TPAP  —  High-Energy Hadron Accelerators and Colliders   (17-May-05   08:30—12:20)

Paper Title Page
TPAP002 Summary of Recent Studies of Cryosorbers for LHC Long Straight Sections 791
  • R.V. Dostovalov, V.V. Anashin, A.A. Krasnov
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk
  Funding: This work was supported by CERN AT Division vacuum group.

The vacuum chamber inside some cryogenic elements in the LHC long straight sections will have cold bore (CB) at 4.5K and a beam screen (BS) at temperature between 5 and 20K. The gas molecules desorbed due to photons and electrons will pass through the slots on the BS to the shadowed part between the CB and BS. All desorbed gases except H2 could be adsorbed on the CB and BS but a cryosorber is required to pump H2. The new types of anodized aluminum, porous copper and charcoal-based materials were developed and studied to cryopump H2 at temperatures between 10 and 20K. The advantages and disadvantages of cryosorbers and technological problems of development of new similar cryosorbers were defined. The vacuum parameters of LHC vacuum chamber prototypes with charcoal and two types of carbon fiber cryosorbers were measured. The dynamic pressure behavior at BS temperature oscillations was studied for BS with woven carbon fiber to predict the dynamic pressure at nonstandard or transient regimes of the LHC operation. A main result is that woven carbon fiber cryosorber meets the LHC requirements and can be proposed as cryosorber for LHC. The summary results of these studies are presented.

