ROAC  —  Radio-Frequency Systems   (19-May-05   08:30—12:15)

Chair: S.G. Tantawi, SLAC, Menlo Park, California

Paper Title Page
ROAC001 Testing of the SNS Superconducting Cavities and Cryomodules 34
  • I.E. Campisi
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  Funding: SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge

The superconducting linac for the Spallation Neutron Source is in the process of being commissioned. Eighty-one cavities resonating at 805 MHz are installed in the SNS tunnel in 11 medium beta (.61) cryomodules each containing 3 cavities and 12 high beta (.81) cryomodules each with 4 cavities. The niobium cavities and cryomodules were designed and assembled at Jefferson Lab and installed in the SNS tunnel at Oak Ridge and are operating at 2.1 K. A preliminary test of one medium beta cryomodule was performed at 4.2 K in September 2004. All functional parameters of the cryomodule were proven to meet specifications at that temperature. The Central Helium Liquefier is being commissioned for 2.1 K operation and all cavities will be tested by late Spring 2005. The testing will include all of the functional parameters necessary for beam operation, to be carried out in summer 2005. The focus of the testing is to characterize the cavities’ maximum gradients and that sustained simultaneous operation can be achieved for all the cavities in preparation of beam commissioning. The results of cryomodule and cavity testing in the superconducting linac will be presented.

ROAC002 Overview of LLRF Systems
  • M. Liepe
    Cornell University, Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Ithaca, New York
  In the past two decades accelerator controls and feedback systems have changed dramatically. While in the past relative simple analog systems where used, present systems are highly complex, and all accelerators in planning or under construction heavily relay on advanced feedback and feedforward control schemes. The Low-Level-Radio-Frequency (LLRF) system not only stabilizes the field in the RF cavities, but also has to provide among other things frequency control, exception handling, extensive diagnostic, and performance and machine availability maximization. As manifold as the tasks are for the LLRF system, so are the challenges. Linac driven light sources require highest field stability, while pulsed machines or low beta linacs bring their own challenges for the LLRF system. This presentation reviews the challenges and demands on present and future LLRF systems, gives an overview of state-of-the-art solutions, and an introduction into a very active and exciting field of accelerator physics.  
ROAC003 Superconducting RF for Low-Velocity and Intermediate-Velocity Beams
  • T.L. Grimm, W. Hartung
    NSCL, East Lansing, Michigan
  Existing superconducting radio frequency (SRF) linacs are used to accelerate ions (protons through uranium) with velocities less than about 15% the speed of light, or electrons with velocities approximately equal to the speed of light. In the last ten years, prototype SRF cavities have completely covered the remaining range of velocities. They have demonstrated that SRF linacs will be capable of accelerating electrons from rest up to the speed of light, and ions from less than 1% up to the speed of light. When the Spallation Neutron Source is operational, SRF ion linacs will have covered the full range of velocities except for v/c ~ 0.15 to v/c ~ 0.5. A number of proposed projects (RIA, EURISOL) would span the latter range of velocities. Future SRF developments will have to address the trade-offs associated with a number of issues, including high gradient operation, longitudinal and transverse acceptance, microphonics, Lorentz detuning, operating temperature, cryogenic load, number of gaps or cells per cavity, proximity of magnetostatic focussing elements, and higher-order-mode damping. An overview of recent developments and future areas of interest will be presented.  
ROAC004 High Gradient Performance of NLC/GLC X-Band Accelerating Structures 372
  • S. Doebert, C. Adolphsen, G.B. Bowden, D.L. Burke, J. Chan, V.A. Dolgashev, J.C. Frisch, R.K. Jobe, R.M. Jones, R.E. Kirby, J.R. Lewandowski, Z. Li, D.J. McCormick, R.H. Miller, C.D. Nantista, J. Nelson, C. Pearson, M.C. Ross, D.C. Schultz, T.J. Smith, S.G. Tantawi, J.W. Wang
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • T.T. Arkan, C. Boffo, H. Carter, I.G. Gonin, T.K. Khabiboulline, S.C. Mishra, G. Romanov, N. Solyak
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  • Y. Funahashi, H. Hayano, N. Higashi, Y. Higashi, T. Higo, H. Kawamata, T. Kume, Y. Morozumi, K. Takata, T. T. Takatomi, N. Toge, K. Ueno, Y. Watanabe
    KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki
  Funding: Work Supported by DOE Contract DE-AC02-76F00515.

During the past five years, there has been an concerted effort at FNAL, KEK and SLAC to develop accelerator structures that meet the high gradient performance requirements for the Next Linear Collider (NLC) and Global Linear Collider (GLC) initiatives. The structure that resulted is a 60-cm-long, traveling-wave design with low group velocity (< 4% c) and a 150 degree phase advance per cell. It has an average iris size that produces an acceptable short-range wakefield in the linacs, and dipole mode damping and detuning that adequately suppresses the long-range wakefield. More than eight such structures have operated over 1000 hours at a 60 Hz pulse rate at the design gradient (65 MV/m) and pulse length (400 ns), and have reached breakdown rate levels below the limit for the linear collider. Moreover, the structures are robust in that the breakdown rates continue to decrease over time, and if the structures are briefly exposed to air, the rates recover to their low values within a few days. This paper presents a final summary of the results from this program, which effectively ended last August with the selection of ‘cold’ technology for a next generation linear collider.

