Proton and Ion Accelerators and Applications

2C - RFQs

Paper Title Page
MO302 Overview of Recent RFQ Projects 41
  • A. Schempp
    IAP, Frankfurt am Main

RFQs are the new standard injector for a number of projects. The development of the 4-Rod RFQ structure has led to a number of interesting developments, which will be discussed with actual projects as examples. Recent work on the FAIR - p linac, the GSI - high charge state injector upgrade, the GSI - HITRAP, the new BNL - EBIS-RFQ, and the RFQ of the MSU - CW Reaccelerator will be presented and the status of these projects and will be discussed.


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MOP032 Upgrade of the Unilac High Current Injector RFQ 136
  • A. Kolomiets, S. Minaev
    ITEP, Moscow
  • W. Barth, L.A. Dahl, H. Vormann, S. Yaramyshev
    GSI, Darmstadt

Funding: Work supported by the European Community INTAS Project Ref. no. 06-1000012-8782.
For the operation of the GSI-accelerator chain as an injector for the future FAIR facility a considerable increase of the heavy ion beam intensity by a factor 3-5 at the end of the UNILAC is required. The bottleneck of the whole UNILAC, is the front-end system of the High Current Injector. It is shown that the transverse RFQ-acceptance can be significantly increased while the emittance growth can be reduced. Both goals are achieved with only a moderate change of the RFQ electrode geometry; the intervane voltage raised from 125 kV to 155 kV keeping the design limit of the maximum field at the electrode surface. The changed resonant frequency can be compensated with a relatively small correction of the carrying rings. The beam parameters in the final focusing elements of the LEBT were improved together with the input radial matcher design; the length of the gentle buncher section was considerably increased to provide slow and smooth bunching resulting in a reduce influence of space charge forces. DYNAMION-simulation with the modified electrode design resulted in an increase of U4+-beam current of up to 20 emA. It is planned to start the upgrade measure in spring 2009.

MOP033 The New EBIS RFQ for BNL 139
  • M. Vossberg, B. Hofmann, A. Schempp, J.S. Schmidt, C. Zhang
    IAP, Frankfurt am Main
  • J.G. Alessi, D. Raparia, L. Snydstrup
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York

A new RFQ is being built as a part of the new EBIS-linac at BNL. The RFQ accepts highly charged ions from the EBIS ion source with energy of 17 keV/u and ion currents of up to 10 mA. The operation frequency will be 100.625 MHz . The design had been optimized to get a rather short structure with LRFQ=3.1 m with moderate electrode voltages of UQ = 70 kV. The resonant insert has a cooled base plate and solid stems and vane-electrodes. The mechanical design is very stiff, with a precise base-structure. The top lid along the RFQ allows installation, alignment, inspection and maintenance. After the mechanical alignment of the electrodes the longitudinal electrode voltage distribution will be adjusted with tuning plates between the stems. The properties of the RFQ, the results of the tuning and the status of the project will be discussed.

MOP034 Heavy Ion Radio-Frequency Quadrupole LINAC for VEC-RIB Facility 142
  • S. Dechoudhury, A. Bandyopadhyay, D. Bhowmick, A. Chakrabarti, T. Kundu Roy, M. Mondal, V. Naik, H.K. Pandey, D. Sanyal
    DAE/VECC, Calcutta

Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) would be the first post accelerator for the upcoming Rare Isotope Beam (RIB) facility at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), India. A 33.7 Mhz RFQ capable of accelerating stable as well as RI beams of q/A > 1/16 to about 30 keV/u has already been constructed and operational since September 2005 . This has been installed in a dedicated beam line for doing material science experiments. Another 3.4 m long RFQ resonating at 37.6 Mhz and capable of accelerating heavy ion beams up to 98 keV/u have been fabricated which is to be installed in the beam line for the VEC-RIB facility. The physical parameters,rf test along with the measurements of accelerated beams from RFQ would be presented.

