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Tepikian, S.

Paper Title Page
TUPAS086 Snake Depolarizing Resonance Study in RHIC 1850
  • M. Bai, P. Cameron, H. Huang, A. U. Luccio, V. Ptitsyn, T. Roser, S. Tepikian
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: US Department of Energy, RIKEN(Japan), Renaissance Technologies Corp.(USA)

Snake depolarizing resonances due to the imperfect cancellation of the accumulated perturbations on the spin precession between snakes were observed at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider~(RHIC). During the RHIC 2005 and 2006 polarized proton runs, we mapped out the spectrum of odd order snake resonance at Qy=7/10. Here, Qy is the beam vertical betatron tune. We also studied the beam polarization after crossing the 7/10th resonance as a function of resonance crossing rate. This paper reports the measured resonance spectrum as well as the results of resonance crossing.

The work was performed under the US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH1-886, and with support of RIKEN(Japan) and RenaissanceTechnologies C orp.(USA)

TUOCKI02 Summary of the RHIC Performance during the FY07 Heavy Ion Run 722
  • K. A. Drees, L. Ahrens, J. G. Alessi, M. Bai, D. S. Barton, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, J. M. Brennan, K. A. Brown, D. Bruno, J. J. Butler, R. Calaga, P. Cameron, R. Connolly, T. D'Ottavio, W. Fischer, W. Fu, G. Ganetis, J. W. Glenn, M. Harvey, T. Hayes, H.-C. Hseuh, H. Huang, J. Kewisch, R. C. Lee, V. Litvinenko, Y. Luo, W. W. MacKay, G. J. Marr, A. Marusic, R. J. Michnoff, C. Montag, J. Morris, B. Oerter, F. C. Pilat, V. Ptitsyn, T. Roser, J. Sandberg, T. Satogata, C. Schultheiss, F. Severino, K. Smith, S. Tepikian, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J. E. Tuozzolo, A. Zaltsman, S. Y. Zhang
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work performed under Contract Number DE-AC02-98CH10886 under the auspices of the US Department of Energy.

After the last successful RHIC Au-Au run in 2004 (Run-4), RHIC experiments now require significantly enhanced luminosity to study very rare events in heavy ion collisions. RHIC has demonstrated its capability to operate routinely above its design average luminosity per store of 2x1026 cm-2 s-1. In Run-4 we already achieved 2.5 times the design luminosity in RHIC. This luminosity was achieved with only 40% of bunches filled, and with β* = 1 m. However, the goal is to reach 4 times the design luminosity, 8x1026 cm-2 s-1, by reducing the beta* value and increasing the number of bunches to the accelerator maximum of 111. In addition, the average time in store should be increased by a factor of 1.1 to about 60% of calendar time. We present an overview of the changes that increased the instantaneous luminosity and luminosity lifetime, raised the reliability, and improved the operational efficiency of RHIC Au-Au operations during Run-7.

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TUODKI04 Accelerating Polarized Protons to 250 GeV 745
  • M. Bai, L. Ahrens, I. G. Alekseev, J. G. Alessi, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, A. Bravar, J. M. Brennan, K. A. Brown, D. Bruno, G. Bunce, J. J. Butler, P. Cameron, R. Connolly, T. D'Ottavio, J. DeLong, K. A. Drees, W. Fischer, G. Ganetis, C. J. Gardner, J. W. Glenn, T. Hayes, H.-C. Hseuh, H. Huang, P. F. Ingrassia, J. S. Laster, R. C. Lee, A. U. Luccio, Y. Luo, W. W. MacKay, Y. Makdisi, G. J. Marr, A. Marusic, G. T. McIntyre, R. J. Michnoff, C. Montag, J. Morris, P. Oddo, B. Oerter, J. Piacentino, F. C. Pilat, V. Ptitsyn, T. Roser, T. Satogata, K. Smith, S. Tepikian, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J. E. Tuozzolo, M. Wilinski, A. Zaltsman, A. Zelenski, K. Zeno, S. Y. Zhang
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • D. Svirida
    ITEP, Moscow
  Funding: The work was performed under the US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH1-886, and with support of RIKEN(Japan) and Renaissance Technologies Corp.(USA)

The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider~(RHIC) as the first high energy polarized proton collider was designed to provide polarized proton collisions at a maximum beam energy of 250GeV. It has been providing collisions at a beam energy of 100GeV since 2001. Equipped with two full Siberian snakes in each ring, polarization is preserved during the acceleration from injection to 100GeV with careful control of the betatron tunes and the vertical orbit distortions. However, the intrinsic spin resonances beyond 100GeV are about a factor of two stronger than those below 100GeV making it important to examine the impact of these strong intrinsic spin resonances on polarization survival and the tolerance for vertical orbit distortions. Polarized protons were accelerated to the record energy of 250GeV in RHIC with a polarization of 45\% measured at top energy in 2006. The polarization measurement as a function of beam energy also shows some polarization loss around 136GeV, the first strong intrinsic resonance above 100GeV. This paper presents the results and discusses the sensitivity of the polarization survival to orbit distortions.

