Light Sources and Free-Electron Lasers

Insertion Devices

Paper Title Page
RPAE001 On the Issue of Phasing of Undulators at the Advanced Photon Source 764
  • R.J. Dejus
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38.

Placing two collinear undulators in the 5.6-m-long straight sections at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) can answer the demand for increased brilliance. Whether longitudinal phasing needs to be taken into account for optimum spectral performance has been investigated. A comprehensive computer simulation study was completed to study the effect of the electron beam emittance, the magnetic field quality of the undulators, and the magnetic field strength (K value) on the spectral performance. For a zero-emittance beam, the radiation spectra exhibit strong interference that depends sensitively on the phase between the undulators. For a realistic APS-emittance beam and beam energy spread, the strong and phase-sensitive interference is substantially smoothed. A summary of the key findings including intensity losses due to unphased undulators is reported in this paper.

RPAE002 Coupling Correction of a Circularly Polarizing Undulator at the Advanced Photon Source 805
  • L. Emery
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38.

The electromagnetic Circularly Polarizing Undulator (CPU) installed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring produces skew quadrupole field errors, which were initially corrected by a small skew quadrupole magnet at one end of the device. Because the storage ring is operated at 1% coupling or less, a correction not located at the source inside the CPU is insufficient, as we have confirmed in simulation. Adding a skew coil at the other end of the CPU allows us to make a complete correction of the coupling source in the undulator. Correction setpoints are determined by APS's general optimizing software with the vertical beam size of a x-ray pinhole image as a readback.

RPAE004 Parametric Mechanical Design of New Insertion Devices at the APS 889
  • J.H. Grimmer, R.T. Kmak
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: Work supported by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38.

Three permanent-magnet, planar, hybrid ID designs have recently been completed at the APS. The periods of the devices are 2.7 cm, 3.0 cm and 3.5 cm with nominal lengths of 2.4 m. Several design studies were performed for the initial 2.7 cm period device to investigate the utility of various design features. Then a parametric solid model for the initial device was developed and value engineered to minimize manufacturing, assembly and tuning costs. The model allowed the very rapid design of subsequent devices of similar periods and allowed commonality of several components of the IDs. This design family incorporates a low-cost method of pole retention and registration. Poles are secured by screws in two holes tapped into each pole. Pole location is registered by means of two small dowel pins for each pole in mating holes reamed into each pole and a base plate common to the poles and magnets. This base plate is flexible in bending along its length so shimming behind it can be used to accurately change the height of a pair of poles for tuning. Another feature of the design is modular construction to allow each device to be used full-length or shortened to a nominal 2.1 m length for use in APS "canted undulator" sectors.

RPAE005 The possibility for a Short-Period Hybrid Staggered Undulator 982
  • S. Sasaki
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38.

Much work is underway to develop superconducting undulators in order to generate brilliant hard x-ray radiation at many synchrotron radiation facilities. However, in spite of many R&D efforts, it might take several years to reach this goal. On the other hand, the possibilities of cryogenic permanent magnet undulators are being investigated in order to provide an interim solution for hard x-ray users’ needs at Spring-8 and other facilities. However, although the in-vacuum undulator technology is well established, the in-vacuum gap-motion mechanism at a low temperature might cause major concerns regarding reliability and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the possibility for a cryogenic short-period staggered undulator was investigated. A simple model calculation by RADIA* shows that the effective undulator field is 0.825 T for a 15-mm-period staggered undulator at 6 mm gap with 1.36 T solenoid field. The pole material was assumed to be dysprosium, which has a saturation magnetization of 3.3 T at 77 K. The achievable maximum field of this simply structured device is close to that of a cryogenic permanent magnet undulator. We present calculated performances of cryogenic staggered undulators at various periods and gaps.

*O. Chubar, P. Elleaume, J. Chavanne, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 481 (1998).

RPAE006 Feasibility Study on Introducing a Superconducting Wiggler to Saga Light Source 1021
  • S. Koda, Y. Iwasaki, T. Okajima, H. Setoyama, Y. Takabayashi, T. Tomimasu, K. Yoshida
    Saga Synchrotron Light Source, Industry Promotion Division, Saga City
  • H. Ohgaki
    Kyoto IAE, Kyoto
  • M. Torikoshi
    NIRS, Chiba-shi
  Saga light source (SAGA-LS) is the synchrotron radiation facility, which consists of 250 MeV electron linac and 1.4 GeV storage ring. We have a plan to introduce an existing superconducting wiggler, which has been developed for other project by National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The superconducting wiggler consists of a main pole of 7T and two side poles of 4T. Each pole is composed of a racetrack-shaped coil and an iron core. We have examined the effects of the wiggler on the beam optics when it is introduced into SAGA-LS. The distribution of multipole components in the planes perpendicular to the electron orbit, which is deformed by the wiggler fields, have been calculated using magnetic field calculation code RADIA. Then the lattice function and the dynamic aperture of the ring have been calculated by the lattice calculation code SAD. The results show that the tune shift due to the quadrupole component of the wiggler field is as large as to make horizontal beam orbit unstable. The dynamic aperture after the tune correction becomes small by about 20%. These effects due to multipole field are considered to be tolerable for the SAGA-LS.  
RPAE071 Touschek Lifetime and Undulator Damage in the Advanced Photon Source 3835
  • M. Borland, L. Emery
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38.

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has two insertion devices (IDs) with small-aperture vacuum chambers. The full vertical aperture in these chambers is 5 mm, while the inboard horizontal aperture is 15 mm. These devices suffer significant radiation damage, requiring frequent retuning. We recently hypothesized that the damage resulted from loss of Touschek-scattered particles on the horizontal aperture of the chambers. This results partly from the smallness of the aperture and partly from the pattern of the dispersion and beta functions in the low-emittance APS lattice. The horizontal scrapers were originally at a high-dispersion location, but, in the low-emittance lattice, they are at a fairly low-dispersion location. Similarly, the dispersion at the IDs was originally zero but is now close to the maximum for the lattice. In this paper, we summarize simulations and experiments that support our hypothesis and discuss plans to remedy the problem.