Keyword: synchrotron
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MOP07 Chromaticity Measurement Using Beam Transfer Function in High Energy Synchrotrons wakefield, network, octupole, operation 46
 
  • X. Buffat, S.V. Furuseth, G. Vicentini
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • S.V. Furuseth
    EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
 
  Control of chromaticity is often critical to mitigate collective instabilities in high energy synchrotrons, yet classical measurement methods are of limited use during high intensity operation. We explore the possibility to extract this information from beam transfer function measurements, with the development of a theoretical background that includes the impact of wakefields and by analysis of multi-particle tracking simulations. The investigations show promising results that could improve the operation of the HL-LHC by increasing stability margins.  
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poster icon Poster MOP07 [0.716 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-HB2021-MOP07  
About • Received ※ 04 October 2021 — Revised ※ 01 November 2021 — Accepted ※ 31 March 2022 — Issue date ※ 11 April 2022
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MOP11 Controlled Longitudinal Emittance Blow-Up for High Intensity Beams in the CERN SPS emittance, simulation, controls, extraction 71
 
  • D. Quartullo, H. Damerau, I. Karpov, G. Papotti, E.N. Shaposhnikova, C. Zisou
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • D. Quartullo
    Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
 
  Controlled longitudinal emittance blow-up will be required to longitudinally stabilize the beams for the High-Luminosity LHC in the SPS. Bandwidth-limited noise is injected at synchrotron frequency sidebands of the RF voltage of the main accelerating system through the beam phase loop. The setup of the blow-up parameters is complicated by bunch-by-bunch differences in their phase, shape, and intensity, as well as by the interplay with the fourth harmonic Landau RF system and transient beam loading in the main RF system. During previous runs, an optimization of the blow-up had to be repeated manually at every intensity step up, requiring hours of precious machine time. With the higher beam intensity, the difficulties will be exacerbated, with bunch-by-bunch differences becoming even more important. We look at the extent of the impact of intensity effects on the controlled longitudinal blow-up by means of macro-particle tracking, as well as analytical calculations, and we derive criteria for quantifying its effectiveness. These studies are relevant to identify the parameters and observables which become key to the operational setup and exploitation of the blow-up.  
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poster icon Poster MOP11 [1.121 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-HB2021-MOP11  
About • Received ※ 15 October 2021 — Revised ※ 17 October 2021 — Accepted ※ 17 January 2022 — Issue date ※ 11 April 2022
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MOP13 Influence of Transverse Motion on Longitudinal Space Charge in the CERN PS space-charge, emittance, impedance, optics 83
 
  • A.J. Laut, A. Lasheen
    CERN, Geneva 23, Switzerland
 
  Particles in an intense bunch experience longitudinal self-fields due to space~charge. This effect, conveniently described by geometric factors dependent on a particle’s transverse position, beam size, and beam pipe aperture, is usually incorporated into longitudinal particle tracking on a per-turn basis. The influence of transverse betatron motion on longitudinal space~charge forces is, however, usually neglected in pure longitudinal tracking codes. A dedicated tracking code was developed to characterize the CERN PS such that an effective geometric factor of a given particle could be derived from its transverse emittance, betatron phase~advance, and momentum~spread. The effective geometry factor is then estimated per particle by interpolation without the need for full transverse tracking and incorporated into the longitudinal tracker BLonD. The paper evaluates this effect under conditions representative of the PS, where space~charge is dominant at low energy and progressively becomes negligible along the acceleration ramp. The synchrotron frequency distribution is modified and the filamentation rate is moreover increased, which could suggest a stabilizing space~charge phenomenon.  
poster icon Poster MOP13 [1.826 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-HB2021-MOP13  
About • Received ※ 16 October 2021 — Revised ※ 22 October 2021 — Accepted ※ 12 December 2021 — Issue date ※ 11 April 2022
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MOP15 Threshold for Loss of Longitudinal Landau Damping in Double Harmonic RF Systems impedance, damping, simulation, dipole 95
 