TPAP003 Exploring a Nonlinear Collimation System for the LHC 877
  • J. Resta, A. Faus-Golfe
    IFIC, Valencia
  • R.W. Assmann, S. Redaelli, G. Robert-Demolaize, D. Schulte, F. Zimmermann
    CERN, Geneva
  We explore the adaptation of a nonlinear collimation system, as previously considered for linear colliders, to LHC betatron cleaning. A possible nonlinear system for LHC consists of a horizontal and vertical primary collimator located in between a pair of skew sextupoles. We discuss the modified LHC optics, the need for and optimum placement of secondary absorbers, and the simulated cleaning efficiency.  
TPAP004 Mechanical Design for Robustness of the LHC Collimators 913
  • A. Bertarelli, O. Aberle, R.W. Assmann, S. Calatroni, A. Dallocchio, T. Kurtyka, M. Mayer, R. Perret, S. Redaelli, G. Robert-Demolaize
    CERN, Geneva
  The functional specification of the LHC Collimators requires, for the start-up of the machine and the initial luminosity runs (Phase 1), a collimation system with maximum robustness against abnormal beam operating conditions. The most severe cases to be considered in the mechanical design are the asynchronous beam dump at 7 TeV and the 450 GeV injection error. To ensure that the collimator jaws survive such accident scenarios, low-Z materials were chosen, driving the design towards Graphite or Carbon/Carbon composites. Furthermore, in-depth thermo-mechanical simulations, both static and dynamic, were necessary.This paper presents the results of the numerical analyses performed for the 450 GeV accident case, along with the experimental results of the tests conducted on a collimator prototype in Cern TT40 transfer line, impacted by a 450 GeV beam of 3.1·1013 protons, with impact parameters from 1 to 5 mm.  
TPAP005 Calculation of Residual Dose Rates and Intervention Scenarios for the LHC Beam Cleaning Insertions–Constraints and Optimization 940
  • M. Brugger, O. Aberle, R.W. Assmann, D. Forkel-Wirth, H.G. Menzel, S. Roesler, H. Vincke
    CERN, Geneva
  Radiation protection of the personnel who will perform interventions in the LHC Beam Cleaning Insertions is mandatory and includes the design of equipment and the establishment of work procedures. Residual dose rates due to activated equipment are expected to reach significant values such that any maintenance has to be planned and optimized in advance. Three-dimensional maps of dose equivalent rates at different cooling times after operation of the LHC have been calculated with FLUKA. The simulations are based on an explicit calculation of induced radioactivity and of the transport of the radiation from the radioactive decay. The paper summarizes the results for the Beam Cleaning Insertions and discusses the estimation of individual and collective doses received by personnel during critical interventions, such as the exchange of a collimator or the installation of Phase 2. The given examples outline the potential and the need to optimize, in an iterative way, the design of components as well as the layout of the beam cleaning insertions. Furthermore, results of measurements and simulations of residual dose rates for a collimator test recently performed at the SPS are presented.  
TPAP006 Detecting Impacts of Proton Beams on the LHC Collimators with Vibration and Sound Measurements 1018
  • S. Redaelli, O. Aberle, R.W. Assmann, A.M. Masi, G. Spiezia
    CERN, Geneva
  The 350 MJ stored energy of the 7 TeV LHC beams can seriously damage the beam line elements in case of accidental beam losses. Notably, the LHC collimators, which sit at 6 to 7 σs from the beam centre (1.2-1.4 mm), might be hit and possibly damaged in case of failures, with a consequent degradation of their cleaning performance. The experience from operating machines shows that an a-posteriori identification of the damaged collimators from the observed performance degradation is extremely challenging. Collimator tests with beam at the SPS have proven that the impact of 450 GeV proton beams at intensities from 1010 to 3x1013 can be detected by measuring the collimator vibrations. This was achieved by using high-resolution, radiation hard accelerometers and a microphone to record mechanical and sound vibrations of a LHC-like prototype collimator with impacting beams at different intensities and depth. A similar system could be also used in the LHC to detect collimators damaged by the beam.  
TPAP007 LHC Collimation: Design and Results from Prototyping and Beam Tests 1078
  • R.W. Assmann, O. Aberle, G. Arduini, A. Bertarelli, H.-H. Braun, M. Brugger, H. Burkhardt, S. Calatroni, F. Caspers, E. Chiaveri, A. Dallocchio, B. Dehning, A. Ferrari, M. Gasior, A. Grudiev, E.B. Holzer, J.-B. Jeanneret, J.M. Jimenez, Y. Kadi, R. Losito, M. Magistris, A.M. Masi, M. Mayer, E. Métral, R. Perret, C. Rathjen, S. Redaelli, G. Robert-Demolaize, S. Roesler, M. Santana-Leitner, D. Schulte, P. Sievers, E. Tsoulou, H. Vincke, V. Vlachoudis, J. Wenninger
    CERN, Geneva
  • I. Baishev, I.L. Kurochkin
    IHEP Protvino, Protvino, Moscow Region
  • G. Spiezia
    Naples University Federico II, Science and Technology Pole, Napoli
  The problem of collimation and beam cleaning concerns one of the most challenging aspects of the LHC project. A collimation system must be designed, built, installed and commissioned with parameters that extend the present state-of-the-art by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Problems include robustness, cleaning efficiency, impedance and operational aspects. A strong design effort has been performed at CERN over the last two years. The system design has now been finalized for the two cleaning insertions. The adopted phased approach is described and the expected collimation performance is discussed. In parallel robust and precisely controllable collimators have been designed. Several LHC prototype collimators have been built and tested with the highest beam intensities that are presently available at CERN. The successful beam tests are presented, including beam-based setup procedures, a 2 MJ robustness test and measurements of the collimator-induced impedance. Finally, an outlook is presented on the challenges that are ahead in the coming years.  
TPAP008 Measurements of the LHC Collimator Impedance with Beam in the SPS 1132
  • H. Burkhardt, G. Arduini, R.W. Assmann, F. Caspers, M. Gasior, A. Grudiev, O.R. Jones, T. Kroyer, E. Métral, S. Redaelli, G. Robert-Demolaize, F. Roncarolo, D. Schulte, R.J. Steinhagen, J. Wenninger, F. Zimmermann
    CERN, Geneva
  The transverse impedance of the LHC collimators will likely dominate the overall transverse impedance in the LHC at high energies and potentially limit the maximum intensity. A prototype collimator was recently tested in the SPS. Small, but significant tune shifts depending on the collimator position have been observed using different independent high resolution tune measurement methods. In addition trapped modes predicted from numerical simulation at the ends of the collimator jaws have been identified by bench measurement techniques as well as with the beam. We present a description of the measurements and an analysis of the results.  
TPAP009 Collimation in the Transfer Lines to the LHC 1135
  • H. Burkhardt, B. Goddard, Y. Kadi, V. Kain, T. Risselada, W.J.M. Weterings
    CERN, Geneva
  Injection intensities for the LHC are over an order of magnitude above damage level. The TI 2 and TI 8 transfer lines between the SPS and LHC are each about 2.5 km long and comprise many active elements running in pulsed mode. The collimation system in the transfer lines is designed to dilute the beam energy sufficiently in case of accidental beam loss or mis-steered beam. A system using three collimator families spaced by 60 degrees in phase advance, both in the horizontal and the vertical plane has been chosen. We discuss the reasons for this choice, the layout and, the expected performance of the system in terms of maximum amplitudes and energy deposition.  
TPAP010 Reliability Analysis of the LHC Beam Dumping System 1201
  • R. Filippini, E. Carlier, L. Ducimetière, B. Goddard, J.A. Uythoven
    CERN, Geneva
  The design of the LHC Beam Dumping System is aimed at ensuring a safe beam extraction and deposition under all circumstances. The system adopts redundancy and continuous surveillance for most of its parts. Extensive diagnostics after each beam dumping action will be performed to reduce the risk of a faulty operation at the subsequent dump trigger. Calculations of the system’s safety and availability are presented, considering the detailed design of the trigger generation system and the power converters of the beam dumping kickers and septa magnets.  
TPAP011 Reliability Assessment of the LHC Machine Protection System 1257
  • R. Filippini, B. Dehning, G. Guaglio, F. Rodriguez-Mateos, R. Schmidt, B. Todd, J.A. Uythoven, A. Vergara-Fernández, M. Zerlauth
    CERN, Geneva
  A large number of complex systems will be involved in ensuring a safe LHC operation, such as beam dumping and collimation, beam loss and position detection, quench protection, power interlock controller and beam interlock system. The latter will monitor the status of all other systems and trigger the beam abort if necessary. While the overall system is expected to provide an extremely high level of protection, none of the involved components should unduly impede machine operation by creating physically unfounded dump requests or beam inhibit signals. This paper investigates the resulting trade-off between safety and availability and provides quantitative results for the most critical protection elements.  
