Electron Bunch Generation and Manipulation
Paper Title Page
Beam Manipulation for Plasma Accelerator Based Free Electron Lasers  
  • A. Loulergue, C. Benabderrahmane, M.-E. Couprie, M. Labat
    SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • C. Evain
    PhLAM/CERCLA, Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France
  • V. Malka
    LOA, Palaiseau, France
  Longitudinal decompression of electron beams delivered by state-of-the-art Laser WakeField Accelerators (LWFA) eases the free-electron laser process. We propose here an additional second order transverse beam manipulation, only based on quadrupoles, turning the very large inherent transverse chromatic emittances of LWFA beam into direct FEL gain advantage. This complete transfer line scheme is presently under construction for the projects COXINEL recently funded by an ERC advanced grant. Numerical simulations showing that this beam manipulation can further enhance by orders of magnitude the peak power of the radiation are presented.  
THP002 Beam Energy Management and RF Failure Compensation Scenarios for the European XFEL 672
  • B. Beutner
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  The operation of complex systems as the driver linacs for free-electron-lasers is limited by the reliability of the individual components. Failures of RF systems can therefore constrict FEL availability. Typically reserves are included in the overall linac voltage capacity to allow for redistribution of acceleration in case of an RF failure. However, such redistributions of the acceleration of the linac affects the beam dynamics of the machine. While the effects on the optics can easily be compensated by rescaling of the quadrupole magnet strength, the bunch compression set-up requires a more involved investigation. In this paper we discuss studies for an energy management system for the European XFEL.  
THP003 Two Charges in the Same Bunch Train at the European XFEL 678
  • Y.A. Kot, T. Limberg, I. Zagorodnov
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  The European XFEL has been initially designed for the operation with bunch charge of 1 nC (*) which was later extended down to 20 pC (**). An important upgrade of this extension might be the ability to operate different bunch charges in the same RF pulse. In this paper we assume the nominal design of the XFEL injector which means in particular that both charges in the same RF pulse experience the same solenoid field and are generated by the laser of the same rms size. We discuss the requirements which the combined working points of the injector have to fulfil and show the results of the complete start to end (S2E) and SASE simulations for the simultaneous operation of 250 pC and 500 pC bunch charges.
* DESY XFEL Project Group "The European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser. Technical Design Report" July 2007
** W. Decking and T. Limberg "European XFEL. Post-TDR Description" February 2013
THP004 Start-to-End Error Studies for FLUTE 682
  • M. Weber, A.-S. Müller, S. Naknaimueang, M. Schuh, M. Schwarz, P. Wesolowski
    KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany
  FLUTE, a new linac based test facility and THz source, is currently under construction at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in collaboration with DESY and PSI. With a repetition rate of 10 Hz, electron bunches with charges from 1 pC to 3 nC will be accelerated up to 40-50 MeV and then compressed longitudinally in a magnetic chicane to generate intense coherent THz radiation. Since the stability and repeatability of longitudinal bunch profiles are essential for optimum compression and THz radiation properties, simulation-based start-to-end error studies using the tracking code ASTRA have been performed to determine the influence of the machine elements on the bunches. Thus, critical parameters are identified and their respective tolerance ranges defined. In this contribution a summary of the error studies will be given.  
THP006 Optimization of the PITZ Photo Injector Towards the Best Achievable Beam Quality 685
  • M. Khojoyan, M. Krasilnikov, F. Stephan, G. Vashchenko
    DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen, Germany
  Funding: The work is supported by the German Federal Ministry of education and Research, project 05K10CHE and RFBR grant 13-02-91323.
Uniform 3D ellipsoids are proven to be the best distributions for high brightness charged particle beam applications due to the linear dependence of the space charge fields on the position within the distribution. Such electron bunches have lower emittance and are less sensitive to the machine settings and, therefore, should allow more reliable operation, which is one of the key requirements for single-pass free-electron lasers (FELs). The Photo Injector test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site (PITZ) is optimizing high brightness electron sources for linac based FELs such as the European XFEL. Recent measurements at PITZ using a photocathode laser with a flat-top temporal profile have revealed record low transverse emittance values at different bunch charges. As a next step towards the further improvement of the high quality beams, a cathode laser system, capable of producing quasi-3D ellipsoidal bunches is intended to be used at PITZ. In this work the beam dynamics optimization results for various bunch charges and for flat-top and 3D ellipsoidal cathode laser shapes are presented. For each working point the relative emittance growth is estimated due to possible deviations of the machine parameters.
