Accelerator Systems
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Proposal of a 1 A-Class Deuteron Single-Cell Linac  
  • H. Okuno
    RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Japan
  A 1-ampere-class high-intensity deuteron linac is proposed for mitigating long-lived fission products (LLFPs) by nuclear transmutation. This accelerator does not have an RFQ linac as a front-end accelerator and consists of single-cell rf cavities with magnetic focusing elements to accelerate deuterons beyond 1 A up to 200 MeV/u.The concept of this accelerator and simulation results on beam dynamics will be presented in this talk.  
slides icon Slides MOCC1 [1.593 MB]  
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First Experience with Nb3Sn Accelerator Magnets  
  • G. Ambrosio
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics, through the US LHC Accelerator Upgrade Project (AUP), and by the High Luminosity LHC project at CERN.
The US HL-LHC Accelerator Upgrade Project (AUP) and the HL-LHC Project at CERN are producing low-beta quadrupoles to be used in the Inner Triplet elements of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). In the US, coils and magnets are being fabricated at peak production rate and coil fabrication is ~50% complete. Five magnets have been tested in vertical cryostat, and four of them have been accepted for use in Q1/Q3 cold masses. At CERN two prototypes have been assembled and tested in horizontal cryostat. This talk presents main results from fabrication and test of these components. In addition, it discusses main lessons learned and steps needed for large scale production of Nb3Sn accelerator magnets.
slides icon Slides MOCC2 [7.933 MB]  
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MOCC3 First Experience of Crystal Collimators During LHC Special Runs and Plans for the Future 12
  • M. D’Andrea, V. Avati, R. Bruce, M.E.J. Butcher, M. Deile, M. Di Castro, H. Garcia Morales, S. Jakobsen, J. Kašpar, I. Lamas Garcia, A. Masi, A. Mereghetti, D. Mirarchi, S. Redaelli, B. Salvachua, P. Serrano Galvez, M. Solfaroli Camillocci
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • B.S. Dziedzic, K.M. Korcyl
    IFJ-PAN, Kraków, Poland
  • Yu.A. Gavrikov
    PNPI, Gatchina, Leningrad District, Russia
  • K.H. Hiller
    DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen, Germany
  • N. Turini
    UNISI, Siena, Italy
  Bent crystals can deflect charged particles by trapping them within the potential well generated by neighboring crystalline planes and forcing them to follow the curvature of the crystal itself. This property has been extensively studied over the past decade at the CERN accelerator complex, as well as in other laboratories, for a variety of applications, ranging from beam collimation to beam extraction and in-beam fixed target experiments. In 2018, crystal collimators were operationally used for the first time at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) during a special high-beta* physics run with low-intensity proton beams, with the specific goal of reducing detector background and achieving faster beam halo removal. This paper describes the preparatory studies carried out by means of simulations, the main outcomes of the special physics run and plans for future uses of this innovative collimation scheme, including the deployment of crystal collimation for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade.  
slides icon Slides MOCC3 [2.138 MB]  
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About • Received ※ 03 October 2021 — Accepted ※ 22 November 2021 — Issue; date; ※; 13 January 2022  
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Muon Production Target Developments for PSI’s High Intensity Proton Accelerator  
  • D.C. Kiselev, P. Baumann, P.-A. Duperrex, M. Haj Tahar, S. Jollet, S. Joray, P.R. Kettle, D. Laube, A. Papa, D. Reggiani, T. Rostomyan, P. Schwendimann, R. Sobbia, V. Talanov
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  • A. Papa
    INFN-Pisa, Pisa, Italy
  The high intensity proton accelerator (HIPA) at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) delivers 590 MeV c.w. proton beam with currents of up to 2.4 mA, i.e. 1.4 MW beam power, which is at the forefront of current particle accelerators. Before dumping it into the spallation target SINQ for thermal and cold neutrons, the beam feeds two meson production targets Target M and Target E used for producing intense pion and muon beams for experiments of nuclear and material research. The targets consist of graphite wheels of effective thicknesses of 5 mm (Target M) and 40 mm or 60 mm (Target E). In 2019 two new graphite target designs were tested at Target Station E. One target type was aiming for better monitoring the beam position at the target, the other one improved the surface muon rate by 30 to 50 % depending on the viewing angle of the beam line. The second target type, called ’slanted’, is also foreseen for the upgrade of the Target Station M, the High Intensity Muon Beam project. First ideas towards the realization in 2028 will be presented.  
slides icon Slides MOCC4 [2.908 MB]  
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MOP01 Improvement of Capture Ratio for an X-Band Linac Based on Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm 18
  • J.Y. Li, T. Hu, J. Yang, B.Q. Zeng
    HUST, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China
  • H.G. Xu
    SINR, Jiading, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
  Funding: This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Project Numbers 11905074.
Electron linear accelerators with an energy of ~MeV are widely required in industrial applications. Whereas miniaturized accelerators, especially those working at X-band, attract more and more attention due to their compact structures and high gradients. Since the performance of a traveling wave (TW) accelerator is determined by its structures, considerable efforts must be made for structure optimization involving numerous and complex parameters. In this context, functional key parameters are obtained through deep analysis for structure and particle motion characteristics of the TW accelerator, then a multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) is successfully applied to acquire an optimized phase velocity distribution which can contribute to achieving a high capture ratio and a low energy spread. Finally, a low-energy X-band TW tube used for rubber vulcanization is taken as an example to verify the reliability of the algorithm under a single-particle model. The capture ratio is 91.2%, while the energy spread is 5.19%, and the average energy is 3.1MeV.
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About • Received ※ 04 October 2021 — Revised ※ 18 October 2021 — Accepted ※ 18 December 2021 — Issue date ※ 03 February 2022
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MOP02 Recent Improvements in the Beam Capture at Fermilab Booster for High Intensity Operation 23
  • C.M. Bhat, S. Chaurize, P. Derwent, M.W. Domeier, V.M. Grzelak, W. Pellico, J. Reid, B.A. Schupbach, C.-Y. Tan, A.K. Triplett
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  Funding: This manuscript has been authored by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics.
The Fermilab Booster is the oldest RCS in operation in the world. In current operations, it accelerates ~4.5E12ppp to 8 GeV at 15 Hz and will be upgraded to >6.7E12ppp at 20 Hz in the PIP-II era. Booster has 22 RF cavities with each capable of providing ~50 kV. These cavities are divided into two groups: A & B. In the tunnel, the cavities are cavities are placed in a BA, AB, ’ sequence. At injection, A & B cavities have anti-parallel RF phase which results in a net zero RF voltage on the beam. During beam capture, the RF voltage is increased adiabatically by decreasing the relative phase between them. At the end of beam capture, the feedback is turned on for beam acceleration. It is vital that for current operations and in the PIP-II era that these cavities are properly matched in both magnitude and phase to preserve the longitudinal emittance during the early part of the beam cycle and to offer full RF voltage on the beam. In this paper we describe the how the cavities are distributed and how the phases are measured with beam and then corrected and balanced. Data with high intensity beam capture is also presented.
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About • Received ※ 17 October 2021 — Revised ※ 16 November 2021 — Accepted ※ 22 November 2021 — Issue date ※ 28 January 2022
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Summary WG-C  
  • M. Chung
    UNIST, Ulsan, Republic of Korea
  • C.-Y. Tan
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  • D. Wollmann
    CERN, Meyrin, Switzerland
  Summary of the Working Group C (Accelerator Systems)  
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