TPAP012 Luminosity Limit from Bound-Free Pair Production in the LHC 1306
  • J.M. Jowett, R. Bruce, S.S. Gilardoni
    CERN, Geneva
  The luminosity of the LHC as a lead-ion collider is known to be limited by the large cross-sections for electromagnetic processes in ultra-peripheral collisions. In particular, the process of bound-free e-e+ pair production creates secondary beams of Pb81+ ions emerging from the collision points and impinging on the vacuum envelope inside superconducting magnets. New Monte-Carlo simulations, exploiting recent implementations of the physics of ion interactions with matter, are helping us to quantify the relationships among luminosity, energy deposition in the magnet coils and signals on beam loss monitors with a view to predicting and alleviating the quench limit on luminosity.  
TPAP013 The Performance of the New TCDQ System in the LHC Beam Dumping Region 1324
  • A. Presland, B. Goddard, W.J.M. Weterings
    CERN, Geneva
  The superconducting quadrupole magnet Q4 in IR6 and other downstream LHC machine elements risk destruction in the event of a beam dump that is not synchronised with the abort gap. In order to protect these elements, a single sided mobile graphite diluter block TCDQ, in combination with a two-sided secondary collimator TCS and an iron shield TCDQM, will be installed in front of Q4. This protection system should also intercept spurious particles in the beam abort gap to prevent quenches from occurring during regular beam aborts, and must also intercept the particles from the secondary halo during low beam lifetime without provoking quenches. The conceptual design of the TCDQ system is briefly presented, with the load conditions and performance criteria. The FLUKA energy deposition simulations are described, and the results discussed in the context of the expected performance levels for LHC operation.  
TPAP014 Energy Deposition Studies for the Betatron Cleaning Insertion (IR7) of LHC 1386
  • M. Santana-Leitner, R.W. Assmann, A. Ferrari, M. Magistris, E. Tsoulou, V. Vlachoudis
    CERN, Geneva
  Two insertions (IR3, IR7) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are dedicated to beam cleaning with the design goals of absorbing part of the primary beam halo and of the secondary radiation. The tertiary halo which escapes the collimation system in IR7 may heat the cold magnets at unacceptable levels, if no additional absorber is used. In order to assess the energy deposition in sensitive components, extensive simulations were run with the Monte Carlo cascade code FLUKA. The straight section and the dispersion suppressors of IR7 were fully implemented. A modular approach in the geometry definition and an extensive use of user-written programs allowed the implementation of all magnets and collimators with high precision, including flanges, steel supports and magnetic field. This paper provides the number and location of additional absorbers needed to keep the energy deposition in the coils of the magnets below the quenching limit.  
TPAP015 Commissioning of the LHC Beam Transfer Line TI 8 1461
  • J.A. Uythoven, G. Arduini, B. Goddard, D. Jacquet, V. Kain, M. Lamont, V. Mertens, A. Spinks, J. Wenninger
    CERN, Geneva
  • Y.-C. Chao
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  The first of the two LHC transfer lines was commissioned in autumn 2004. Beam reached an absorber block located some 2.5 km downstream of the SPS extraction point at the first shot, without the need of any threading. The hardware preparation and commissioning phase will be summarised, followed by a description of the beam tests and their results regarding optics and other line parameters, including the experience gained with beam instrumentation, the control system and the machine protection equipment.  
TPAP016 Energy Calibration of the SPS with Proton and Lead Ion Beams 1470
  • J. Wenninger, G. Arduini, C. Arimatea, T. Bohl, P. Collier, K. Cornelis
    CERN, Geneva
  The momentum of the 450 GeV/c proton beam of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron was determined by a high precision measurement of the revolution frequencies of proton and lead ion beams. To minimize systematic errors the magnetic cycle of the SPS had to be rigorously identical for both beams, and corrections due to Earth tides had to be taken into account. This paper presents how the beam momentum was determined from the RF frequency for which the beams are centred in the machine sextupoles. The measured beam momentum is 449.16 ± 0.14 GeV/c for a nominal momentum of 450 GeV/c, and the accuracy is limited by systematic errors.  
TPAP017 Beam Stability of the LHC Beam Transfer Line TI8 1523
  • J. Wenninger, B. Goddard, V. Kain, J.A. Uythoven
    CERN, Geneva
  Injection of beam into the LHC at 450 GeV/c proceeds over two 2.7 km long transfer lines from the SPS. The small aperture of the LHC at injection imposes tight constraints on the stability of the beam transfer. The first transfer line TI8 was commissioned in the fall of 2004 with low intensity beam. Since the beam position monitor signal fluctuations were dominated by noise with low intensity beam, the beam stability could not be obtained from a simple comparison of consecutive trajectories. Instead model independent analysis (MIA) techniques as well as scraping on collimators were used to estimate the intrinsic stability of the transfer line. This paper presents the analysis methods and the resulting stability estimates.  
TPAP018 Optics Studies of the LHC Beam Transfer Line TI8 1578
  • J. Wenninger, G. Arduini, B. Goddard, D. Jacquet, V. Kain, M. Lamont, V. Mertens, J.A. Uythoven
    CERN, Geneva
  • Y.-C. Chao
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  The optics of the newly commissioned LHC beam transfer line TI 8 was studied with beam trajectories, dispersion and profile measurements. Steering magnet response measurements were used to analyze the quality of the steering magnets and of the beam position monitors. A simultaneous fit of the quadrupole strengths was used to search for setting or calibration errors. Residual coupling between the planes was evaluated using high statistics samples of trajectories. Initial conditions for the optics at the entrance of the transfer line were reconstructed from beam profile measurements with Optical Transition Radiation monitors. The paper presents the various analysis methods and their errors. The expected emittance growth arising from optical mismatch into the LHC is evaluated.  
TPAP019 Aperture Studies of the SPS to LHC Transfer Lines 1664
  • B. Goddard, V. Kain, J. Wenninger
    CERN, Geneva
  • R. Schmid
    Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine
  The SPS to LHC transfer lines TI 2 and TI 8 are each several km in length and use magnets with small apertures. An aperture model for the lines has been developed in MAD-X format, with a full description of all installed vacuum elements and the possibility to interpolate at any length interval. This model has been used with tolerances and errors to simulate the expected line aperture available for the beam. The model features and simulation results are presented, with derived aperture limits. The results from aperture measurements made during the TI 8 line beam commissioning in 2004 are presented and compared to the expectations.  
TPAP020 Tests of a Roman Pot Prototype for the TOTEM Experiment 1701
  • M. Deile, E. Alagoz, G.M. Anelli, G.A. Antchev, M. Ayache, F. Caspers, E. Dimovasili, R. Dinapoli, F.D. Drouhin, K. Eggert, L. Escourrou, O. Fochler, K. Gill, R. Grabit, F. Haug, P. Jarron, J. Kaplon, T. Kroyer, T. Luntama, D. Macina, E. Mattelon, L. Mirabito, H. Niewiadomski, E.P. Noschis, M. Oriunno, A. Park, A.-L. Perrot, O. Pirotte, J.M. Quetsch, F. Regnier, G. Ruggiero, S. Saramad, P. Siegrist, W. Snoeys, T. Souissi, R. Szczygiel, J. Troska, F. Vasey, A. Verdier
    CERN, Geneva
  • V. Avati, M. Järvinen, M. Kalliokoski, J. Kalliopuska, K. Kurvinen, R. Lauhakangas, F. Oljemark, R. Orava, V. Palmieri, H. Saarikko, A. Soininen, K. Österberg
    Helsinki University, Department of Physics, University of Helsinki
  • V. Berardi, M.G. Catanesi, E. Radicioni
    INFN-Bari, Bari
  • V. Boccone, M. Bozzo, A. Buzzo, S. Cuneo, F. Ferro, M. Macri, S. Minutoli, A. Morelli, P. Musico, M. Negri, A. Santroni, G. Sette, A. Sobol
    INFN Genova, Genova
  • C. Da Vià, J. Hasi, A. Kok, S. Watts
    Brunel University, Middlesex
  • J. Kasper, V. Kundrât, M. V. Lokajicek, J. Smotlacha
    FZU, Prague
  The TOTEM collaboration has developed and tested the first prototype of its Roman Pots to be operated in the LHC.* TOTEM Roman Pots contain stacks of 10 silicon detectors with strips oriented in two orthogonal directions. To measure proton scattering angles of a few microradians, the detectors will approach the beam centre to a distance of 10 σ + 0.5 mm (= 1.3 mm). Dead space near the detector edge is minimised by using two novel "edgeless" detector technologies. The silicon detectors are used both for precise track reconstruction and for triggering. The first full-sized prototypes of both detector technologies as well as their read-out electronics have been developed, built and operated. The tests took place first in a fixed-target muon beam at CERN's SPS, and then in the proton beam-line of the SPS accelerator ring. We present the test beam results demonstrating the successful functionality of the system despite slight technical shortcomings to be improved in the near future.

