Accelerator Technology

Vacuum Systems and Technology

Paper Title Page
RPPE036 Pressure Field Distribution in a Conical Tube with Transient and Outgassing Gas Sources 2422
  • F.T. Degasperi
    FATEC-SP, Sao Paulo, SP
  • M.N. Martins, J. Takahashi
    USP/LAL, Bairro Butantan
  • L.L. Verardi
    IBILCE - UNESP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP
  Funding: Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo - FAPESP Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico - CNPq

This work presents numerical results for the pressure field distribution along the axis of conical tube with outgassing plus a transient degassing. Several areas of applied physics deal with problems in high-vacuum and ultra high-vacuum technology that present tubular form. In many cases one finds conical tubes, which are frequently present in particle accelerators, colliders, storage rings and several electron devices. This work presents and describes in detail the pressure field in a conical tube with a transient gas source, for instance, when particles from the beam hit the walls, plus the steady state outgassing. Mathematical and physical formulations are detailed, and the boundary conditions are discussed. These concepts and approach are applied to usual realistic cases, with typical laboratory dimensions.

RPPE037 The Vacuum System for PETRA III 2473
  • M. Seidel, R. Bospflug, J. Boster, W. Giesske, U. Naujoks, M. Schwartz
    DESY, Hamburg
  It is planned to rebuild the storage ringe PETRA II, presently used as pre-accelerator of HERA, into a high performance synchrotron light source. By making use of the large circumference and the installation of damping wigglers it will be possible to achieve exceptionally small emittances in the new storage ring. The requirements for the vacuum system are more advanced in the new storage ring as well. Besides the goal to achieve low pressures and fast conditioning times a major key for the new ring is a very high orbit stability which implies high thermal stability of BPM's and other vacuum components. We describe the basic concepts for chamber layout, pumping schemes, synchrotron radiation absorption and mechanical stability for the standard arcs and the experimental octant. Furthermore the expected performance will be discussed.  
RPPE039 Alumina Ceramics Vacuum Duct for the 3GeV-RCS of the J-PARC 2604
  • M. Kinsho
    Japan Atomic Energy Institute, Linac Laboratory, Tokai-Mura
  • Z. Kabeya
    MHI, Nagoya
  • N. Ogiwara
    JAERI/J-PARC, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken
  • Y. Saito
    KEK, Ibaraki
  It was success to develop alumina ceramics vacuum ducts for the 3GeV-RCS of J-PARC at JAERI. There are two types of alumina ceramics vacuum ducts needed, one being 1.5m-long duct with a circular cross section for use in the quadrupole magnet, the other being 3.5m-long and bending 15 degrees, with a race-track cross section for use in the dipole magnet. These ducts could be manufactured by joining several duct segments of 0.5-0.8 m in length by brazing. The alumina ceramics ducts have copper stripes on the outside surface of the ducts to reduce the duct impedance. One of the ends of each stripe is connected to a titanium flange by way of a capacitor so to interrupt an eddy current circuit. The copper stripes are produced by an electroforming method in which a stripe pattern formed by Mo-Mn metallization is first sintered on the exterior surface and then overlaid by PR-electroformed copper (Periodic current Reversal electroforming method). In order to reduce emission of secondary electrons when protons or electrons strike the surface, TiN film is coated on the inside surface of the ducts.  
RPPE041 Design and Construction of the CERN LEIR Injection Septa 2690
  • J. Borburgh, B. Balhan, P. Bobbio, E. Carlier, M. Hourican, T. Masson, T.N. Mueller, A. Prost
    CERN, Geneva
  • M. Crescenti
    TERA, Novara
  The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) transforms long pulses from Linac 3 into high brilliance ion bunches for LHC by means of multi-turn injection, electron cooling and accumulation. The LEIR injection comprises a magnetic DC septum followed by an inclined electrostatic septum. The electrostatic septum has been newly designed and built. The magnetic septum is mainly recovered from the former LEAR machine, but required a new vacuum chamber. Dynamic vacua in the 10-12 mbar range are required, which are hard to achieve due to the high desorption rate of ions lost on the surface. A new interlock and displacement control system has also been developed. The major technical challenges to meet the magnetic, electrical and vacuum requirements will be discussed.  
RPPE042 Aperture and Field Constraints for the Vacuum System in the LHC Injection Septa 2732
  • M. Gyr, B. Henrist, J.M. Jimenez, J.-M. Lacroix, S. Sgobba
    CERN, Geneva
  Each beam arriving from the SPS has to pass through five injection septum magnets before being kicked onto the LHC orbit. The injection layout implies that the vacuum chambers for the two circulating beams pass through the septum magnet yokes at a flange distance from the chamber of the beam to be injected. Specially designed vacuum chambers and interconnections provide the required straightness and alignment precision, thus optimising the aperture for both the circulating and injected beams, without affecting the quality of the magnetic dipole field seen by the injected beam. The circulating beams are shielded against the magnetic stray field by using μ-metal chambers with a thickness of 0.9 mm to avoid saturation of the μ-metal (0.8 T), coated with copper (0.4 mm) for impedance reasons and NEG for pumping and electron cloud purposes. A sufficiently large gap between the iron yoke and the μ-metal chamber allows an in-situ bake-out at 200°C, based on a polyimide/stainless steel/polyimide sandwich structure with an overall thickness of 0.2 mm. The constraints will be described and the resulting vacuum system design, the apertures and the residual stray field will be presented.  
RPPE043 Ultrathin Polyimide-Stainless Steel Heater for Vacuum System Bake-Out 2744
  • C. Rathjen, S. Blanchard, B. Henrist, K. Koelemeijer, B. Libera, P. Lutkiewicz
    CERN, Geneva
  Space constraints in several normal conducting magnets of the LHC required the development of a dedicated permanent heater for vacuum chamber bake-out. The new heater consists of stainless steel bands inside layers of polyimide. The overall heater thickness is about 0.3 mm. The low magnetic permeability is suitable for applications in magnetic fields. The material combination allows for temperatures high enough to activate a NEG coating. Fabrication is performed in consecutive steps of tape wrapping. Automation makes high volume production at low costs possible. About 800 m of warm vacuum system of the long straight sections of the LHC will be equipped with the new heater. This paper covers experience gained at CERN from studies up to industrialization.  
RPPE044 Vacuum Modifications for the Installation of a New CESR-c Fast Luminosity Monitor 2836
  • Y. Li, Y. He, M.A. Palmer
    Cornell University, Department of Physics, Ithaca, New York
  Funding: Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