MOP036 The IFMIF-EVEDA RFQ: Beam Dynamics Design 145
  • M. Comunian, A. Pisent
    INFN/LNL, Legnaro, Padova
  • E. Fagotti
    Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Padova

The IFMIF-EVEDA (Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities) project foresees the construction of a high intensity deuteron accelerator up to 9 MeV, with the characteristics required for the actual IFMIF facility. The linac will be installed in Rokkasho, and INFN is in charge of the construction of a 5 MeV, 125 mA, deuteron RFQ operating at 175 MHz. In this article the beam dynamics design of this challenging RFQ is described, namely the design, the main outcomes in terms of beam particles physics, and finally the study of mechanical and rf field error tolerances. The RFQ design method has been aimed to the optimization of the voltage and R0 law along the RFQ, the accurate tuning of the maximum surface field and the enlargement of the acceptance in the final part of the structure. As a result this RFQ is characterized by a length shorter than in all previous design, very low losses (especially at higher energy) and small rf power dissipation.

MOP037 RF Design of the IFMIF-EVEDA RFQ 148
  • F. Grespan, A. Palmieri, A. Pisent
    INFN/LNL, Legnaro, Padova
  • F. Grespan
    Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano

The RFQ of IFMIF-EVEDA project is characterized by very challenging specifications, with 125 mA of deuteron current accelerated up to 5 MeV. Upon beam dynamics studies, it has been chosen a law for the variation of R0 and voltage along the structure; this law provides a significant reduction in terms of structure length, beam losses and rf power consumption. Starting from these outcomes, the rf study of the RFQ, aimed at determining the optimum design of the cavity shape, was performed. The stabilization issues were also addressed, through the analysis of the RFQ sensitivity to geometrical errors, by means of perturbative theory-based algorithms developed for this purpose . Moreover the determination of the main 3D details of the structure was also carried out. In this article the results of the rf studies concerning the above-mentioned topics are outlined.

MOP038 Fabrication and Testing of TRASCO RFQ 151
  • E. Fagotti
    Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Padova
  • M. Comunian, E. Fagotti, F. Grespan, A. Palmieri, A. Pisent, C. Roncolato
    INFN/LNL, Legnaro, Padova
  • S.J. Mathot
    CERN, Geneva

The Legnaro National Laboratory (LNL) is building the 30 mA, 5 MeV front end injector for the production of intense neutron fluxes for interdisciplinary application. This injector comprises a proton source, a low energy beam transport line (LEBT), a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a beam transport line designed to provide a 150 kW beam to the berillium target used as neutron converter. The RFQ, developed within TRASCO project for ADS application, is designed to operate cw at 352.2 MHz. The structure is made of OFE copper and is fully brazed. The RFQ is built in 6 modules, each approximately 1.2 meter long. This paper covers the mechanical fabrication, the brazing results and acceptance tests for the various modules.


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MOP039 Design of a 2-Beam Type IH-RFQ Linac for High Intense Heavy Ion Beam Accelerations in Low Energy Region 154
  • T. Ishibashi, T. Hattori, N. Hayashizaki
    RLNR, Tokyo

In order to obtain high intensity ion beams from a linear accelerator (linac) stably, it is necessary to suppress the defocusing force due to the space charge effect. The defocusing force is extremely strong in low energy and high intensity beams. Therefore, high intensity ion beam acceleration in the low energy region is one of the most difficult conditions to achieve. One of the solutions is the relaxation of the defocusing force by dividing the high intensity beam into several beams. Thus, a multibeam IH type Radio Frequency Quadrupole (IH-RFQ) linac has been proposed for a high intensity injector system. In particular, we have been developing a two-beam type IH-RFQ cavity as a prototype of the multibeam type IH-RFQ by using computer code. This prototype has the capability of accelerating charged particles to mass ratio (q/A) greater than 1/6 from 5 keV/u up to 60 keV/u. The expected total output current is 87.2 mA for the total input beam current of 120 mA.