TOTEM, Technical Design Report, CERN-LHCC-2004-002.

TPAP021 A New Technique for Making Bright Proton Bunches using Barrier RF Systems 1745
  • C.M. Bhat
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: Work supported by the Universities Research Association, Inc., under contract DE-AC02-76CH03000 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

I describe here very promising schemes for producing high intensity low longitudinal emittance proton bunches for pp and ppbar high energy colliders. These methods are based on the use of wide-band barrier rf systems in the up-stream circular accelerators. The beam dynamics simulations clearly suggest that these schemes allow a wide range of bunch intensities and longitudinal emittances. In this paper I present the principle of these methods and results of multi-particle beam dynamics simulations applied to the Fermilab Tevatron. The feasibility of these methods to LHC pp collider will also be discussed. I also review a few other schemes which have been adopted and investigated at collider facilities.

TPAP022 Mixed pbar Source Operation at the Fermilab Tevatron 1763
  • C.M. Bhat, D. Capista, B. Chase, J.E. Dey, I. Kourbanis, K. Seiya, V. Wu
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: Work supported by the Universities Research Association, Inc., under contract DE-AC02-76CH03000 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

Recently, we have adopted a scheme called "Mixed pbar Source Operation" to transfer 2.5 MHz pbar bunches from the Recycler and the Accumulator to the Fermilab Main Injector (MI). In this scheme, 2.5MHz pbar bunches are captured adiabatically in 53 MHz buckets at 8 GeV in the MI and accelerated to 150 GeV before bunch coalescing and transfer to the Tevatron collider stores. A special magnet ramp was needed in the MI to allow for pbar beam of slightly different 8 GeV energies from the Recycler and the Accumulator. Here we present the details of the scheme and its advantage over the method used for past several years.

TPAP024 Decoupling Schemes for the Tevatron in the Presence of Skew Quadrupole Fields 1850
  • C. Johnstone, P. Snopok
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  • M. Berz
    MSU, East Lansing, Michigan
  Funding: Work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract no DE-AC02-76CH03000.

With increasing demands for luminosity, optimal performance must be extracted from the existing Tevatron optics. We have, therefore, initiated a high-order dynamical study of the Tevatron to assess the performance, functionality and potential of the baseline lattice. This work describes the nonlinear or high-order performance of the Tevatron lattice with emphasis on the coupled and increased nonlinear behavior introduced by the significant skew quadrupole error in combination with conventional sextupole correction, a behavior still clearly evident after optimal tuning of available skew quadrupole circuits. An optimization study is then performed using different skew quadrupole families, and, importantly, local and global correction of the linear skew terms in maps generated by the code, COSY. A correction scheme, with two families locally correcting each arc and eight independent correctors outside the arc for global correction is shown to be optimal and dramatically improve the linear performance of the baseline Tevatron lattice.