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TUODKI05 Overcoming Depolarizing Resonances in the AGS with Two Helical Partial Snakes 748
  • H. Huang, L. Ahrens, M. Bai, K. A. Brown, C. J. Gardner, J. W. Glenn, F. Lin, A. U. Luccio, W. W. MacKay, T. Roser, S. Tepikian, N. Tsoupas, K. Yip, K. Zeno
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work performed under contract No. DE-AC02-98CH1-886 with the auspices of the DoE of United States, and support of RIKEN(Japan).

Dual partial snake scheme has provided polarized proton beams with 1.5*1011 intensity and 65% polarization for RHIC spin program. To overcome the residual polarization loss due to horizontal resonances in the AGS, a new string of quadrupoles have been added. The horizontal tune can now be set in the spin tune gap generated by the two partial snakes, such that horizontal resonances are avoided. This paper presents the accelerator setup and preliminary results.

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TUOCC02 Progress in Tune, Coupling, and Chromaticity Measurement and Feedback during RHIC Run 7 886
  • P. Cameron, J. Cupolo, W. C. Dawson, C. Degen, A. Della Penna, L. T. Hoff, Y. Luo, A. Marusic, R. Schroeder, C. Schultheiss, S. Tepikian
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • M. Gasior
    CERN, Geneva
  Funding: US DOE

Tune feedback was first implemented in RHIC in 2002 as a specialist activity. The transition to full operational status was impeded by dynamic range problems, as well as by overall loop instabilities driven by large coupling. The dynamic range problem was solved by the CERN development of the Direct Diode Detection Analog Front End. Continuous measurement of all projections of the betatron Eigenmodes made possible the world's first implementation of coupling feedback during beam acceleration, resolving the problem of overall loop instabilites. Simultaneous tune and coupling feedbacks were utilized as specialist activities for ramp development during the 2006 RHIC run. At the beginning of the 2007 RHIC run there remained two obstacles to making these feedbacks fully operational in RHIC - chromaticity measurement and control, and the presence of strong harmonics of the power line frequency in the betatron spectrum. We report here on progress in tune, coupling, and chromaticity measurement and feedback, and discuss the relevance of our results to the LHC commissioning effort. The results of investigations of power line harmonics in RHIC are presented elsewhere in these proceedings.

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TUPAS099 A Near-Integer Working Point for Polarized Protons in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider 1871
  • C. Montag, M. Bai, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, R. Calaga, W. Fischer, A. K. Jain, Y. Luo, N. Malitsky, T. Roser, S. Tepikian
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy.

To achieve the RHIC polarized proton enhanced luminosity goal of 150*1030 cm-2 sec-1 on average in stores at 250 GeV, the luminosity needs to be increased by a factor of 3 compared to what was achieved in 2006. Since the number of bunches is already at its maximum of 111, limited by the injection kickers and the experiments' time resolution, the luminosity can only be increased by either increasing the bunch intensity and/or reducing the beam emittance. This leads to a larger beam-beam tuneshift parameter. Operation during 2006 has shown that the beam-beam interaction is already dominating the luminosity lifetime. To overcome this limitation, a near-integer working point is under study. We will present recent results of these studies.

TUPAS103 RHIC Challenges for Low Energy Operations 1877
  • T. Satogata, L. Ahrens, M. Bai, J. M. Brennan, D. Bruno, J. J. Butler, K. A. Drees, A. V. Fedotov, W. Fischer, M. Harvey, T. Hayes, W. Jappe, R. C. Lee, W. W. MacKay, G. J. Marr, R. J. Michnoff, B. Oerter, E. Pozdeyev, T. Roser, F. Severino, K. Smith, S. Tepikian, N. Tsoupas
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work supported by U. S. DOE under contract No DE-AC02-98CH1-886

There is significant interest in RHIC heavy ion collisions at c.m. energies of 5-50 GeV/u, motivated by a search for the QCD phase transition critical point. The low end of this energy range is well below the nominal RHIC injection c.m. energy of 19.6 GeV/u. There are several challenges that face RHIC operations in this regime, including longitudinal acceptance, magnet field quality, lattice control, and luminosity monitoring. We report on the status of work to address these challenges and include results from beam tests of low-energy RHIC operations with protons and gold.

