Author: Garlasché, M.     [Garlaschè, M.]
Paper Title Page
MOPWA030 Upgrade of the LHC Injection Kicker Magnets 729
  • M.J. Barnes, P. Adraktas, V. Baglin, G. Bregliozzi, S. Calatroni, F. Caspers, H.A. Day, L. Ducimetière, M. Garlaschè, V. Gomes Namora, J.M. Jimenez, N. Magnin, V. Mertens, E. Métral, B. Salvant, M. Taborelli, J.A. Uythoven, W.J.M. Weterings
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  The two LHC injection kicker systems, comprising 4 magnets per ring, produce a kick of 1.3 T.m with a rise-time of less than 900 ns and a flattop ripple of less than ±0.5%. A beam screen is placed in the aperture of each magnet, to provide a path for the image current of the high intensity LHC beam and screen the ferrite yoke against wake fields. The screen consists of a ceramic tube with conductors in the inner wall. The initially implemented beam screen ensured a low rate of electrical breakdowns while providing an adequate beam coupling impedance. Operation with increasingly higher intensity beams, stable for many hours at a time, now results in substantial heating of the ferrite yoke, sometimes requiring cool down over several hours before the LHC can be refilled. During the long shutdown in 2013/2014 all 8 kicker magnets will be upgraded with an improved beam screen and an increased emissivity of the vacuum tank. In addition equipment adjacent to the injection kickers and various vacuum components will also be modified to help reduce the vacuum pressure in the kickers during high-intensity operation. This paper discusses the upgrades as well as their preparation and planning.  
MOPWA031 Beam Induced Ferrite Heating of the LHC Injection Kickers and Proposals for Improved Cooling 732
  • M.J. Barnes, S. Calatroni, F. Caspers, L. Ducimetière, M. Garlaschè, V. Gomes Namora, V. Mertens, Z.K. Sobiech, M. Taborelli, J.A. Uythoven, W.J.M. Weterings
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • H.A. Day
    UMAN, Manchester, United Kingdom
  The two LHC injection kicker systems produce a kick of 1.3 T.m with a flattop duration variable up to 7860 ns, and rise and fall times of less than 900 ns and 3000 ns, respectively. A beam screen is placed in the aperture of each magnet, which consists of a ceramic tube with conductors in the inner wall. The conductors provide a path for the beam image current and screen the ferrite yoke against wake fields. Recent LHC operation, with high intensity beam stable for many hours, resulted in significant heating of both the ferrite yoke and beam impedance reduction ferrites. For one kicker magnet the ferrite yoke approached its Curie temperature. As a result of a long thermal time-constant the ferrites can require several hours to cool enough to re-inject beam, thus limiting the availability of the LHC. Thermal measurement data has been analysed, a thermal model developed and emissivity measurements carried out. The effects of various measures to improve the ferrite cooling have been simulated, including an improved emissivity of the vacuum tank and active cooling on the outside of the tank.  
TUPFI063 Electromagnetic Coupling between High Intensity LHC Beams and the Synchrotron Radiation Monitor Light Extraction System 1493
  • F. Roncarolo, W. Andreazza, A. Bertarelli, E. Bravin, F. Caspers, M. Garlaschè, A. Goldblatt, J-J. Gras, O.R. Jones, T. Lefèvre, E. Métral, A.A. Nosych, B. Salvant, G. Trad, R. Veness, C. Vollinger, M. Wendt
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  The CERN LHC is equipped with two Synchrotron Radiation Monitor systems used to characterise transverse and longitudinal beam distributions. Since the end of the 2011 LHC run the light extraction system, based on a retractable mirror, has suffered deformation and mechanical failure that is correlated to the increase in beam intensity. Temperature probes have associated these observations to a strong heating of the mirror support with a dependence on the longitudinal bunch length and shape, indicating the origin as electromagnetic coupling between the beam and the structure. This paper combines all this information with the aim of characterising and improving the system in view of its upgrade during the current LHC shutdown. Beam-based observations are presented along with electromagnetic and thermomechanical simulations and complemented by laboratory measurements, including the study of the RF properties of different mirror bulk and coating materials.  