TPAP026 Improving the Tevatron Collision Helix 1931
  • R. Moore, Y. Alexahin, J.A. Johnstone, T. Sen
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  In the Tevatron, protons and pbars circulate in a single beam pipe, so electrostatic separators are used to create helical orbits that separate the two beams except at the two interaction points (IP). Increasing the separation outside of the IPs is desirable in order to decrease long range beam-beam effects during high energy physics (HEP) stores. We can increase separation by running the separators at higher gradients or by installing additional separators. We are pursuing both strategies in parallel. Here, we describe Tevatron operation with higher separator gradients and with new separators installed during a recent shutdown. We also describe possible future improvements.  
TPAP027 Deterioration of the Skew Quadrupole Moment in Tevatron Dipoles Over Time 1967
  • M.J. Syphers, D.J. Harding
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: United States Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH03000.

During the 20 years since it was first commissioned, the Fermilab Tevatron has developed strong coupling between the two transverse degrees of freedom. A circuit of skew quadrupole magnets is used to correct for coupling and, though capable, its required strength has increased since 1983 by more than an order of magnitude. In more recent years changes to the Tevatron for colliding beams operation have altered the skew quadrupole corrector distribution and strong local coupling become evident, often encumbering routine operation during the present physics run. Detailed magnet measurements were performed on each individual magnet during construction, and in early 2003 it was realized that measurements could be performed on the magnets in situ which could determine coil movements within the iron yoke since the early 1980's. It was discovered that the superconducting coils had become vertically displaced relative to their yokes since their construction. The ensuing systematic skew quadrupole field introduced by this displacement accounts for the required corrector settings and observed beam behavior. An historical account of the events leading to this discovery and progress toward its remedy are presented.

TPAP028 Observations of Strong Transverse Coupling in the Tevatron 2029
  • M.J. Syphers, G. Annala, D.A. Edwards, N.M. Gelfand, J.A. Johnstone, M.A. Martens, T. Sen
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: United States Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH03000.

During the beginning of Run II of the Tevatron Collider it became apparent that a large skew quadrupole source, or sources, had developed in the superconducting synchrotron. Efforts to locate the current source of coupling were undertaken, with the eventual discovery that the main magnets had developed a systematic skew quadrupole moment over their lifetime. Over the past year, the magnets have been altered in place in an attempt to restore the systematic skew quadrupole moment to zero. Beam observations and their interpretations are presented, and remedial measures are discussed.

TPAP029 Measurements of Field Decay and Snapback Effect on Tevatron Dipole and Quadrupole Magnets 2098
  • G. Velev, G. Ambrosio, G. Annala, P. Bauer, R. H. Carcagno, J. DiMarco, H.D. Glass, R. Hanft, R.D. Kephart, M.J. Lamm, M.A. Martens, P. Schlabach, C. Sylvester, M. Tartaglia, J. Tompkins
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Since the beginning of 2002 an intensive measurement program has been performed at the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility to understand dynamic effects in the Tevatron magnets. Based on the results of this program a new correction algorithm was proposed to compensate for the decay of the sextupole field during the dwell at injection and for the subsequent field "snapback" during the first few seconds of the energy ramp. Beam studies showed that the new correction algorithm works better than the original one, and improves the Tevatron efficiency by at least 3%. The beam studies also indicated insufficient correction during the first 20 s of the injection plateau where an unexpected discrepancy of 0.15 sextupole units of extra drift was observed. This paper reports on the most recent measurements of the Tevatron dipoles field at the beginning of the injection plateau. Results on the field decay and snapback in the Tevatron quadrupoles are also presented.  
TPAP030 Tevatron Alignment Issues 2003-2004 2146
  • J.T. Volk, J. Annala, L. Elementi, N.M. Gelfand, K. Gollwitzer, J.A. Greenwood, M.A. Martens, C.D. Moore, A. Nobrega, A.D. Russell, T. Sager, V.D. Shiltsev, R. Stefanski, M.J. Syphers, G. Wojcik
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: U.S. Department of Energy under contract No. DE-AC02-76CH03000.

It was observed during the early part of Run II that dipole corrector currents in the Tevatron were changing over time. Measurement of the roll for dipoles and quadrupoles confirmed that there was a slow and systematic movement of the magnets from their ideal position. A simple system using a digital protractor and laptop computer was developed to allow roll measurements of all dipoles and quadrupoles. These measurements showed that many magnets in the Tevatron had rolled more than 1 milli-radian. To aid in magnet alignment a new survey network was built in the Tevatron tunnel. This network is based on the use of free centering laser tracker. During the measurement of the network coordinates for all dipole, quadrupole and corrector magnets were obtained. This paper discusses roll measurement techniques and data, the old and new Tevatron alignment network.

TPAP031 Simulations of an Acceleration Scheme for Producing High Intensity and Low Emittance Antiproton Beam for Fermilab Collider Operation 2164
  • V. Wu, C.M. Bhat, J.A. MacLachlan
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: Operated by Universities Research Association, Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-76CH03000.

During Fermilab collider operation, the Main Injector (MI) provides high intensity and low emittance proton and antiproton beams for the Tevatron. The present coalescing scheme for antiprotons in the Main Injector yields about a factor of two increase in the longitudinal emittance and a factor of 5% to 20% decrease in intensity before injection to the Tevatron. In order to maximize the integrated luminosity delivered to the collider experiments, it is important to minimize the emittance growth and maximize the intensity of the MI beam. To this end, a new scheme* using a combination of 2.5 MHz and 53 MHz accelerations has been developed and tested. This paper describes the full simulation of the new acceleration scheme, taking account of space charge, 2.5 MHz and 53 MHz beam loading, and the effect of residual 53 MHz rf voltage during 2.5 MHz acceleration and rf manipulations. The simulations show the longitudinal emittance growth at the 10% level with no beam loss. The experimental test of the new scheme is reported in another PAC'05 paper.