In order to improve luminosity tuning and maintenance for the CLEO-c high energy physics (HEP) program at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR), a luminosity monitor using photons from radiative Bhabha events has been installed in the CESR ring. Over 10 meters of CESR vacuum chambers near the interaction region were modified to accommodate this new device. The vacuum modifications were designed to meet two criteria. First, the new vacuum chambers had to provide sufficient horizontal and vertical aperture for photons originating from the IP over a wide range of colliding beam conditions. Secondly, the new vacuum chambers required adequate safety margins for operation at beam energies up to 5.3 GeV for Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source running. In order to be certain that the vacuum modifications would not give rise to any localized pressure bumps, a detailed calculation of the expected vacuum pressure distribution due to synchrotron radiation flux was carried out. Careful design and planning enabled a successful installation and resumption of CESR operations in record time.

RPPE045 Vacuum Pumping Performance Comparison of Non-Evaporable Getter Thin Films Deposited Using Argon and Krypton as Sputtering Gases 2860
  • X. Liu, Y. He, Y. Li
    Cornell University, Department of Physics, Ithaca, New York
  • M.R. Adams
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
  Funding: Work Supported by the National Science Foundation.

Owing to the outstanding vacuum performance and the low secondary electron yield, non-evaporable getter (NEG) thin film deposited onto interior walls has gained widespread acceptance and has been incorporated into many accelerator vacuum system designs. The titanium-zirconium-vanadium (T-Zr-V) NEG thin films were deposited onto the interior wall of stainless steel pipes via DC magnetron sputtering method using either argon or krypton gas as sputtering gas. Vacuum pumping evaluation tests were carried out to compare vacuum pumping performances of the Ti-Zr-V NEG thin films deposited using argon or krypton. The results showed much higher initial pumping speed for the Kr-sputtered NEG film than the Ar-sputtered film, though both films have similar activation behavior. The compositions and textures of both thin films were measured to correlate to the pumping performances.

RPPE046 A Summary and Status of the SNS Ring Vacuum Systems 2929
  • M. Mapes, H.-C. Hseuh, J. Rank, L. Smart, R.J. Todd, D. Weiss
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • M.P. Hechler, P. Ladd
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  Funding: SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge.

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ring is designed to accumulate high intensity protons. The SNS ring vacuum system consists of the High Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) line, Accumulator Ring and the Ring to Target Beam Transport (RTBT) line. The Accumulator ring has a circumference of 248m with 4 arcs and 4 straight sections, while the RTBT and HEBT have a total length of 350m of beam transport line. Ultrahigh vacuum of 10-9 Torr is required in the accumulator ring to minimize beam-residual gas ionization. To reduce the secondary electron yield (SEY) and the associated electron cloud instability, the ring vacuum chambers are coated with Titanium-Nitride (TiN). This paper describes the design, fabrication, assembly and vacuum processing of the ring and beam transport vacuum systems as well as the associated instrumentation and controls.

