Commissioning and Operations
Paper Title Page
MOP27 The Design and Implementation of Fast Machine Protection System for CSNS 151
  • P. Zhu, Y.C. He, D.P. Jin, Y.L. Zhang
    IHEP, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
  • L. Wang, X. Wu, K. Xue
    IHEP CSNS, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China
  The high-quality of fast machine protection system(FPS) is one of the significant conditions for the stable and reliable operation of the Chinese Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) accelerator. Based on the design concept of high availability, high reliability and high maintainability, we adopt the distributed architecture based on "high-performance Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip + Gigabit Transceiver with Low Power (GTP)+ VME bus read and write by real-time", which is demonstrated the superior performance to satisfy the requirements of the CSNS accelerator during commissioning and operation. The main design and implementation include: (1) develop diversity signal interface boards achieving a flexible interaction; (2) explore and realize protection strategies improving beam efficiency; (3) self-define and implement the creative and practical functions enhancing the robustness of the system, such as signal heartbeat monitoring, fail-safe mechanism, automatic reset, and so on. The CSNS accelerator fast machine protection system has been put into operation for nearly five years with strong operability and availability, thorough traversal and response time-consuming tests.  
poster icon Poster MOP27 [0.830 MB]  
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About • Received ※ 30 October 2021 — Revised ※ 24 October 2021 — Accepted ※ 05 November 2021 — Issue date ※ 11 April 2022
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TUIPI1 An Operationally Integrated Approach to the SNS 2.8 MW Power Upgrade 156
  • J. Galambos
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA
  Funding: This research used resources at the Spallation Neutron Source, a DOE Office of Science User Facility operated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
The SNS accelerator consist of a 1 GeV H linac and an accumulator ring producing a 1.4 MW pulsed proton beam which drives a spallation neutron source. The Proton Power Upgrade project will double the power capability from 1.4 to 2.8 MW by increasing the linac energy 30% and the beam current about 50%. Equipment upgrades include new superconducting RF cryomodules and supporting RF equipment, upgraded ring equipment, and upgraded high power target systems. An important aspect of the upgrade is a gradual power ramp-up starting in 2022 in which new equipment is installed during maintenance outages as it arrives.
slides icon Slides TUIPI1 [3.795 MB]  
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About • Received ※ 03 October 2021 — Revised ※ 19 October 2021 — Accepted ※ 02 November 2021 — Issue date ※ 24 November 2021
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ESS Linac Commissioning Planning, Status and Preliminary Results  
  • R. Miyamoto
    ESS, Lund, Sweden
  European Spallation Source (ESS), currently under construction in Lund, Sweden, will be a spallation neutron source driven by a proton linac. The linac features an unprecedented design beam power of 5 MW and 2.86 ms long pulses at 14 Hz and is now in the phase where components manufacturing, installations, and commissioning are ongoing in parallel. The first stage of the linac commissioning for the source and low energy beam transport was conducted from 2018 to 2019. Preparations are progressing for commissioning of the rest of the normal-conducting part of the linac, which is about to commence this autumn. This paper presents the overall plan and status of the ESS linac commissioning, including the results from the first commissioning stage and with focus to the upcoming stages for the normal-conducting part of the linac.  
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CiADS Project: Next Phase and Linac Commissioning Results  
  • Y. He, Q. Chen, W.L. Chen, Y.X. Chen, W.P. Dou, C. Feng, Z. Gao, G. Huang, H. Jia, T.C. Jiang, S.H. Liu, Z.J. Wang, F. Yang, S.H. Zhang, H.W. Zhao
    IMP/CAS, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China
  Funding: Supported by Strategic Priority Research Program of CAS Grant No. XDA03020000; Nature Science Funding Grant No. 91426303; Nature Science Funding Grant No. 11525523
China initiative Accelerator Driven System (CiADS) is to demostrate the feasibility of nuclear waste transmutition by using ADS. It will be the world first MW ADS facility. It consists of a supercondcuting linac with energy of 500 MeV and current of 5 mA, a Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) target and a fast LBE reactor with 10 MWt. The project period is 6 years. The budget of CiADS was approved in July 2021 and started constructing. The updating design will be introduced. A superconducting linac, CAFe, has been constructed since 2011 to demostrated the technologies of high intensity of 10 mA and high reliability for ADS. It got the first 25 MeV continuous-wave (CW) proton in 2017. It was impproved in the past 3 years and just achieved the record of 10 mA, 205 kW, CW proton beam in March. A non-stop operation of 108 hours at around 7 mA was done to test the reliablity. Most trips was recovered with 10 seconds and the availability is more than 93%. The beam dynamic will be compared with the diagnostics’ results at differenct beam current. It shows the indenpendence with the beam current. The mechine protection stratigy towards the availability will also be introduced.