THP007 Recent Electron Beam Optimization at PITZ 689
  • G. Vashchenko, P. Boonpornprasert, J.D. Good, M. Groß, I.I. Isaev, D.K. Kalantaryan, M. Khojoyan, G. Kourkafas, M. Krasilnikov, D. Malyutin, D. Melkumyan, A. Oppelt, M. Otevřel, T. Rublack, F. Stephan
    DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen, Germany
  • G. Asova
    INRNE, Sofia, Bulgaria
  • G. Pathak
    Uni HH, Hamburg, Germany
  • D. Richter
    HZB, Berlin, Germany
  High brightness electron sources for linac based freee-lectron lasers operating at short wavelength such as FLASH and the European XFEL are characterized and optimized at the Photo Injector Test Facility at DESY, Zeuthen site (PITZ). In the last few years PITZ mainly was used to condition RF guns for their later operation at FLASH and the European XFEL. Only limited time could be spent for beam characterization. However, recently we have performed emittance measurements and optimization for a reduced gun accelerating gradient which is similar to the usual operation conditions at FLASH. The results of these measurements are presented in this paper.  
THP008 Evolution of a Warm Bunched Electron Beam in a Free Drift Region 692
  • B. Maly, A. Friedman
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel
  The state of the art of FELs development at present is "Table-Top X Ray Free Electron Lasers". Almost any such scheme involves a pre-bunched electron beam. In this paper we will analyze the evolution and "survivability" of bunching introduced into the beam in the free drift region prior to the wiggler. We examined analytically the first order degradation in beam bunching due to space charge effect. It will be shown that there is a limited interaction region, characterized by an exponential decay of the bunching factor, having a length inversely proportional to the square of the electron beam normalized temperature, followed by a stable bunch region. We will present examples of the effect for several schemes of X Ray and Tera Hertz FELs considered or being constructed presently.  
Spatiotemporal Optimization of UV-Pump Pulses for the Ultrafast Electron Diffraction  
  • I.H. Baek, B. Han, K.H. Jang, Y.U. Jeong, H.W. Kim, K. Lee, S. H. Park, S. Park, N. Vinokurov
    KAERI, Daejon, Republic of Korea
  Ultraviolet (UV) light has been devoted to escape electrons from common metals due to their work function energies. Nowadays the pulsed electron beam has triggered numerous fundamental studies and technological applications. Electron beam-based pump/probe spectroscopy requires a low timing jitter between pump- and probe-beams for the precise observation and analysis. Herein, we performed the systematic characterization of electron bunches depending on UV pulse conditions using the electro-optic streaking of electron pulses for the ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) experiment. The temporal stabilization between UV-pump and electron-probe beams within a 100 femtoseconds jitter is in progress by compensating a relative phase shift of RF master oscillator and Ti:sapphire laser oscillator. We are under optimization of the spatial distribution and size of the UV light for getting electron bunches with low emittance and energy spread.  
THP010 Analysis of Beam Stability in the KAERI Ultrashort Pulse Accelerator 697
  • H.W. Kim, S. Bae, B.A. Gudkov, K.H. Jang, Y.U. Jeong, Y. Kim, K. Lee, S.V. Miginsky, J. Mun, S. H. Park, S. Park, N. Vinokurov
    KAERI, Daejon, Republic of Korea
  • K.H. Jang, Y.U. Jeong, H.W. Kim, K. Lee, S.V. Miginsky, S. H. Park, N. Vinokurov
    UST, Daejeon City, Republic of Korea
  • S.V. Miginsky, N. Vinokurov
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
  An RF-photogun-based linear accelerator for the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) ultrashort pulse facility is under construction. It has a symmetry structure with four different beamlines. The UED beamlines will generate ultrashort electron pulses with over 106 electrons per pulse for the single-shot measurements on femtoseconds dynamics of atomic or molecular structures. Electron bunches with an energy of ~3 MeV from the RF photogun can be compressed up to less than 50 fs by achromatic and isochronous bends. The intrinsic r.m.s. timing jitter of the pulses through the bends is estimated to be less than 30 fs with the r.m.s. energy fluctuation of 0.1%. In the THz pump and X-ray probe beamline, two successive laser pulses with a time interval of ~10 ns are used to generate two electron bunches having bunch charges more than 100 pC. Two electron bunches are accelerated by a linac up to ~25 MeV and separated into individual beamlines by a fast kicker. We will present on estimated timing jitter and effects of magnet errors to the beam dynamics in the accelerator by considering beam dilution effects.  