MOP040 The Radiofrequency Quadrupole Accelerator for the Linac4 157
  • C. Rossi, P. Bourquin, J.-B. Lallement, A.M. Lombardi, S.J. Mathot, M.A. Timmins, G. Vandoni, M. Vretenar
    CERN, Geneva
  • S. Cazaux, O. Delferrière, M. Desmons, R.D. Duperrier, A. France, D. Leboeuf, O. Piquet
    CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette

The first stage of acceleration in Linac4, the new 160 MeV CERN H- injector, is a 352 MHz, 3 m long Radiofrequency Quadrupole (RFQ) Accelerator. The RFQ will capture a 70 mA, 45 keV beam from the rf source and accelerate it to 3 MeV, an energy suitable for chopping and injecting the beam in a conventional Drift Tube Linac. Although the RFQ will be initially operated at low duty cycle (0.1%), its design is compatible with higher duty cycle (10%) as the front-end for a possible high-intensity upgrade of the CERN linac facility. The RFQ will be of the brazed-copper design and will be built and assembled at CERN. Beam dynamics design allows for a compact structure made of a single resonant unit. Field symmetry is ensured by fixed tuners placed along the structure. In this paper we present the rf and mechanical design, the beam dynamics and the sensitivity to fabrication and to rf errors.

MOP041 The Fabrication and Initial Testing of the HINS RFQ 160
  • G. Apollinari, B.M. Hanna, T.N. Khabiboulline, A. Lunin, A. Moretti, T.M. Page, G.V. Romanov, J. Steimel, R.C. Webber, D. Wildman
    Fermilab, Batavia
  • P.N. Ostroumov
    ANL, Argonne

Fermilab is designing and building the HINS front-end test facility. The HINS proton linear accelerator consists of a normal-conducting and a superconducting section. The normal-conducting (warm) section is composed of an ion source, a 2.5 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), a medium energy beam transport, and 16 normal-conducting crossbar H-type cavities that accelerate the beam to 10 MeV. Production of 325 MHz 4-vane RFQ is recently completed. This paper presents the design concepts for this RFQ, the mechanical design and tuning results. Issues that arose during manufacturing of the RFQ will be discussed and specific corrective modifications will be explained. The preliminary results of initial testing of RFQ at the test facility will be presented and comparisons with the former simulations will also be discussed.

MOP042 Complete RF Design of the HINS RFQ with CST MWS and HFSS 163
  • G.V. Romanov, A. Lunin
    Fermilab, Batavia

Similar to many other linear accelerators, the High Intensity Neutron Source requires an RFQ for initial acceleration and formation of the bunched beam structure. The RFQ design includes two main tasks: a) the beam dynamics design resulting in a vane tip modulation table for machining and b) the resonator electromagnetic design resulting in the final dimensions of the resonator. The focus of this paper is on the second task. We report complete and detailed rf modeling on the HINS RFQ resonator using simulating codes CST Microwave Studio (MWS) and Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS). All details of the resonator such as input and output radial matchers, the end cut-backs etc. have been precisely determined. Finally in the first time a full size RFQ model with modulated vane tips and all tuners installed has been built, and a complete simulation of RFQ tuning has been performed. Comparison of the simulation results with experimental measurements demonstrated excellent agreement.

MOP044 Status of DPIS Development in BNL 169
  • M. Okamura
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • T. Kanesue
    Kyushu University, Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Fukuoka
  • J. Tamura
    Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama

Direct injection scheme was proposed in 2000 at RIKEN in Japan. The first beam test was done at Tokyo Institute of Technology using a CO2 laser and an 80 MHz 4 vane RFQ in 2001, and further development continued in RIKEN. In 2006, all the experimental equipment was moved to BNL and a new development program was started. We report on our recent activities at BNL including the use of a frozen gas target for the laser source, low charge state ion beam production and a newly developed laser irradiation system.

MOP045 Design Study of a DPIS Injector for a Heavy Ion FFAG 172
  • M. Okamura, D. Raparia
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • K. Ishibashi, T. Kanesue, Y. Yonemura
    Kyushu University, Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Fukuoka

Direct plasma injection scheme has been developed recently for producing and accelerating intense pulsed heavy ion beams with high charge states. This new method uses a combination of a laser ion source and an RFQ linear accelerator and its repetition rate is determined by the laser system. Fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator is being focused as a high repetition synchrotron. An integration of these new techniques enables one to produce a large beam power with heavy ion beams. At Ito campus of Kyushu University, a proton FFAG is being installed. We propose to construct a new injector linac for the FFAG. The planned operating parameters are 100 Hz repetition rate, 20 mA of fully stripped carbon beam and 200 MHz operating frequency for the linac.