ROAC005 Present Status of J-PARC Ring RF Systems 475
  • M. Yoshii, S. Anami, E. Ezura, K. Hara, Y. Hashimoto, C. Ohmori, A. Takagi, M. Toda
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • M. Nomura, A. Schnase, F. Tamura, M. Yamamoto
    JAERI, Ibaraki-ken
  The accelerator of the J-PARC complex consists of the 400 MeV (initially 181 MeV) linac, the rapid cycling 3 GeV Synchrotron and the 50 GeV main Synchrotron. To accelerate an ultra-high intense proton beam, the synchrotrons require a high field gradient rf system (~25kV/m). Alleviating space charge effects is a key issue for minimizing beam losses during a cycle. Longitudinal bunch manipulation is also considered as well as acceleration. Magnetic alloy loaded cavities are the most practical choice for the J-PARC. Such system provides high field gradient, and broadband behavior. It is a stable passive system without tuning control. Multi-tone signals can be fed into the same cavity for acceleration and bunch manipulation. However, the harmonics of circulating beam current within the cavity bandwidth must be taken into account. A feed-forward scheme is used for compensating the beam induced voltages. The low level rf system is fully digital to provide precise control. The specification is based on high reliability and reproductivity. The design consideration of the whole rf system will be described and the current status presented.  
ROAC006 W-Band Source Development at Los Alamos
  • B.E. Carlsten, L.M. Earley, P. Ferguson, F.L. Krawczyk, J. M. Potter, S.J. Russell, Z-F. Wang
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico
  • S. Humphries
    Field Precision, Albuquerque, New Mexico
  Funding: This work was supported by funds from the Laboratory-Directed Research and Development program at Los Alamos National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the U.S. Department of Energy.

A high-power mm-wave source architecture is being developed at Los Alamos, based on the interaction of a sheet-electron beam with a ridged waveguide slow-wave structure. This type of traveling-wave source is capable of producing peak output rf powers up to 500 kW at 100 GHz. We will describe the source concept, present interaction simulations, and review rf structure design and cold test results and sheet beam propagation experiments.

ROAC007 RF Breakdown in Normal Conducting Single-cell Structures 595
  • V.A. Dolgashev, C.D. Nantista, S.G. Tantawi
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • Y. Higashi, T. Higo
    KEK, Ibaraki
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

Operating accelerating gradient in normal conducting accelerating structures is often limited by rf breakdown. The limit depends on multiple parameters, including input rf power, rf circuit, cavity shape and material. Experimental and theoretical study of the effects of these parameters on the breakdown limit in full scale structures is difficult and costly. We use 11.4 GHz single-cell traveling wave and standing wave accelerating structures for experiments and modeling of rf breakdown behavior. These test structures are designed so that the electromagnetic fields in one cell mimic the fields in prototype multicell structures for the X-band linear collider. Fields elsewhere in the test structures are significantly lower than that of the single cell. The setup uses matched mode converters that launch the circular TM01 mode into short test structures. The test structures are connected to the mode launchers with vacuum rf flanges. This setup allows economic testing of different cell geometries, cell materials and preparation techniques with short turn-around time. Simple 2D geometry of the test structures simplifies modeling of the breakdown currents and their thermal effects.

ROAC008 Atom Probe Tomography Studies of RF Materials 612
  • J. Norem
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  • P. Bauer
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  • J. Sebastian, D.N. Seidman
    NU, Evanston
  Funding: DOE

We are constructing a facility which combines an atom probe field ion microscope with a multi-element, in-situ deposition and surface modification capability. This system is dedicated to rf studies and the initial goal will be to understand the properties of evaporative coatings: field emission, bonding interdiffusion etc, to suppress breakdown and dark currents in normal cavities. We also hope to use this system to look more generally at interactions of surface structure and high rf fields. We will present preliminary data on structures relevant to normal and superconducting rf systems.

ROAC009 World Record Accelerating Gradient Achieved in a Superconducting Niobium RF Cavity 653
  • R.L. Geng, A.K. Seaman, V.D. Shemelin
    Cornell University, Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Ithaca, New York
  • H. Padamsee
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
  Funding: Work supported by NSF.

On November 16, 2004, an accelerating gradient of 46 MV/m was achieved (CW) in a superconducting niobium cavity with an unloaded quality factor (Q0) over 1·1010 at a temperature of 1.9 K. This represents a world record gradient in a niobium RF resonator. At a reduced temperature of 1.5-1.6 K, an enhanced Q0 was measured, ranging from 7·1010 at 5 MV/m to 2·1010 at 45 MV/m. The 1.3 GHz single-cell cavity has a reduced ratio of Hpk/Eacc, ensured by a reentrant geometry. The maximum peak surface electric and magnetic field exceeded 100 MV/m and 1750 Oe respectively. A soft multipacting barrier (predicted by calculations) was observed near 25 MV/m gradient and was easily processed through. Field emission in the cavity was negligibly small, and the highest field was limited by thermal breakdown. The cavity was built, processed, and tested with LEPP facilities at Cornell University. New techniques included half-cell heat treatment with yttrium for post-purification to RRR = 500, and vertical electropolishing the finished cavity.

ROAC010 Development of Ultra-Fast Silicon Switches for Active X-Band High Power RF Compression Systems 701
  • J. Guo, S.G. Tantawi
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  Funding: DOE

In this paper, we present the recent results of our research on the high power ultra-fast silicon RF switches. This switch is composed of a group of PIN diodes on a high purity SOI (silicon on oxide) wafer. The wafer is inserted into a cylindrical waveguide under T·1001 mode, performing switching by injecting carriers into the bulk silicon. Our current design is using a CMOS compatible process and the fabrication is accomplished at SNF (Stanford Nanofabrication Facility). This design is able to achieve sub-100ns switching time, while the switching speed can be improved further with 3-D device structure and faster circuit. Power handling capacity of the switch is at the level of 10MW. The switch was designed for active X-band RF pulse compression systems - especially for NLC, but it is also possible to be modified for other applications and other frequencies such as L-band.