RPPE047 Upgrade of RHIC Vacuum Systems for High Luminosity Operation 2977
  • H.-C. Hseuh, M. Mapes, L. Smart, R.J. Todd, D. Weiss
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work performed under Contract Number DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy.

With increasing ion beam intensity during recent RHIC operations, pressure rises of several decades were observed at most room temperature sections and at a few cold sections. The pressure rises are associated with electron multi-pacting, electron stimulated desorption and beam ion induced desorption and have been one of the major intensity and luminosity limiting factors for RHIC. Improvement of the warm sections has been carried out in the last few years. Extensive in-situ bakes, additional UHV pumping, anti-grazing ridges and beam tube solenoids have been implemented. Several hundred meters of NEG coated beam pipes have been installed and activated. Vacuum monitoring and interlock were enhanced to reduce premature beam aborts. Preliminary measures, such as pumping before cool down to reduce monolayer condensates, were also taken to suppress the pressure rises in the cold sections. The effectiveness of these measures in reducing the pressure rises during machine studies and during physics runs are discussed and summarized.

RPPE048 Physical and Electromagnetic Properties of Customized Coatings for SNS Injection Ceramic Chambers and Extraction Ferrite Kickers 3028
  • H.-C. Hseuh, M. Blaskiewicz, P. He, Y.Y. Lee, C. Pai, D. Raparia, R.J. Todd, L. Wang, J. Wei, D. Weiss
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • S. Henderson
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  Funding: SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge.

The inner surfaces of the 248 m SNS accumulator ring vacuum chambers are coated with ~100 nm of titanium nitride (TiN) to reduce the secondary electron yield (SEY) of the chamber walls. All the ring inner surfaces are made of stainless or inconel, except those of the injection and extraction kickers. Ceramic vacuum chambers are used for the 8 injection kickers to avoid shielding of a fast-changing kicker field and to reduce eddy current heating. The internal diameter was coated with Cu to reduce the beam coupling impedance and provide passage for beam image current, and a TiN overlayer to reduce SEY. The ferrite surfaces of the 14 extraction kicker modules were coated with TiN to reduce SEY. Customized masks were used to produce coating strips of 1 cm x 5 cm with 1 to 1.5 mm separation among the strips. The masks maximized the coated area to more than 80%, while minimizing the eddy current effect to the kicker rise time. The coating method, as well as the physical and electromagnetic properties of the coatings for both types of kickers will be summarized, with emphasis on the effect to the beam and the electron cloud buildup.

†Corresponding author email:

RPPE049 Summary on Titanium Nitride Coating of SNS Ring Vacuum Chambers 3088
  • R.J. Todd, P. He, H.-C. Hseuh, D. Weiss
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge.

The inner surfaces of the 248 m Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring vacuum chambers are coated with ~100 nm of titanium nitride (TiN) to reduce the secondary electron yield (SEY) of the chamber walls. There are approximately 100 chambers and kicker modules, some up to 5 m in length and 36 cm in diameter, coated with TiN. The coating is deposited by means of reactive DC magnetron sputtering using a cylindrical magnetron with internal permanent magnets. This cathode configuration generates a deposition rate sufficient to meet the required production schedule and produces stoichiometric films with good adhesion, low SEY and acceptable outgassing. Moreover, the cathode magnet configuration allows for simple changes in length and has been adapted to coat the wide variety of chambers and components contained within the arc, injection, extraction, collimation and RF regions. Chamber types, quantities and the cathode configurations used to coat them are presented herein. A brief summary of the salient coating properties is given including the interdependence of SEY as a function of surface roughness and its effect on outgassing. Limitations of this coating method are also discussed.

RPPE050 Development of NEG Coating for RHIC Experimental Beamtubes 3120
  • D. Weiss, P. He, H.-C. Hseuh, R.J. Todd
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work performed under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy.

As RHIC beam intensity increases beyond original scope, pressure rises in some regions have been observed. The luminosity limiting pressure rises are associated with electron multi-pacting, electron stimulated desorption and beam induced desorption. Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) coated beampipes have been proven effective to suppress pressure rise in synchrotron radiation facilities. Standard beampipes have been NEG coated by a vendor and added to many RHIC UHV regions. BNL is developing a cylindrical magnetron sputtering system to NEG coat special beryllium beampipes installed in RHIC experimental regions. It features a hollow, liquid cooled cathode producing power density of 500W/m and deposition rate of 5000 Angstrom/hr on 7.5cm OD beampipe. The cathode, a titanium tube partially covered with zirconium and vanadium ribbons, is oriented for horizontal coating of 4m long chambers. Ribbons and magnets are arranged to provide uniform sputtering distribution and deposited NEG composition. Vacuum performance of NEG coated pipes was measured. Coating analysis includes energy dispersive spectroscopy, auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. System design, development, and analysis results are presented.