*G.P. Jackson, The Fermilab Recycler Ring Technical Design Report, FERMILAB-TM-1991, November 1996.

TPAP032 Beam-beam Effects in the Tevatron Run II 2245
  • V.D. Shiltsev, Y. Alexahin, V. Lebedev, P. Lebrun, R. Moore, T. Sen, A. Valishev, X. Zhang
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: Work supported by the Universities Research Assos., Inc., under contract DE-AC02-76CH03000 with the U.S. Dept. of Energy.

The Tevatron in Collider Run II (2001-present) is operating with many times higher beam intensities and luminosities than in previous Run I (1992-1995). Electromagnetic long-range and head-on interactions of high intensity proton and antiproton beams have been significant sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations. We present observations of the beam-beam phenomena in the Tevatron and results of relevant beam studies. We analyze the data and various methods employed in operations, predict the performance at upgraded beam parameters and luminosity and discuss possible improvements.

TPAP033 Tevatron Admittance Measurement 2306
  • X. Zhang, V.D. Shiltsev, C.-Y. Tan
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: Work supported by the Universities Research Assos., Inc., under contract DE-AC02-76CH03000 with the U.S. Dept. of Energy.

We measured the Tevatron Beam Acceptance by the method of exciting the beam emittance growth with the beam tickling system with noise. The noise power was about 3Watt with 100Hz bandwidth and centered either in horizontal betatron frequency or vertical betatron frequency. We were able to blow the beam emittance fast while under control. From the point the beam emittance stop growing, we measured the beam acceptance of the Tevatron.

TPAP035 Energy Deposition Issues at 8 GeV H- Beam Collimation and Injection to the Fermilab Main Injector 2372
  • A.I. Drozhdin, M.A. Kostin, N.V. Mokhov
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  The energy deposition and radiation issues at 8 GeV H- beam collimation in the beam transfer line and at stripping injection to the Fermilab Main Injector are analyzed. Detailed calculations with the STRUCT and MARS15 codes are performed on heating of collimators, stripping foils and other critical components, as well as on beam line and accelerator element radioactivation both at normal operation and accidental beam loss. Extraction of the unstripped part of the beam to the external beam dump and loss of the excited-state Ho atoms in the Main Injector are also studied.  
TPAP036 Fitting the Luminosity Decay in the Tevatron 2434
  • E.S. McCrory, V.D. Shiltsev, A.J. Slaughter, A. Xiao
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: Operated by Universities Research Association Inc. under Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH03000 with the United States Department of Energy.

This paper explores the various ways in which the decay of the luminosity in the Tevatron have been fit. The standard assumptions of a fixed-lifetime exponential decay are only appropriate for very short time intervals. A "1/time" funcional form fits rather well, and is supported by analytical derivations. A more complex form, assuming a time-varying lifetime, produces excellent results. Changes in the luminosity can be factored into two phenomena: The luminosity burn-off rate, and the burn-off rate from non-luminosity effects. The luminous and the non-luminous burn rate are shown for stores in the Tevatron.

TPAP037 Monte Carlo of Tevatron Operations, Including the Recycler 2479
  • E.S. McCrory
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: Operated by Universities Research Association Inc. under Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH03000 with the United States Department of Energy.

A Monte Carlo model, which was originally developed for "Run I" of the Tevatron Collider, has been enhanced in many ways, most notably, to incorporate the effect of the Recycler Ring. This model takes into account reasonable random fluctuations in the performance of the Collider, and normal interruptions in operation of each accelerator due to downtime. Optimization of the integrated luminosity delivered to the experiments is based on when to end the store and how to deal with the anitprotons. Preliminary results show that a 20% gain in integrated luminosity in the Collider results from using the Recycler for one-third of the anitprotons in each store. As electron cooling becomes operative in the Recycler, Collider performance improves by as much as a factor of two.

TPAP038 Characterizing Luminosity Evolution in the Tevatron 2536
  • E.S. McCrory, V.D. Shiltsev
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: Operated by Universities Research Association Inc. under Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH03000 with the United States Department of Energy.

We derive an approximate form of a luminosity evolution in a high intensity hadron collider taking into account the most important phenomena of intrabeam scattering (IBS), beam burn-up due to luminosity and beam-beam effects. It is well known that an exponential decay does not describe luminosity evolution very well unless the lifetime is allowed to vary with time. However, a "1/time" evolution, which this derivation shows is a good approximation, fits data from the Tevatron well.

TPAP040 Feasibility Study of Beam-Beam Compensation in the Tevatron with Wires 2645
  • T. Sen
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  • B. Erdélyi
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois
  Funding: Dept. of Energy.

At large distances the field profile of a current carrying wire matches the profile of the field of a round beam. We consider the practical applicability of this principle in compensating long-range beam-beam effects in the Tevatron. Changes in the helix and beam separation from injection energy to collision energy require that different wire configurations at these different energies. Due to the seventy or more long-range interactions, each set of wires must compensate several interactions. We first develop the principles of non-local compensation with a small set of wires. Next we use these principles in detailed simulation studies with beam-beam interactions and wire fields to determine the feasibility of the compensation in the Tevatron.