  • L. Intelisano, H. Damerau, I. Karpov
    CERN, Meyrin, Switzerland
 
  Landau damping is a natural stabilization mechanism to mitigate coherent beam instabilities in the longitudinal phase space plane. In a single RF system, binominal particle distributions with a constant inductive impedance above transition (or capacitive below) would lead to a vanishing threshold for the loss of Landau damping, which can be avoided by introducing an upper cut-off frequency to the impedance. This work aims at expanding the recent loss of Landau damping studies to the common case of double harmonic RF systems. Special attention has been paid to the configuration in the SPS with a higher harmonic RF system at four times the fundamental RF frequency, and with both RF systems in counter-phase (bunch shortening mode). Refined analytical estimates for the synchrotron frequency distribution allowed to extend the analytical expression for the loss of Landau damping threshold. The results are compared with semi-analytical calculations using the MELODY code, as well as with macroparticle simulations in BLonD.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-HB2021-MOP15  
About • Received ※ 16 October 2021 — Revised ※ 19 October 2021 — Accepted ※ 05 February 2022 — Issue date ※ 11 April 2022
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MOP16 New Analytical Criteria for Loss of Landau Damping in Longitudinal Plane impedance, damping, space-charge, dipole 100
 
  • I. Karpov, T. Argyropoulos, E.N. Shaposhnikova
    CERN, Meyrin, Switzerland
  • S. Nese
    University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
 
  Landau damping is a very important stabilization mechanism of beams in circular hadron accelerators. In the longitudinal plane, Landau damping is lost when the coherent mode is outside of the incoherent synchrotron frequency spread. In this paper, the threshold for loss of Landau damping (LLD) for constant inductive impedance ImZ/k is derived using the Lebedev matrix equation (1968). The results are confirmed by direct numerical solutions of the Lebedev equation and using the Oide-Yokoya method (1990). For more realistic impedance models of the ring, new definitions of an effective impedance and the corresponding cutoff frequency are introduced which allow using the same analytic expression for the LLD threshold. We also demonstrate that this threshold is significantly overestimated by the Sacherer formalism based on the previous definition of an effective impedance using the eigenfunctions of the coherent modes.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-HB2021-MOP16  
About • Received ※ 16 October 2021 — Revised ※ 24 October 2021 — Accepted ※ 02 December 2021 — Issue date ※ 11 April 2022
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TUAC1 Self-Consistent Long-Term Dynamics of Space Charge Driven Resonances in 2D and 3D resonance, space-charge, emittance, simulation 160
 
  • A. Oeftiger, I. Hofmann
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
  • O. Boine-Frankenheim
    TEMF, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany
 
  Understanding the 3D collective long-term response of beams exposed to resonances is of theoretical interest and essential for advancing high intensity synchrotrons. This study of a hitherto unexplored beam dynamical regime is based on 2D and 3D self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations and on careful analysis using tune spectra and phase space. It shows that in Gaussian-like beams Landau damping suppresses all coherent parametric resonances, which are of higher than second order (the "envelope instability"). Our 3D results are obtained in an exemplary stopband, which includes the second order coherent parametric resonance and a fourth order structural resonance. They show that slow synchrotron oscillation plays a significant role. Moreover, for the early time evolution of emittance growth the interplay of incoherent and coherent resonance response matters, and differentiation between halo and different core regions is essential. In the long-term behavior we identify a progressive, self-consistent drift of particles toward and across the resonance, which results in effective compression of the initial tune spectrum. However, no visible imprint of the coherent features is left over, which only control the picture during the first one or two synchrotron periods. An intensity limit criterion and an asymptotic formula for long-term rms emittance growth are suggested. Comparison with the commonly used non-self-consistent "frozen space charge" model shows that in 3D this approximation yields a fast and useful orientation, but it is a conservative estimate of the tolerable intensity.
HB’21 talk on "Effect of Space Charge on Bunch Stability and Space Charge Compensation Schemes" based on this APS PR-AB published contribution.
 
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DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-HB2021-TUAC1  
About • Received ※ 11 October 2021 — Revised ※ 04 November 2021 — Accepted ※ 05 November 2021 — Issue date ※ 23 November 2021
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