides high plasma density for high output current, high atomic species from molecular gases, long life operation and versatility for various discharge chamber geometries. Three main neutron generator developments are discussed here: high neutron output co-axial neutron generator for BNCT applications, point neutron generator for security applications, compact and sub-compact axial neutron generator for elemental analysis applications. Current status of the neutron generator development with experimental data will be presented.

FOAB002 Advances in X-Band and S-Band Linear Accelerators for Security, NDT, and Other Applications 240
  • A.V. Mishin
    AS&E, Billerica, Massachusetts
  At AS&E High Energy Systems Division, we designed several new advanced high energy electron beam and X-ray sources. Our primary focus has always been in building the world’s most portable commercial X-band accelerators. Today, our X-band systems frequently exceed performance of the similar S-band machines, while they are more portable compared to the latter. The new designs of the X-band accelerators in the most practical energy range from 1 MeV to 6 MeV have been tested delivering outstanding results. Seventy 6 MeV X-band linacs systems have been produced. The most compact linac for security is used by AS&E in a self-shielded, Shaped Energy™ cargo screening system. We pioneered using the X-band linear accelerators for CT, producing high quality images of oil pipes and wood logs. An X-band linear accelerator head on a robotic arm has been used for electron beam radiation curing of an odd-shaped graphite composite part. We developed the broad-range 4 MeV to over 10 MeV energy-regulated X-band and S-band systems for medical and NDT applications. The regulated pulse length systems operating in a range from nanoseconds to microseconds have been built both in X-band and in S-band frequency range.  
FOAB003 Recent Developments in Hadron Therapy Accelerators
  • H.-U. Klein
    ACCEL, Bergisch Gladbach
  In the last decade interest and investments in Hadron Therapy Systems have been steadily increasing resulting in a substantial number of projects currently under construction or entering detailed planning stage. Main routes are pure proton therapy systems and Carbon ion therapy systems which can also run on protons. While the basic accelerator concept for hadron therapy systems is well established there are many considerations on the type and layout of the particle delivery system including the accelerator, an energy selection system, either a fixed beam set up or a rotating gantry, the "nozzle" containing either a scattering or a scanning system, the patient positioner, and all associated control systems. The requirements for the accelerator include most stable beams to match the demand of modern fast scanning systems as well as fast switching between treatment rooms. Currently an ion/proton synchrotron, a pure proton synchrotron, a normalconducting proton cyclotron and a newly developed compact superconducting proton cyclotron are the accelerators of choice for the various hadron therapy systems, which will be analysed and compared in this paper.  
FOAB004 Construction of FFAG Accelerators in KURRI for ADS Study 350
  • M. Tanigaki, K. Mishima, S. Shiroya
    KURRI, Osaka
  • S. Fukumoto, Y. Ishi
    Mitsubishi Electric Corp, Energy & Public Infrastructure Systems Center, Kobe
  • M. Inoue
    SLLS, Shiga
  • S. Machida, Y. Mori
    KEK, Ibaraki
  KART (Kumatori Accelerator driven Reactor Test) project is in progress at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) from the fiscal year of 2002. The purposes of this project is the feasibility study of ADS, such as studying the effect of incident neutron energy on the effective multiplication factor of the subcritical nuclear fuel system. We are now constructing a proton FFAG accelerator complex as a neutron production driver for this project. Our accelerator complex consists of a 2.5 MeV FFAG with induction acceleration as an injector, 20 MeV and 150 MeV FFAGs with RF acceleration as a booster and a main ring, respectively. Our FFAG injector is a spiral sector type with 32 trim coils to produce a magnetic field of variable field index. Both booster and main rings are the radial sector type in which the field index is determined by the shape of pole-face. The test operations of the injector and the whole FFAG complex are expected around the spring and summer in 2005, respectively. Then this FFAG complex will be combined with our Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) in KURRI by the end of March 2006 for the feasibility study.  
FOAB005 Technology for Fissionable Materials Detection by Use of 100 MeV Variable Linac 446
  • S.P. Karasyov, A.N. Dovbnja, L. Eran, Y.P. Melnik, Y. Ran'iuk, I.N. Shlyakhov
    NSC/KIPT, Kharkov
  • A.J. Baratta
    Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania
  • N.M. Kiryukhin
    ATSU, Kiev
  • S.V. Trubnikov
    KhNU, Kharkov
  Funding: This project is funded by CRDF FSTM UKE2-5023-KH-04.

A new concept for a two-step facility to increase the accuracy/reliability of detecting heavily shielded fissionable materials (FM) in marine containers is presented. The facility will detect FM in two steps. An existing dual-view; dual-energy X-ray scanner, which is based on 7 MeV electron accelerator, will select the suspicious places inside container. The linac with variable energy (up to 100 MeV) will be used for the second step. The technology will detect fissionable nuclei by gamma induced fission reactions and delayed neutron registration. A little-known Ukrainian experimental data obtained in Chernobil’ clean-up program will be presented to ground proposed concept. The theoretical calculations of neutron fluxes scale these results to marine container size. Modified GEANT code for electron/gamma penetration and authors’ own software for neutron yield/penetration are used for these calculations. Available facilities (X-ray scanners; linac; detectors), which will be used for concept proof, are described. The results of the first experiments by use variable energy linac are cited.