TPAP043 Electron Cooling of RHIC 2741
  • I. Ben-Zvi, D.S. Barton, D.B. Beavis, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, A. Burrill, R. Calaga, P. Cameron, X.Y. Chang, R. Connolly, Yu.I. Eidelman, A.V. Fedotov, W. Fischer, D.M. Gassner, H. Hahn, M. Harrison, A. Hershcovitch, H.-C. Hseuh, A.K. Jain, P.D.J. Johnson, D. Kayran, J. Kewisch, R.F. Lambiase, V. Litvinenko, W.W. MacKay, G.J. Mahler, N. Malitsky, G.T. McIntyre, W. Meng, K.A.M. Mirabella, C. Montag, T.C.N. Nehring, T. Nicoletti, B. Oerter, G. Parzen, D. Pate, J. Rank, T. Rao, T. Roser, T. Russo, J. Scaduto, K. Smith, D. Trbojevic, G. Wang, J. Wei, N.W.W. Williams, K.-C. Wu, V. Yakimenko, A. Zaltsman, Y. Zhao
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • D.T. Abell, D.L. Bruhwiler
    Tech-X, Boulder, Colorado
  • H. Bluem, A. Burger, M.D. Cole, A.J. Favale, D. Holmes, J. Rathke, T. Schultheiss, A.M.M. Todd
    AES, Princeton, New Jersey
  • A.V. Burov, S. Nagaitsev
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  • J.R. Delayen, Y.S. Derbenev, L. W. Funk, P. Kneisel, L. Merminga, H.L. Phillips, J.P. Preble
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  • I. Koop, V.V. Parkhomchuk, Y.M. Shatunov, A.N. Skrinsky
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk
  • I.N. Meshkov, A.O. Sidorin, A.V. Smirnov, G.V. Troubnikov
    JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region
  • J.S. Sekutowicz
    DESY, Hamburg
  We report progress on the R&D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R&D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV. A Zeroth Order Design Report is in an advanced draft state, and can be found on the web at

Under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Contract Number DE-AC02-98CH10886.

TPAP044 Observations of Snake Resonance in RHIC 2839
  • M. Bai, H. Huang, W. Mac Kay, V. Ptitsyn, T. Roser, S. Tepikian
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • S.-Y. Lee, F. Lin
    IUCF, Bloomington, Indiana
  Funding: The work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy.

Siberian snakes now become essential in the polarized proton acceleration. With proper configuration of Siberian snakes, the spin precession tune of the beam becomes $\frac{1}{2}$ which avoids all the spin depolarizing resonance. However, the enhancement of the perturbations on the spin motion can still occur when the betatron tune is near some low order fractional numbers, called snake resonances, and the beam can be depolarized when passing through the resonance. The snake resonances have been confirmed in the spin tracking calculations, and observed in RHIC with polarized proton beam. Equipped with two full Siberian snakes in each ring, RHIC provides us a perfect facility for snake resonance studies. This paper presents latest experimental results. New insights are also discussed.

TPAP046 Towards an Optimization of the LHC Intersection Region using New Magnet Technology 2920
  • P.M. McIntyre, A. Sattarov
    Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas
  • J.-P. Koutchouk
    CERN, Geneva
  An optimized design of the intersection region of LHC is presented. The starting point of the design is to move the quadrupole triplet to a minimum distance from the intersect – 12 m. The innermost quadrupole must accommodate substantial heat load from particles, and is designed using a structured cable that incorporates internal refrigeration with supercritical helium. Using the reduced aperture required by this closer spacing, Nb3Sn quadrupoles have been designed with gradients of 350-400 T/m for the triplet. The separation dipole utilizes a levitated-pole design that mitigates the extreme heat and radiation challenges for that application. The above technical elements have been incorporated into an optimized insertion design that minimizes ?* while significantly reducing sensitivities to errors in multipoles and alignment. The additional space that is opened in the lattice can be used to fully localize the optical design of the insertion so that it does not require corrections through the neighboring arcs.  
TPAP047 Killing the Electron Cloud Effect in the LHC Arcs 2971
  • P.M. McIntyre, A. Sattarov
    Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas
  A getter/electrode assembly has been devised to suppress the regeneration mechanism of the electron cloud effect in the arc dipoles of LHC. The assembly consists of a copper foil electrode, supported through an insulating layer on a stainless steel skid, which would rest upon the flat bottom of the beam screen. The electrode is coated with NEG to provide effective pumping of all non-inert gases from the vacuum. Pumping should be enhanced by electron bombardment. By biasing the electrode ~+100 V secondary electrons produced on the surface would be fully re-absorbed, killing the regeneration mechanism. The NEG surface can be regenerated by passing a current through the electrode to heat it to ~240 C. The heat transfer (radiant + conductive) to the beam screen during regeneration is estimated ~10 W/m, within limits to maintain the beam screen at nominal 20 K temperature during regeneration. The entire assembly has been designed so that installation does not require modification of any hardware currently being built for the LHC arcs. The electrode assembly would occupy 1 mm in the vertical aperture of the beam screen.  
TPAP048 Optimization of the Phase Advance Between RHIC Interaction Points 3031
  • R. Tomas
    CELLS, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès)
  • W. Fischer
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: U.S. department of Energy.

We consider the scenario of having two identical Interaction Points (IPs) in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The strengths of beam-beam resonances strongly depend on the phase advance between these two IPs and therefore certain phase advances could improve beam lifetime and luminosity. We compute the dynamic aperture as function of the phase advance between these IPs to find the optimum settings. The beam-beam interaction is treated in the weak-strong approximation and a complete non-linear model of the lattice is used. For the current RHIC proton working point (0.69,0.685) the design lattice is found to have the optimum phase advance. However this is not the case for other working points.