THP011 Beam Measurement of Photocathode RF-gun for PAL-XFEL 699
  • J.H. Hong, M.S. Chae, J.H. Han, H.-S. Kang, C.-K. Min, S.J. Park, Y.J. Park
    PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea
  • I.S. Ko
    POSTECH, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea
  The Injector Test Facility (ITF) at Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL) was constructed to develop an injector for the PAL X-ray free-electron laser (PAL-XFEL) project. The PAL-XFEL design requires the injector to produce an electron beam with a slice emittance of 0.4 mm-mrad at the charge of 200 pC. A 4-hole type RF-gun has been successfully fabricated and tested at ITF. In this paper we report the recent beam-measurement results using the RF-gun at ITF. Emittance measurements have been carried out by changing laser and RF parameters.  
THP012 Error Analysis for Linac Lattice of Hard X-ray FEL Line in PAL-XFEL* 703
  • H. Yang, J.H. Han, H.-S. Kang, I.S. Ko
    PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea
  Funding: *This work was supported by MSIP, Korea.
PAL-XFEL consists of the hard x-ray line for 0.06 – 1-nm FEL and the soft x-ray line for 1 – 10-nm FEL. The linac of hard x-ray line is designed to generate 10-GeV, 200-pC, and 3-kA electron beam. It consists of S-band accelerating columns, an X-band linearizer, three bunch compressors (BC). We conduct error simulation in order to evaluate the tolerances of machine parameters and alignments. First, the machine tolerances and beam jitter levels are calculated in the simulations with dynamic errors and we find out the optimized lattice to satisfy the target tolerance of machine. Second, we conduct simulations with misalignment. We quantify the emittance dilution by misalignments, especially those of BCs. In order to compensate the misalignments, the methods of beam correction like Beam Based Alignment (BBA) are presented and the effects of emittance improvements are calculated.
poster icon Poster THP012 [0.736 MB]  
THP013 Slice Emittance Measurement using RF Deflecting Cavity at PAL-XFEL ITF 707
  • J. Lee
    POSTECH, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea
  • J.H. Han, J.H. Hong, I.S. Ko, S.J. Park
    PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea
  One of key characteristic for operating PAL-XFEL is the time-dependent transverse properties of a bunch, slice emittance. To achieve the design FEL performance of PAL-XFEL a slice emittance of 0.4 mm mrad at 0.2 nC is required. An Injector Test Facility (ITF) was constructed to study beam properties. In addition to projected emittance measurement, slice emittance measurement is being done using a transverse RF deflecting cavity. We presents results of slice emittance measurement at ITF and future plan for the optimization of operating condition.  
THP014 Cyclotron-Undulator Cooling of a Free-Electron-Laser Beam 710
  • A.V. Savilov, I.V. Bandurkin, S.V. Kuzikov
    IAP/RAS, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
  We propose methods of fast cooling of an electron beam, based on wiggling of particles in an undulator in presence of an axial magnetic field. We use a strong dependence of the axial electron velocity on the oscillatory velocity, when the electron cyclotron frequency is close to the frequency of electron wiggling in the undulator field. Such cooling may open a way for creating a compact X-ray free-electron laser based on the stimulated scattering of a powerful laser pulse on a moderately-relativistic (several MeV) electron beam. This work is supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Projects 14-08-00803 and 14-02-00691).  
poster icon Poster THP014 [0.166 MB]  
Temporal Profile Reconstruction Based on a Passive Streaker  
  • S. Bettoni, P. Craievich, M. Pedrozzi
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  A time resolved measurement of the beam is important to optimize the final performances of an accelerator and in particular it is crucial for Free Electron Lasers. A transverse deflecting cavity, as an iris loaded wave guide or multi cell-standing wave structures, is conventionally used to image the longitudinal profile of a streaked beam on a downstream screen. In this paper we present an alternative method to passively deflect the electron bunch by using the dipole wakefield excited by the electron bunch passing off-axis through a dielectric-lined or a corrugated pipe. Measurements of a proof-of-principle experiment performed at the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility compared with the simulations are also discussed here.  