slides icon Slides WEIPI1 [13.928 MB]  
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WEBC3 MYRRHA-MINERVA Injector Status and Commissioning 186
  • A. Gatera, J. Belmans, S. Boussa, F. Davin, W. De Cock, V.R.A. De florio, F. Doucet, L. Parez, F. Pompon, A. Ponton, D. Vandeplassche, E. Verhagen
    SCK•CEN, Mol, Belgium
  • Dr. Ben Abdillah, C. Joly, L. Perrot
    Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS/IN2P3, IJCLab, Orsay, France
  • F. Bouly, E. Froidefond, A. Plaçais
    LPSC, Grenoble Cedex, France
  • H. Podlech
    IAP, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
  • J. Tamura
    JAEA/J-PARC, Tokai-mura, Japan
  • C. Zhang
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
  The MYRRHA project at SCK•CEN, Belgium, aims at coupling a 600 MeV proton accelerator to a subcritical fission core operating at a thermal power of 60 MW. The nominal proton beam for this ADS has an intensity of 4 mA and is delivered in a quasi-CW mode. MYRRHA’s linac is designed to be fault tolerant thanks to redundancy implemented in parallel at low energy and serially in the superconducting linac. Phase 1 of the project, named MINERVA, will realise a 100 MeV, 4 mA superconducting linac with the mission of demonstrating the ADS requirements in terms of reliability and of fault tolerance. As part of the reliability optimisation program the integrated prototyping of the MINERVA injector is ongoing at SCK•CEN in Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. The injector test stand aims at testing sequentially all the elements composing the front-end of the injector. This contribution will highlight the beam dynamics choices in MINERVA’s injector and their impact on ongoing commissioning activities.
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slides icon Slides WEBC3 [3.128 MB]  
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About • Received ※ 14 October 2021 — Revised ※ 21 October 2021 — Accepted ※ 22 November 2021 — Issue date ※ 28 December 2021
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WEDC1 Study on the Injection Beam Commissioning and Painting Methods for CSNS/RCS 191
  • M.Y. Huang, S. Wang, S.Y. Xu
    IHEP, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
  Funding: Work supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Project Nos. 12075134 and U1832210 )
In this paper, firstly, the beam commissioning of the injection system for CSNS/RCS will be studied, including: timing adjustment of the injection pulse powers, injection beam parameter matching, calibration of the injection painting bumps, measurement of the painting distribution, injection method adjustment, application of the main stripping foil, optimization of the injection beam loss and radiation dose, etc. Secondly, the painting methods for the CSNS/RCS will be studied, including: the fixed-point injection method, anti-correlated painting method and correlated painting method. The results of the beam commissioning will be compared with the simulation results. Combining with other precise optimizations, the beam power on the target has successfully reached the design value of 100kW and the stable operation of the accelerator has been achieved.
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About • Received ※ 10 October 2021 — Revised ※ 19 October 2021 — Accepted ※ 22 November 2021 — Issue date ※ 05 January 2022
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WEDC2 Acceleration of the High Current Deuteron Beam Through the IFMIF-EVEDA RFQ: Confirmation of the Design Beam Dynamics Performances 197
  • L. Bellan, L. Antoniazzi, M. Comunian, E. Fagotti, M.G. Giacchini, F. Grespan, M. Montis, A. Palmieri, A. Pisent, M. Poggi
    INFN/LNL, Legnaro (PD), Italy
  • T. Akagi, K. Kondo, K. Masuda, M. Sugimoto
    QST, Aomori, Japan
  • B. Bolzon, N. Chauvin
    CEA-IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • P. Cara, F. Scantamburlo
    IFMIF/EVEDA, Rokkasho, Japan
  • Y. Carin, H. Dzitko
    F4E, Germany
  • D. Jimenez-Rey, I. Podadera
    CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain
  • J. Marroncle
    CEA-DRF-IRFU, France
  • I. Moya
    Fusion for Energy, Garching, Germany
  The Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator (LIPAc) is a high intensity D+ linear accelerator; demonstrator of the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). In summer 2019 the IFMIF/EVEDA Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerated its nominal 125 mA deuteron (D+) beam current up to 5 MeV, with >90% transmission for pulses of 1 ms at 1 Hz, reaching its nominal beam dynamics goal. The paper presents the benchmark simulations and measurements performed to characterize the as-built RFQ performances, in the low and high perveance regime. In this framework, the commissioning strategy with a particular focus on the reciprocal effects of the low-medium energy transfers lines and the RFQ is also discussed. In the last part of the paper, the future commissioning outlooks are briefly introduced.  
slides icon Slides WEDC2 [2.696 MB]  
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About • Received ※ 05 October 2021 — Revised ※ 20 October 2021 — Accepted ※ 22 November 2021 — Issue date ※ 27 January 2022
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WEDC3 Status of FRIB Commissioning 203
  • P.N. Ostroumov, F. Casagrande, K. Fukushima, M. Ikegami, T. Kanemura, S.H. Kim, S.M. Lidia, G. Machicoane, T. Maruta, D.G. Morris, A.S. Plastun, J.T. Popielarski, J. Wei, T. Xu, T. Zhang, Q. Zhao, S. Zhao
    FRIB, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science under Cooperative Agreement DE-SC0000661, the State of Michigan and Michigan State University.
