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MPPP045 Two Dimensional Aspects of the Regenerative BBU in Two-Pass Recirculating Accelerators dipole, polarization, insertion, higher-order-mode 2872
  • E.P. Pozdeyev
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Funding: Work supported by DOE Contract DE-AC05-84ER40150.

In this paper, I present the formula, describing a threshold of the regenerative multi-pass Beam Breakup (BBU) for a single dipole higher order mode with arbitrary polarization in a two-pass accelerator with a general-form, 4x4 recirculation matrix. To illustrate specifics of the BBU in two dimensions, the formula is used to calculate the threshold for the reflecting and rotating optics of the recirculator that can lead to higher threshold currents. Then, I present a mathematical relation between transfer matrices between cavities of the accelerating structure and recirculation matrices for each cavity, which must be satisfied in order to successfully suppress the BBU by reflection or rotation in several cavities. At the end of the paper, a fast, two-dimensional BBU code developed at the Jefferson Lab is described.

TOAC004 Experimental Investigation of Beam Breakup in the Jefferson Laboratory 10 kW FEL Upgrade Driver damping, optics, simulation, quadrupole 369
  • C. Tennant, D. Douglas, K. Jordan, L. Merminga, E.P. Pozdeyev, H. Wang
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  • I.V. Bazarov
    Cornell University, Department of Physics, Ithaca, New York
  • G. Hoffstaetter
    Cornell University, Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Ithaca, New York
  • S. Simrock
    DESY, Hamburg
  • T.I. Smith
    Stanford University, Stanford, Califormia
  Funding: This work supported by the Office of Naval Research, the Joint Technology Office, the Commonwealth of Virginia, the Air Force Research Laboratory, Cornell University and by DOE Contract DE-AC05-84ER40150.

In recirculating accelerators, and in particular energy recovery linacs (ERLs), the maximum current has been limited by multipass, multibunch beam breakup (BBU), which occurs when the electron beam interacts with the higher-order modes (HOMs) of an accelerating cavity on the accelerating pass and again on the energy recovered pass. This effect is of particular concern in the design of modern high average current energy recovery accelerators utilizing superconducting technology. Experimental observations of the instability at the Jefferson Laboratory 10 kW Free-Electron Laser (FEL) are presented. Measurements of the threshold current for the instability are presented and compared to the predictions of several BBU simulation codes. To further characterize the instability, beam based measurements were made to determine the orientation of the dangerous HOMs. With BBU posing a threat to high current beam operation in the FEL, several suppression schemes were developed. These include direct damping of the dangerous HOMs and appropriately modifying the electron beam optics. Preliminary results of their effectiveness in raising the threshold current for stability are presented.

TPPP016 Beam Physics for the 12 GeV CEBAF Upgrade Project linac, polarization, optics, damping 1482
  • L. Merminga, J. F. Benesch, S.A. Bogacz, Y.-C. Chao, A. Freyberger, J.M. Grames, L. Harwood, R. Kazimi, G.A. Krafft, M. Spata, M. Tiefenback, M. Wiseman, B.C. Yunn, Y. Zhang
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Funding: Work supported by DOE Contract DE-AC05-84ER40150.

Beam physics aspects of the 12 GeV Upgrade of CEBAF are presented. The CEBAF Upgrade to 12 GeV is achieved via 5.5 recirculations through the linacs, and the installation of 10 new high-gradient cryomodules. A new experimental hall, Hall D, is envisioned at the end of North Linac. Simulation results for straight-through and recirculated injectors are summarized and compared. Beam transport designs are discussed and evaluated with respect to matching and beam breakup (BBU) optimization. Effects of synchrotron radiation excitation on the beam properties are calculated. BBU simulations and derived specifications for the damping of higher order modes of the new 7-cell cavities are presented. The energies that provide longitudinal polarization in multiple experimental halls simultaneously are calculated. Finally, a detailed optics design for the Hall D transport line has been obtained.

WPAP046 Injection Options for 12 GeV CEBAF Upgrade gun, simulation, injection, electron 2911
  • R. Kazimi, J. F. Benesch, Y.-C. Chao, J.M. Grames, G.A. Krafft, M. Tiefenback, B.C. Yunn, Y. Zhang
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  Funding: Work supported by DOE Contract DE-AC05-84ER40150.

Jefferson Lab is planning to upgrade the CEBAF accelerator from 6 to 12 GeV. In order to achieve this, the beam energy at injection into the main accelerator needs to increase from 67 MeV to either 123 or 134 MeV depending on the location of the new experimental hall relative to the accelerator. The present 100 keV electron source and beam formation to 5 MeV will remain unchanged; however, the present accelerating cryomodules in the injector cannot reach the higher injection energies. Consequently, two options for attaining these energies are considered: (1) replacing the present injector cryomodules with new, higher gradient cryomodules, or (2) re-circulating the beam through the existing cryomodules to achieve the necessary energy gain in two passes. In this paper we present simulation results and list the advantages and disadvantages of these two options.