RPPE051 NEG Pumping Strip Inside Tevatron B2 Magnets 3144
  • A.Z. Chen, T. G. Anderson, B.M. Hanna
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: DOE

NEG pumping strips were installed inside four Tevatron B2 Magnets in order to improve the vacuum environment in B2 magnets that have embedded unbakable vacuum chamber. The prelimary results shown the total presure in that region was significant reduced. Complelte testing and opertation results will be available soon.

RPPE052 Application of Comb-Type RF-Shield to Bellows Chambers and Gate Valves 3203
  • Y. Suetsugu, K.-I. Kanazawa, N. Ohuchi, K. Shibata, M. Shirai
    KEK, Ibaraki
  A comb-type RF-shield, which was recently proposed for high current accelerators, was experimentally applied to bellows chambers and gate valves. The comb-type RF-shield has a structure of nested comb teeth, and has higher thermal strength and lower impedance than usual finger-type RF shields. The shield is suitable for future high intensity accelerators, such as particle factories aiming a luminosity of 1·1035 - 36 /cm2 /s. Seven bellows chambers with a circular or a racetrack cross section had been installed in the KEKB (KEK B-factory) positron ring since 2003 in series. Some bellows chambers are forced to bend up to 20 mrad during the beam operation. No significant problem had been found with a stored beam current up to 1.6 A (1.25 mA/bunch). On the other hand, a circular-type gate valve with the comb-type RF shield will be installed in the ring in January, 2005. Structures, properties and results of the beam test of the bellows chamber and the gate valve are discussed.  
RPPE053 R&D Status of Vacuum Components for the Upgrade of KEKB 3256
  • Y. Suetsugu, H. Hisamatsu, K.-I. Kanazawa, N. Ohuchi, K. Shibata, M. Shirai
    KEK, Ibaraki
  An upgrade plan of the KEK B-factory (KEKB), Super KEKB, aiming a luminosity over 1·1035 /cm2 /s has been discussed in KEK. To achieve the high luminosity, the stored beam currents are 4.2 - 9.4 A and the bunch length is 3 mm. In designing the vacuum system of the Super KEKB, therefore, the main issues are how to manage the resultant highly intense synchrotron radiation (SR) power, and how to reduce the beam impedance. The R&Ds for basic vacuum components, such as a beam duct, a bellows chamber, a connection flange, a collimator, a high-capacity pump and so on, are now undergoing to deal with the problems. For examples, a copper beam duct with an antechamber was manufactured to reduce the power density of SR, and to suppress the electrons around the beam for the positron ring. The test chamber was installed in the positron ring of KEKB and tested with a beam. Bellows chambers with a newly developed RF-shield were also installed in the ring and the property was investigated. A special connection flange with little step or gap inside was developed and examined in a test bench. The designs of these components and the results of tests are presented and discussed.  
RPPE056 Status of the NSRL Storage Ring UHV System After Project-II 3334
  • Y. Wang, L. Fan, C. Y. Guan, D. M. Jiang, J. P. Wang, W. Wei, F. Y. Zhao
    USTC/NSRL, Hefei, Anhui
  The NSRL project-II has been finished in December 2004. The UHV system of storage ring has undergone improvement and now provide long beam lifetime and stable operations, the average pressure of ring is better than 2 × 10-8 Pascal without beam and 1 × 10-7 Pascal with beam, The typical beam lifetime is 12 hours at 300 mA and 800 MeV without wiggler and 8 hours at 300 mA and 800 MeV with wiggler on. The improvements and status of NSRL storage ring are described in this paper.  
RPPE057 Resistive Wall Wakefield in the LCLS Undulator 3390
  • K.L.F. Bane, G.V. Stupakov
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, contract DE-AC03-76SF00515.

In the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), a short, intense bunch (rms length 20 microns, bunch charge 1 nC) will pass through a small, long undulator beam pipe (radius 2.5 mm, length 130 m). The wakefields in the undulator, particularly the resistive wall wake of the beam pipe, will induce an energy variation along the bunch, a variation that needs to be kept to within a few times the Pierce parameter for all beam particles to continue to lase. Earlier calculations included the short-range resistive wall wake, but did not include the frequency dependence of conductivity (ac conductivity) of the beam pipe walls. We show that for copper and for the LCLS bunch structure, including the ac conductivity results in a very large effect. We show that the effect can be ameliorated by choosing aluminum and also by taking a flat, rather than round, beam pipe chamber (if the vertical aperture is fixed). The effect of the (high frequency) anomalous skin effect is also considered.