THP016 Optimization of FEL Performanceby Dispersion-based Beam-tilt Correction 714
  • M.W. Guetg, S. Reiche
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  In Free Electron Lasers (FEL) the beam quality is of crucial importance for the radiation power. A transverse centroid misalignment of longitudinal slices in an electron bunch reduces the effective overlap between radiation field and electron bunch. This leads to a reduced bunching and decreased FEL performance. The dominant sources of slice misalignments in FELs are the coherent synchrotron radiation within bunch compressors as well as transverse wake fields in the accelerating cavities. This is of particular importance for over-compression, which is required for one of the key operation modes for the SwissFEL under construction at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland. The slice centroid shift can be corrected using multi-pole magnets in dispersive sections, e.g. the bunch compressors. First and second order corrections are achieved by pairs of sextupole and quadrupole magnets in the horizontal plane while skew quadrupoles correct to first order in the vertical plane.  
THP019 Higher-Order Moment Models of Longitudinal Pulse Shape Evolution in Photoinjectors 722
  • C.E. Mitchell, D. Filippetto, R. Huang, C. F. Papadopoulos, H.J. Qian, J. Qiang, F. Sannibale, M. Venturini
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  The presence of longitudinal asymmetry, sometimes in the form of a one-sided tail, in the current profile emerging from low-energy photoinjectors can strongly impact the beam quality downstream of the compression system of the FEL beam delivery system. To understand the origin of this feature, an approximate model for the evolution of higher-order beam moments is developed in the presence of nonlinear kinematic effects and longitudinal space-charge. This model is applied to investigate the evolution of beam skewness for injector systems with parameters similar to the APEX Injector under investigation at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.  
THP020 Electron Beam Dynamics Optimization Using A Unified Differential Evolution Algorithm 726
  • J. Qiang, C.E. Mitchell
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  Funding: Work supported by the Director of the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy under Contract no. DEAC02-05CH11231.
Accelerator beam dynamics design depends heavily on the use of control parameter optimization to achieve the best performance. In this paper, we report on electron beam dynamics optimization of a model photoinjector using a new unified differential evolution algorithm. We present the new unified differential evolution algorithm and benchmark its performance using several test examples. We also discuss the application of the algorithm in the multi-objective optimization of the photoinjector.
THP022 Theoretical Investigation of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation Induced Microbunching Instability in Transport and Recirculation Arcs 730
  • C.-Y. Tsai
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA
  • D. Douglas, R. Li, C. Tennant
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  Funding: This work is supported by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177.
The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of a high brightness electron beam traversing a series of dipoles, such as recirculation or transport arcs, may lead to the microbunching instability. We extend and develop a semi-analytical approach of the CSR-induced microbunching instability for a general lattice, based on the previous formulation with 1-D CSR model [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 5, 064401 (2002)] and apply it to investigate the physical processes of microbunching amplification for two example transport arc lattices. We find that the microbunching instability in transport arcs has a distinguishing feature of multistage amplification (e.g, up to 6th stage for our example arcs in contrast to two stage amplification for a 3-dipole chicane). By further extending the concept of stage gain as proposed by Huang and Kim [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 5, 074401 (2002)], we developed a method to quantitatively characterize the microbunching amplification in terms of iterative or staged orders that allows the comparison of optics impacts on microbunching gain for different lattices. The parametric dependencies and Landau damping for our example lattices are also studied. Excellent agreement of the gain functions and spectra from Vlasov analysis with results from ELEGANT is achieved which helps to validate our analyses.
poster icon Poster THP022 [1.316 MB]  
THP023 Simulation of Alpha Magnet Elements in Dipole-only Tracking Codes 735
  • J.W. Lewellen, F.L. Krawczyk
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
  Alpha magnets are used in a variety of ion-beam and low-energy (< 5 MeV) electron-beam transport systems as both “switchyard” elements and as bunch compressors. A unique feature of the alpha-magnet is its natively achromatic transport. Particles of different energies, injected at a specific location and angle, will exit at the same location and (symmetry-reflected) angle but with a different time-of-flight. Despite the general usefulness of alpha magnets in low-energy beam transport and compression schemes, few simulation codes support them as native elements. The (arguably) most-common codes used for injector design, PARMELA, ASTRA and GPT (listed in order of their release) do not support alpha magnets natively, but do support modeling of space-charge-dominated beams through dipole magnets. As a result, the most commonly used injector design codes are unable to incorporate one of the most useful and interesting beam transport devices. We present a method for simulating an alpha magnet in a tracking code using dipole elements. As elegant supports both dipoles and alpha magnets, it is used to provide a basic check of the approximation and a means of estimating the induced errors.  