TUPME032 Update on Beam Induced RF Heating in the LHC 1646
  • B. Salvant, O. Aberle, G. Arduini, R.W. Aßmann, V. Baglin, M.J. Barnes, W. Bartmann, P. Baudrenghien, O.E. Berrig, A. Bertarelli, C. Bracco, E. Bravin, G. Bregliozzi, R. Bruce, F. Carra, F. Caspers, G. Cattenoz, S.D. Claudet, H.A. Day, M. Deile, J.F. Esteban Müller, P. Fassnacht, M. Garlaschè, L. Gentini, B. Goddard, A. Grudiev, B. Henrist, S. Jakobsen, O.R. Jones, O. Kononenko, G. Lanza, L. Lari, T. Mastoridis, V. Mertens, N. Mounet, E. Métral, A.A. Nosych, J.L. Nougaret, S. Persichelli, A.M. Piguiet, S. Redaelli, F. Roncarolo, G. Rumolo, B. Salvachua, M. Sapinski, R. Schmidt, E.N. Shaposhnikova, L.J. Tavian, M.A. Timmins, J.A. Uythoven, A. Vidal, J. Wenninger, D. Wollmann, M. Zerlauth
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • H.A. Day
    UMAN, Manchester, United Kingdom
  • L. Lari
    IFIC, Valencia, Spain
  Since June 2011, the rapid increase of the luminosity performance of the LHC has come at the expense of increased temperature and pressure readings on specific near-beam LHC equipment. In some cases, this beam induced heating has caused delays whilie equipment cools down, beam dumps and even degradation of these devices. This contribution gathers the observations of beam induced heating attributable to beam coupling impedance, their current level of understanding and possible actions that are planned to be implemented during the long shutdown in 2013-2014.  
TUPWA042 Lessons Learned and Mitigation Measures for the CERN LHC Equipment with RF Fingers 1802
  • E. Métral, O. Aberle, R.W. Aßmann, V. Baglin, M.J. Barnes, O.E. Berrig, A. Bertarelli, G. Bregliozzi, S. Calatroni, F. Carra, F. Caspers, H.A. Day, M. Ferro-Luzzi, M.A. Gallilee, C. Garion, M. Garlaschè, A. Grudiev, J.M. Jimenez, O.R. Jones, O. Kononenko, R. Losito, J.L. Nougaret, V. Parma, S. Redaelli, B. Salvant, P.M. Strubin, R. Veness, C. Vollinger, W.J.M. Weterings
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  Beam-induced RF heating has been observed in several LHC components when the bunch/beam intensity was increased and/or the bunch length reduced. In particular eight bellows, out of the ten double-bellows modules present in the machine in 2011, were found with the spring, which should keep the RF fingers in good electrical contact with the central insert, broken. Following these observations, the designs of all the components of the LHC equipped with RF fingers have been reviewed. The lessons learnt and mitigation measures are presented in this paper.  
THPFI046 First Results of an Experiment on Advanced Collimator Materials at CERN HiRadMat Facility 3391
  • A. Bertarelli, O. Aberle, R.W. Aßmann, E. Berthomé, V. Boccone, M. Calderón Cueva, F. Carra, F. Cerutti, N. Charitonidis, C. Charrondière, A. Dallocchio, M. Donzé, P. Francon, M. Garlaschè, L. Gentini, M. Guinchard, N. Mariani, A. Masi, P. Moyret, S. Redaelli, A. Rossi, S.D.M. dos Santos
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • M. Calderón Cueva
    Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Cumbayá, Colombia
  • N. Charitonidis
    EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
  • L. Peroni, M. Scapin
    Politecnico di Torino, Torino, Italy
  Funding: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission under the FP7 Research Infrastructures project EuCARD, grant agreement no. 227579
A comprehensive, first-of-its-kind experiment (HRMT-14) has been recently carried out at CERN HiRadMat facility on six different materials of interest for Beam Intercepting Devices (collimators, targets, dumps). Both traditional materials (Mo, W and Cu alloys) as well as advanced metal/diamond and metal/graphite composites were tested under extreme conditions as to pressure, density and temperature, leading to the development of highly dynamic phenomena as shock-waves, spallation, explosions. Experimental data were acquired, mostly in real time, relying on extensive embarked instrumentation (strain gauges, temperature and vacuum sensors) and on remote acquisition devices (laser Doppler vibrometer and high speed camera). The experiment was a success under all points of view in spite of the technological challenges and harsh environment. First measurements are in good agreement with results of complex simulations, confirming the effectiveness of the acquisition system and the reliability of advanced numerical methods when material constitutive models are completely available. Interesting information has been collected as to thermal shock robustness of tested materials.
THPFI047 Design Guidelines for Ferrite Absorbers Submitted to RF-induced Heating 3394
  • A. Bertarelli, M. Garlaschè
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  The use of ferrite absorbers is one of the most effective means of damping potentially harmful high order RF modes, which may lead to beam instabilities and excessive power losses in accelerator devices. However, the power deposited on ferrite absorbers themselves may lead to ferrite exceeding its Curie temperature, losing its damping properties. An evaluation of the ferrite capability to dissipate deposited heat is hence of paramount importance for the safe design of particle accelerator devices. In this paper, figures of merit are proposed to assess the maximum specific power allowed on a generic ferrite tile, before it reaches its Curie temperature. Due to its inherent brittleness, sufficient contact pressure between ferrite and its housing, allowing heat transmission by conduction, can hardly be applied. A semi-analytical study is thus performed, assuming that ferrite is evacuating heat solely through radiation. The described method is then exemplified in the case of the BPM-embedded tertiary collimator (TCTP) designed in the framework of the LHC collimation upgrade.