The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), a major nuclear physics facility for research with fast, stopped, and reaccelerated rare isotope beams, is approaching the commencement of user operation in 2022 as planned. The readiness of the linear accelerator for the production of rare isotopes was verified by the acceleration of Xenon-124 and Krypton-86 heavy ion beams to 212 MeV/u using all 46 cryomodules with 324 superconducting cavities. Several key technologies were successfully developed and implemented for the world’s highest energy continuous wave heavy ion beams, such as full-scale cryogenics and superconducting radiofrequency resonator system, stripping heavy ions with a thin liquid lithium film flowing in an ultrahigh vacuum environment, and simultaneous acceleration of multiple-charge-state-heavy ion beams. These technologies are required to achieve ultimate FRIB beam energies beyond 200 MeV/u and beam power up to 400 kW. High intensity pulsed beams capable in delivering 200 kW beams to the target in CW mode were studied in the first segment of the linac.
slides icon Slides WEDC3 [2.437 MB]  
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About • Received ※ 16 October 2021 — Revised ※ 20 October 2021 — Accepted ※ 22 November 2021 — Issue date ※ 24 December 2021
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Optimizing Performance of a the SNS High Power SCL  
  • A.P. Shishlo
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA
  • C.C. Peters
    ORNL RAD, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA
  Funding: This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC0500OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
Overall performance of the SNS accelerator complex depends on all its components from the front end to the target. This presentation overviews performance optimization of one component, namely the superconducting linac (SCL). The SNS is a user facility, so the performance is defined by the availability of the facility to users which should be maximized. The theoretical algorithms, software applications, and practical aspects that were used to optimize SCL performance at SNS are discussed. The details of the speeding up and automation of SCL tuning/retuning process are presented.
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THDC1 Slow Extraction Operation at J-PARC Main Ring 219
  • M. Tomizawa, Y. Arakaki, T. Kimura, S. Murasugi, R. Muto, H. Nishiguchi, K. Okamura, Y. Shirakabe, Y. Sugiyama, E. Yanaoka, M. Yoshii
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • K. Noguchi
    Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
  • F. Tamura
    JAEA/J-PARC, Tokai-mura, Japan
  A high-intensity proton beam accelerated in the J-PARC main ring (MR) is slowly extracted by using the third integer resonance and delivered to the experimental hall. A critical issue in slow extraction (SX) is a beam loss caused during the extraction. A dynamic bump scheme under an achromatic condition provides extremely high extraction efficiency. We have encountered a beam instability in the debunch formation process, which is estimated to be triggered by a longitudinal microstructure of the beam. To suppress this instability, the beam to the MR has been injected into the RF bucket with a phase offset. A newly developed RF manipulation, 2-step voltage debunch, has successfully pushed up the beam power up to 64.6 kW keeping a high extraction efficiency of 99.5%. A drastic beam loss reduction has been demonstrated in the beam test using a diffuser installed upstream of the first electrostatic septum (ESS1). 8 GeV bunched slow extraction tests for the neutrino-less muon to electron conversion search experiment (COMET Phase-I) have been successfully conducted.  
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About • Received ※ 18 October 2021 — Revised ※ 22 October 2021 — Accepted ※ 22 November 2021 — Issue date ※ 03 December 2021
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THDC2 Commissioning of the ESS Front End 225
  • N. Milas, C.S. Derrez, E.M. Donegani, M. Eshraqi, B. Gålander, H. Hassanzadegan, E. Laface, Y. Levinsen, R. Miyamoto, M. Muñoz, E. Nilsson, D.C. Plostinar, A.G. Sosa, R. Tarkeshian, C.A. Thomas
    ESS, Lund, Sweden
  The European Spallation Source, currently under construction in Lund, Sweden, will be the brightest spallation neutron source in the world, when the proton linac driver achieves the design power of 5 MW at 2 GeV beam energy. Such a high power requires production, efficient acceleration, and transport of a high current proton beam with minimal loss. This implies in a challenging design and beam commissioning of this machine. The linac features a long pulse length of 2.86 ms at a relatively low repetition late of 14 Hz. The ESS ion source and low energy beam transport are in-kind contributions from INFN-LNS. Beam commissioning of this section started in September 2018 and continued until early July in 2019. This article presents highlights from a campaign of beam characterizations and optimizations during this beam commissioning stage.  
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About • Received ※ 17 October 2021 — Revised ※ 20 October 2021 — Accepted ※ 22 November 2021 — Issue date ※ 01 December 2021
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Summary WG-D  
  • M. Comunian
    INFN/LNL, Legnaro (PD), Italy
  • S.M. Cousineau
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA
  • S. Igarashi
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • S. Wang
    IHEP, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
  Summary of the Working Group D (Commissioning and Operations)  
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