THP024 High-gradient Cathode Testing for MaRIE 739
  • J.W. Lewellen, F.L. Krawczyk, N.A. Moody
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
  X-ray free-electron lasers (X-FELs) provide unprecedented capabilities for characterizing and controlling matter at temporal, spatial and energetic regimes which have been previously inaccessible. The quality of the electron beam is critical to X-FEL performance; a degradation of beam quality by a factor of two, for instance, can prevent the X-FEL from lasing at all, rather than yielding a simple reduction in output power. While conceptual designs for new beam sources exist, they incorporate assumptions about the behavior of the photocathode, under extreme operating conditions. The combined requirements for high bunch charge, short bunch duration, and small emission area, dictate the use of high-efficiency photocathodes operating at electric field gradients of ~140 MV/m. No suitable cathode has been operated at these gradients, however, so the success of next-generation X-FELs rests on a series of untested assumptions. We present our plans to address these knowledge gaps, including the design of a high-gradient RF cavity specifically designed for testing cathodes under MaRIE-relevant conditions.  
THP025 Linear Accelerator Design for the LCLS-II FEL Facility 743
  • P. Emma, J.C. Frisch, Z. Huang, H. Loos, A. Marinelli, T.J. Maxwell, Y. Nosochkov, T.O. Raubenheimer, L. Wang, J.J. Welch, M. Woodley
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • J. Qiang, M. Venturini
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  • A. Saini, N. Solyak
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  Funding: Work supported by the Director, Office of Science, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515.
The LCLS-II is an FEL facility proposed in response to the July 2013 BESAC advisory committee, which recommended the construction of a new FEL light source with a high-repetition rate and a broad photon energy range from 0.2 keV to at least 5 keV. A new CW 4-GeV electron linac is being designed to meet this need, using a superconducting (SC) L-band (1.3 GHz) linear accelerator capable of operating with a continuous bunch repetition rate up to 1 MHz at ~16 MV/m. This new 700-m linac is to be built at SLAC in the existing tunnel, making use of existing facilities and providing two separate FELs, preserving the operation of the existing FEL, which can be fed from either the existing copper or the new SC linac. We briefly describe the acceleration, bunch compression, beam transport, beam switching, and electron beam diagnostics. The high-power and low-level RF, and cryogenic systems are described elsewhere.
poster icon Poster THP025 [0.627 MB]  
THP026 Design Study of LCLS Chirp-Control with a Corrugated Structure 748
  • Z. Zhang, K.L.F. Bane, Y. Ding, Z. Huang, R.H. Iverson, T.J. Maxwell, G.V. Stupakov, L. Wang
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • P. Frigola, M.A. Harrison, M. Ruelas
    RadiaBeam, Santa Monica, California, USA
  The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of flat metallic plates with small corrugations as a passive dechirper, studying its effects on beam dynamics. Similar systems have been tested in Pohang and Brookhaven at relatively low energies (~100 MeV) and with relatively long bunches (>1ps) [*,**]. Four meters of such a structure are being machined by Radiabeam Systems for use in the LCLS with a high energy and femtosecond electron beam. In this paper we use a field matching program to obtain the longitudinal and transverse wakes for the purpose of the LCLS dechirper design. In addition, we fit the longitudinal wake to simple functions, so that one can obtain the wake without resorting to the field matching program. Since the transverse wakes–both dipole and quadrupole wakes–are strong, we include beam dynamics simulations to find the tolerances for injection jitter and misalignment in the LCLS.
* P. Emma, et al. PRL 112, 034801
** M. Harrison, et al., NaPAc 2013, Pasadena, USA
THP027 LCLS-II Bunch Compressor Study: 5-Bend Chicane 755
  • D. Khan, T.O. Raubenheimer
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  In this paper, we present a potential design for a bunch compressor consisting of 5 bend magnets which is designed to compensate the transverse emittance growth due to Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR). A specific implementation for the second bunch compressor in the LCLS-II is considered. The design has been optimized using the particle tracking code, ELEGANT. Comparisons of the 5-bend chicane’s performance with that of a symmetric 4-bend chicane are shown for various compression ratios and bunch charges. Additionally, a one-dimensional, longitudinal CSR model for the 5-bend design is developed and its accuracy compared against ELEGANT simulations.  