FOAB006 Industrial Applications of High Average Power FELS
  • M.D. Shinn
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Funding: This work supported by the Office of Naval Research, NAVSEA PMS-405, the Joint Technology Office, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Night Vision Laboratory, the Commonwealth of Virginia, and by DOE Contract DE-AC05-84ER40150.

The use of lasers for material processing continues to expand, and the annual sales of such lasers exceeds $1 B (US). Large scale (many m2) processing of materials require the economical production of laser powers of the tens of kilowatts, and therefore are not yet commercial processes, although they have been demonstrated. The development of FELs based on superconducting RF (SRF) linac technology provides a scaleable path to laser outputs above 50 kW in the IR, rendering these applications economically viable, since the cost/photon drops as the output power increases. This approach also enables high average power ~ 1 kW output in the UV spectrum. Such FELs will provide quasi-cw (PRFs in the tens of MHz), of ultrafast (pulsewidth ~ 1 ps) output with very high beam quality. This talk will provide an overview of applications tests by our facility’s users such as pulsed laser deposition, laser ablation, and laser surface modification, as well as present plans that will be tested with our upgraded FELs. These upgrades will extend operation beyond 10 kW average power in the IR and kilowatt levels of power at wavelengths from 0.3 to 14 microns.

FOAB007 The Compact Light Source: A Miniature Synchrotron Light Source
  • R.D. Ruth
    Lyncean Technologies, Inc., Palo Alto, California
  Funding: Supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, the National Insitutes of Health, R44 GM665011.

During the past 30 years, synchrotron light sources have become the x-ray probe of choice for physicists, chemists, biologists and research physicians. With their high-quality, intense x-ray beams, these national research facilities have spawned a broad array of applications. Past research at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center has led to a new x-ray source concept that can substantially reduce the size of the required synchrotron.* This research has spawned a new corporation, Lyncean Technologies, Inc. which is now developing the Compact Light Source (CLS). The CLS is a tunable, homelab x-ray source with up to three beamlines that can be used like the x-ray beamlines at the synchrotrons–but it is about 200 times smaller than a synchrotron light source. The compact size is achieved using a laser undulator and a miniature electron-beam storage ring. The photon flux on a sample will be comparable to the flux of highly productive synchrotron beamlines. At Lyncean Technologies, Inc. we have constructed a prototype of this source with funding from the NIGMS Protein Structure Initiative. I will report on commissioning progress and long-term outlook for the Compact Light Source.

*Z.Huang and R.D. Ruth, "Laser-Electron Storage Ring," Phys. Rev. Lett., 80:976-979, 1998.

FOAB008 Muon Radiography
  • C.L. Morris
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
  Funding: U.S. DOE.

The interaction of muons with matter is dominated by the Coulomb interaction. The Coulomb interaction can be factored into the interaction with electrons which results in continuous energy loss and eventual stopping of the charged particle with very small changes in the direction while the interaction with the atomic nuclei results in relatively larger angle changes with only small changes in the energy. Each if these interactions provides a radiographic signal which can be used to study the internal structure of objects. These radiographies will be contrasted with each other, and some data obtained with cosmic ray muons will be presented.*

*Borozdin, K.N., Hogan, G.E., Morris, C., Priedhorsky, W.C., Saunders, A., Schultz, L.J., Teasdale, M.E., "Surveillance: Radiographic Imaging with Cosmic-Ray Muons," Nature, Mar 20, 2003, v. 422, no. 6929, p. 277.

FOAB009 The Frankfurt Funneling Experiment 677
  • H. Zimmermann, U. Bartz, D. Ficek, P. Fischer, N. Mueller, A. Schempp, J. Thibus, M. Vossberg
    IAP, Frankfurt-am-Main
  Funding: BMBF

Funneling is a technique to multiply beam currents of rf-accelerators in several stages at low energies to prevent problems with space charge. The Frankfurt Funneling Experiment is a prototype of such a stage. Two beams accelerated in a Two-Beam RFQ are combined to one beam axis with a funneling deflector. The last part of the RFQ electrodes of our Two-Beam RFQ has been replaced to achieve a 3d focus of both beams at the beam crossing point behind the RFQ in the center of the deflector. A newly designed multi cell funneling deflector and first results of the new experimental set-up will be presented.

FOAB010 Present Status of Photo-Cathode RF Gun System and Its Applications 710
  • R. Kuroda, Y. Hama, K. Hidume, M. Kawaguchi, R. Moriyama, T. Saito, K. Sakaue, M. Washio
    RISE, Tokyo
  • H. Hayano, J.U. Urakawa
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • S. Kashiwagi
    ISIR, Osaka
  High quality electron beam generation using photo-cathode rf gun system and its applications have been developed at Waseda University. This system can generate up to 4.6 MeV low emittance electron beam. It is applied for soft X-ray generation using laser Compton scattering and pulse radiolysis experiments based on the pump-probe technique. In the former, Compton scattering experiments between about 4.6 MeV electron beam and 1047 nm laser beam is performed at 20 degrees interaction angle, so that about 370 eV soft X-ray is generated. In the latter, the electron beam is used for the pump beam and the probe beam is generated as white light by concentrating laser beam on the water cell, so that the measurement with about 30 ps (FWHM) time resolution of the pulse radiolysis system is demonstrated for the absorption of hydrated electrons. In this conference, we will present the experimental results, status of this system and future applications.