TPAP051 Principle of Global Decoupling with Coupling Angle Modulation 3132
  • Y. Luo, S. Peggs, F.C. Pilat, T. Roser, D. Trbojevic
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work supported by U.S. DOE under contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

The global betatron decoupling on the ramp is an important issue for the operation of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). A new scheme coupling phase modulation is found. It introduces a rotating extra coupling into the coupled machine to detect the residual coupling. The eigentune responses are measured with a high resolution phase lock loop (PLL) system. From the minimum and maximum tune splits, the correction strengths are given. The time period occupied by one coupling phase modulation is less than 10 seconds. So it is a very promising solution for the global decoupling on the ramp. In this article the principle of the coupling phase modulation is given. The simulation with the smooth accelerator model is also done. The practical issues concerning its applications are discussed.

TPAP052 Possible Phase Loop for the Global Decoupling 3182
  • Y. Luo, P. Cameron, A. Della Penna, A. Marusic, S. Peggs, T. Roser, D. Trbojevic
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • O.R. Jones
    CERN, Geneva
  Funding: Work supported by U.S. DOE under contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

Besides two eigentunes Q1 and Q2 , two amplitude ratios r1 and r2 and two phase differences ∆ φ1 and ∆ φ2 are introduced for the global coupling observation. Simulations are carried out to check their behaviors in the process of the skew quadrupole strength scans. Some attractive features of the phase differences ∆ φ1,2 have been found, which are possibly useful for the global decoupling phase loop, or future global decoupling feedback. Analytical descriptions to these 6 quantities are described in the Twiss parameters through the linear coupling's action-angle parameterization, or in coupling coefficient through the linear coupling's Hamiltonian perturbation theory. Dedicated beam experiments are carried out at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to check the global coupling observables from the phase lock loop (PLL) system. The six observables are measured under PLL driving oscillations during the 1-D and 2-D skew quadrupole scans. The experimental results are reported and discussions are given.

TPAP053 IR Optics Measurement with Linear Coupling's Action-Angle Parameterization 3218
  • Y. Luo, M. Bai, F.C. Pilat, T. Satogata, D. Trbojevic
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work supported by U.S. DOE under contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

The interaction region (IP) optics are measured with the two DX/BPMs close to the IPs at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The beta functions at IP are measured with the two eigenmodes' phase advances between the two BPMs. And the beta waists are also determined through the beta functions at the two BPMs. The coupling parameters at the IPs are also given through the linear coupling's action-angle parameterization. All the experimental data are taken during the driving oscillations with the AC dipole. The methods to do these measurements are discussed. And the measurement results during the beta* squeezings are also presented.

TPAP054 Helium Flow Induced Orbit Jitter at RHIC 3262
  • C. Montag, P. He, L. Jia, T. Nicoletti, T. Satogata, J. Schmalzle, T. Tallerico
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy.

Horizontal beam orbit jitter at frequencies around 10 Hz has been observed at RHIC for several years. The distinct frequencies of this jitter have been found at superconducting low-beta qudrupole triplets around the ring, where they coincide with mechanical modes of the cold masses. Recently, we have identified liquid helium flow as the driving force of these oscillations.

TPAP055 Fast IR orbit feedback at RHIC 3298
  • C. Montag, A. Marusic, R.J. Michnoff, T. Roser, T. Satogata, C. Schultheiss
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy

Mechanical low-beta triplet vibrations lead to horizontal jitter of RHIC beams at frequencies around 10 Hz. The resulting beam offsets at the interaction points are considered detrimental to RHIC luminosity performance. To stabilize beam orbits at the interaction points, installation of a fast orbit feedback is foreseen. A prototype of this system is being developed and tested. Recent results are presented.

TPAP056 Electron Beam Stability Requirements for Linac-Ring Electron-Ion Colliders 3363
  • C. Montag
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy.

In recent years, linac-ring electron-ion colliders have been proposed at a number of laboratories around the world. While the linac-ring approach overcomes the beam-beam tuneshift limitation on the electron beam, it also introduces noise into the ion beam, via the beam-beam interaction with electron bunches of slightly fluctuating intensity and transverse size. The effect of these fluctuations is studied using a linearized model of the beam-beam interaction. Upper limits for the rms jitter amplitudes of electron beam parameters for various linac-ring electron-ion colliders are presented.

TPAP057 Beam-Beam Simulations for the eRHIC Electron Ring 3399
  • C. Montag
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy.

To study collisions between polarized electrons and heavy ions or polarized protons at high energy, adding a 10 GeV electron storage ring to the existing RHIC facility is currently under consideration. To achieve high luminosities, vertical beam-beam tuneshift parameters of 0.08 are required for the electron beam. Simulation studies are being performed to study the feasibility of these high tuneshift parameters and to explore the potential for even higher tuneshifts. Recent results of these studies are presented.

TPAP058 Beam-Beam Simulations for Double-Gaussian Beams 3405
  • C. Montag, I. Ben-Zvi, V. Litvinenko, N. Malitsky
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy.

Electron cooling together with intra-beam scattering results in a transverse distribution that can best be described by a sum of two Gaussians, one for the high-density core and one for the tails of the distribution. Simulation studies are being performed to understand the beam-beam interaction of these double-Gaussian beams. Here we report the effect of low-frequency random tune modulations on diffusion in double-Gaussian beams and compare the effects to those in beam-beam interactions with regular Gaussian beams and identical tuneshift parameters.