poster icon Poster THP027 [0.881 MB]  
  • L. Wang, P. Emma, Y. Nosochkov, T.O. Raubenheimer, M. Woodley, F. Zhou
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • C. F. Papadopoulos, J. Qiang, M. Venturini
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  The Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) will generate extremely intense X-ray flashes to be used by researchers from all over the world. The FEL is powered by 4 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, operating with a 1 MHz bunch repetition rate. LCLS-II will provide large flexibility in bunch charge and peak current. Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) is applied to optimize the machine parameters including bunch compressors system, linearizer, de-chirper, RF phase and laser heater, in order to minimize the energy spread, collective effects and emittance. The strong resistive wall wake field along the 2km bypass beam line acts as a natural de-chirper. This paper summarizes the optimization of various configurations.  
poster icon Poster THP029 [0.702 MB]  
THP030 Recent Photocathode R&D for the LCLS injector 769
  • F. Zhou, A. Brachmann, W.J. Corbett, M.J. Ferreira, S. Gilevich, E.N. Jongewaard, J.R. Lewandowski, J. Sheppard, T. Vecchione, S. Vetter, S.P. Weathersby
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  Funding: US DOE under contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515
Systematic studies of the copper photocathodes identical to those used in the LCLS injector gun has been carried out at SLAC’s RF gun test facility. Recent observations at the gun test facility indicate that the pre-cleaning of the cathode prior to the installation in the gun is the major cause of the lower initial QE (~10-6) in the RF gun. All of four cathodes tested in the gun test facility have reliable higher initial QE, 4-8·10-5, with removal of pre-cleaning step. All of details will be described in the paper. A robust laser-assisted processing recipe has been developed. With this recipe, QE can be repeatedly evolved to about 1x10-4 within 3-4 weeks following the laser processing, and within 1-2 days the emittance is recovered to the values as observed prior to the laser processing. When compared to previous recipe used for the present LCLS cathode, the new recipe uses lower laser fluence and provides faster emittance recovery. Laser pointing stability is a key requirement for the success of the technique. This paper presents all details of the studies for four cathodes with over a few tens of laser-assisted spots and compares the results with the present LCLS cathode.
THP031 Further Understanding the LCLS Injector Emittance 774
  • F. Zhou, K.L.F. Bane, Y. Ding, Z. Huang, H. Loos
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  Funding: US DOE under contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515
Notable COTR effect from the LCLS laser heater chicane is recently observed at the LCLS injector OTR screen, used for routine emittance measurements. The emittance with the OTR screen is under-estimated by about 30% compared to the values with the wire scanner located next to the OTR screen. The emittance with the OTR and wire scanner is compared and relevant analyses are presented. Slice emittance upstream of the LCLS BC1 is measured using a traditional transverse cavity. Recently, slice emittance downstream of the BC1 is able to be measured with a newly developed technique, using a collimator located in the middle of the BC1. The parasitic effects of using the collimator for slice emittance measurement are evaluated. The slice emittance before and after the BC1 is compared. The dependence of the slice emittance on the linearizer’s transverse offset and CSR effect from the BC1 is discussed.
THP032 Effects of Potential Energy Spread on Particle Dynamics in Magnetic Bending Systems 779
  • R. Li
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  Funding: This work is supported by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177.
Understanding CSR effects for the generation and transport of high brightness electron beams is crucial for designs of modern FELs. Most studies of CSR effects focus on the impacts of the longitudinal CSR wakefield. In this study, we investigate the impact of the initial retarded potential energy of particles, due to bunch collective interaction, on the transverse dynamics of particles on a curved orbit. It is shown that as part of the remnants of the CSR cancellation effect when both the longitudinal and transverse CSR fores are taken into account, this initial potential energy at the entrance of a bending system acts as a pseudo kinetic energy, or pseudo energy in short, because its effect on particle optics through dispersion and momentum compaction is indistinguishable from effect of the usual kinetic energy offset from the design energy. Our estimation indicates that the resulting effect of pseudo energy spread can be measurable only when the peak current of the bunch is high enough such that the slice pseudo energy spread is appreciable compared to the slice kinetic energy spread. The implication of this study on simulations and experiments of CSR effects will be discussed.
THP033 Mechanical Design for a Corrugated Plate Dechirper System for LCLS 785
  • M.A. Harrison, P. Frigola, D.W. Martin, A.Y. Murokh, M. Ruelas
    RadiaBeam Systems, Santa Monica, California, USA
  • Z. Huang, R.H. Iverson, T.J. Maxwell, Z. Zhang
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  Funding: This work is supported by Department of Energy grant number DE-SC0009550.
RadiaBeam Systems is developing a novel passive chirp removal system using corrugated plates as studied by Bane and Stupakov.* Following on from low-energy experiments at BNL-ATF,** RBS will install a much larger and powerful system for removing the chirp from the 3-GeV beams in the LTU section at LCLS. The larger plates will present new challenges in the areas of manufacturing and mechanical control. In this paper we review the requirements for the dimensions of the corrugated plates for proper operation and the infrastructure necessary for precisely placing the plates so as not to adversely disrupt the beam.
* K. Bane, et al "Corrugated Pipe as a Beam Dechirper," SLAC-PUB-14925, 2012
** Harrison, M., et al "Removal of Residual Chirp in Compressed Beams Using a Passive Wakefield Technique." NaPAC13, 2013
THP034 Further Analysis of Corrugated Plate Dechirper Experiment at BNL-ATF 788
  • M.A. Harrison, G. Andonian, P. Frigola, A.Y. Murokh, M. Ruelas, A.V. Smirnov
    RadiaBeam Systems, Santa Monica, California, USA
  • M.G. Fedurin
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  Funding: This work is supported by Department of Energy grant number DE-SC0009550.
RadiaBeam Systems successfully completed testing of a proof-of-concept corrugated plate dechirper at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility.* Such passive devices should prove indispensable for the efficient operation of future XFEL facilities. These experiments demonstrated a narrowing of the energy spectrum in chirped beam bunches at 57.6 MeV. In this paper, we compare these results with results from Elegant simulations of the BNL-ATF beam. We also compare GdfidL simulations of the wakefield with the analytic results of Bane and Stupakov.**
* Harrison, M., et al "Removal of Residual Chirp in Compressed Beams Using a Passive Wakefield Technique." NaPAC13, 2013
** K. Bane, et al "Corrugated Pipe as a Beam Dechirper," SLAC-PUB-14925, 2012
THP035 Relativistic Effects in Micro-bunching 790
  • V. Litvinenko
    Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, USA
  • G. Wang
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  In this paper we present our theoretical studies of limits on bunching using magnetic systems. We discuss the connection of this limit with plasma oscillations in electron beams and present simple formulae for an additional limit of micro-bunching amplification.  
THP036 Benchmark and Simulation Design of a Low Energy Bunch Compressor 795
  • A. He, F.J. Willeke, L. Yang, L.-H. Yu
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  • J. Qiang
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  In the electron beam slicing method, a low energy bunch with very short and focused beam size is required to interact with the storage ring bunch. We have designed a low energy bunch compressor with BNL photocathode electron RF-gun by applying simulation code PARMELA. In this paper, in order to increase the repetition rate of the electron beam slicing system, we change the compressor’s RF gun from BNL RF-gun to LBNL’s VHF gun and redesign the compressor by applying IMPACT-T with both space charge effects and CSR effects considered. The benchmark between PARMELA and IMPACT-T has produced excellent agreement. The comparison of the CSR effects also shows the bunch can be compressed and focused to our desired size after optimization using code IMPACT-T with CSR effects turned on. The new compressor with high repetition rate still works in space charge dominated domain and the bunch with a negative energy chirp at the entrance of the chicane is compressed by a chicane with positive R56. After the optimization, we have achieved a low energy bunch with the 128 fs RMS bunch length, 42 μm and 25 μm RMS beam size in the vertical and horizontal directions respectively, at 22 MeV with 200 pC charge.  
THP054 Dark Current Studies at the APEX Photoinjector 855
  • R. Huang
    USTC/NSRL, Hefei, Anhui, People's Republic of China
  • D. Filippetto, C. F. Papadopoulos, F. Sannibale
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  Funding: Work supported by the Director of the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy under Contract no. DEAC02-05CH11231
The increasing scientific demand for a high repetition rate FEL light source is driving the development of electron sources with high beam quality, delivering electron bunches at rates in the MHz range. An ongoing project to develop such a source is the Advanced Photoinjector Experiment (APEX) at LBNL. High brightness electron beams require high fields at the cathode during the electron emission. Such high fields associated with imperfections on the cathode surface area can induce undesired electron field emission (dark current). Excessive dark current can generate quenching of SRF structures and undesired radiation doses activating accelerator components and damaging undulator structures. In the present paper, we discuss the dark current studies performed at APEX. Field emitters in the cathode area have been localized and characterized, and techniques for minimizing dark current emission and to passively remove it have been investigated.
Double Bunch X-ray Free Electron Laser for High-intensity Two Color X-rays  
  • A. Marinelli
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  Two color x-ray pulses have been the subject of intense research at fourth generation light sources, as they enable a wide range of new applications, from anomalous diffraction imaging to ultra-fast x-ray pump x-ray probe experiments. To extend the two color capabilities of the LCLS, double bunch operation has been recently demonstrated and successfully delivered to user experiments. In this scheme two closely spaced bunches are generated in the injector and accelerated off-crest to two different energies. The resulting bunch train radiates a two-color x-ray pulse in the undulator. The relative time delay and energy difference of the two pulses are tunable independently, by taking advantage of the LCLS two stage compression system. The distinct advantage of this approach is the possibility of using the entire undulator length on both colors, thus allowing applications that require high-intensity and/or self-seeding with a large spectral separation (up to ~1-2%). We review the experimental results and discuss our operational experience with user experiments.  
slides icon Slides THC01 [2.156 MB]  
THC02 Thermal Emittance Measurements at the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility 970
  • E. Prat, S. Bettoni, H.-H. Braun, M.C. Divall, R. Ganter, C.P. Hauri, T. Schietinger, A. Trisorio, C. Vicario
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  • C.P. Hauri
    EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
  In a laser-driven RF-gun the ultimate limit of the beam emittance is the transverse momentum of the electrons as they exit the cathode, the so-called intrinsic or thermal emittance. In this contribution we present measurements of the thermal emittance at the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility for electron beam charges down to a few tens of fC. We have studied the thermal emittance and QE dependence on the laser wavelength, the RF-gun gradient and the cathode material (Cu and Cs2Te).  
slides icon Slides THC02 [1.063 MB]  
THC03 Suppression of the CSR-induced Emittance Growth in Achromats using Two-dimensional point-kick Analysis 976
  • Y. Jiao, X. Cui, X.Y. Huang, G. Xu
    IHEP, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  Coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effect causes transverse emittance dilution in high-brightness light sources and linear colliders. Suppression of the emittance growth induced by CSR is essential and critical to preserve the beam quality and to help improve the machine performance. To evaluate the CSR effect analytically, we propose a novel method, named “two-dimensional point-kick analysis”. In this method, the CSR-induced emittance growth in an n-dipole achromat can be evaluated with the analysis of only the motion of particle in (x, x') two-dimensional plane with n-point kicks, which can be, to a large extent, counted separately. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this method, the CSR effect in a two-diople achromat and a symmetric TBA is studied, and generic conditions of suppressing the CSR-induced emittance growth, which are independent of concrete element parameters and are robust against the variation of initial beam distribution, are found. These conditions are verified with the ELEGANT simulations and can be rather easily applied to real machines.  
slides icon Slides THC03 [1.941 MB]  
THC04 Beam Simulations of High Brightness Photocathode DC Gun and Injector for High Repetition FEL Light Source 980
  • T. Miyajima, Y. Honda, X. Jin, T. Uchiyama, M. Yamamoto
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • R. Hajima, R. Nagai, N. Nishimori
    JAEA, Ibaraki-ken, Japan
  As a next generation FEL light source based on linac, high repetition rate operation to increase average FEL power has been proposed, e.g. LCLS-II project. The injector, which generates high brightness and high average current beam, is one of key components. A photocathode DC gun and superconducting RF cavities, which are developed for ERL light source, can be employed for the high repetition rate injector. For high repetition rate operation of FEL light source, injector simulations were carried out based on ERL injector with demonstrated hardware performance by the cERL beam operation in KEK. The optimization results show that the gun voltage of 500 kV is helpful to achieve low emittance. In addition, to estimate optimum gun voltage and cavity acceleration gradient for the FEL operation, two optimizations with different injector layouts were carried out. The results show that the both different layouts have potential to achieve target emittance for FEL operation. Under the realistic operation condition, the transverse normalized rms emittance of 0.8 mm mrad with the rms bunch length of 3 ps, the bunch charge of 325 pC, and the beam energy of 10 MeV is obtained from the optimizations.  
slides icon Slides THC04 [3.796 MB]