WEOCKI03 Status of the R&D Towards Electron Cooling of RHIC 1938
  • I. Ben-Zvi, J. Alduino, D. S. Barton, D. Beavis, M. Blaskiewicz, J. M. Brennan, A. Burrill, R. Calaga, P. Cameron, X. Chang, K. A. Drees, A. V. Fedotov, W. Fischer, G. Ganetis, D. M. Gassner, J. G. Grimes, H. Hahn, L. R. Hammons, A. Hershcovitch, H.-C. Hseuh, D. Kayran, J. Kewisch, R. F. Lambiase, D. L. Lederle, V. Litvinenko, C. Longo, W. W. MacKay, G. J. Mahler, G. T. McIntyre, W. Meng, B. Oerter, C. Pai, G. Parzen, D. Pate, D. Phillips, S. R. Plate, E. Pozdeyev, T. Rao, J. Reich, T. Roser, A. G. Ruggiero, T. Russo, C. Schultheiss, Z. Segalov, J. Smedley, K. Smith, T. Tallerico, S. Tepikian, R. Than, R. J. Todd, D. Trbojevic, J. E. Tuozzolo, P. Wanderer, G. Wang, D. Weiss, Q. Wu, K. Yip, A. Zaltsman
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • D. T. Abell, G. I. Bell, D. L. Bruhwiler, R. Busby, J. R. Cary, D. A. Dimitrov, P. Messmer, V. H. Ranjbar, D. S. Smithe, A. V. Sobol, P. Stoltz
    Tech-X, Boulder, Colorado
  • A. V. Aleksandrov, D. L. Douglas, Y. W. Kang
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  • H. Bluem, M. D. Cole, A. J. Favale, D. Holmes, J. Rathke, T. Schultheiss, J. J. Sredniawski, A. M.M. Todd
    AES, Princeton, New Jersey
  • A. V. Burov, S. Nagaitsev, L. R. Prost
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  • Y. S. Derbenev, P. Kneisel, J. Mammosser, H. L. Phillips, J. P. Preble, C. E. Reece, R. A. Rimmer, J. Saunders, M. Stirbet, H. Wang
    Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia
  • V. V. Parkhomchuk, V. B. Reva
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk
  • A. O. Sidorin, A. V. Smirnov
    JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region
  Funding: Work done under the auspices of the US DOE with support from the US DOD.

The physics interest in a luminosity upgrade of RHIC requires the development of a cooling-frontier facility. Detailed cooling calculations have been made to determine the efficacy of electron cooling of the stored RHIC beams. This has been followed by beam dynamics simulations to establish the feasibility of creating the necessary electron beam. Electron cooling of RHIC at collisions requires electron beam energy up to about 54 MeV at an average current of between 50 to 100 mA and a particularly bright electron beam. The accelerator chosen to generate this electron beam is a superconducting Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) with a superconducting RF gun with a laser-photocathode. An intensive experimental R&D program engages the various elements of the accelerator: Photocathodes of novel design, superconducting RF electron gun of a particularly high current and low emittance, a very high-current ERL cavity and a demonstration ERL using these components.

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FRPMS110 Online Nonlinear Chromaticity Correction Using Off-Momentum Tune Response Matrix 4357
  • Y. Luo, W. Fischer, N. Malitsky, S. Tepikian, D. Trbojevic
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work supported by U. S. DOE under contract No DE-AC02-98CH10886.

With 8 arc sextupole families in each RHIC ring, the nonlinear chromaticities can be corrected on-line by matching the off-momentum tunes onto the wanted off-momentum tunes with linear chromaticity only. The Newton method with singular value decomposition (SVD) technique is used for this multi-dimensional nonlinear optimization, where the off-momentum tune response matrix with respect to sextupole strength changes is adopted to simplify and fasten the on-line optimization process. The off-momentum tune response matrix can be calculated with the on-line accelerator optics model or directly measured with the real beam. This correction method will be verified and used in the coming RHIC run'07.

FRPMS111 Dynamic Aperture Evaluation at the Current Working Point for RHIC Polarized Proton Operation 4363
  • Y. Luo, M. Bai, J. Beebe-Wang, W. Fischer, A. K. Jain, C. Montag, T. Roser, S. Tepikian, D. Trbojevic
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work supported by U. S. DOE under contract No DE-AC02-98CH10886.

To further improve the the polarized proton (pp) luminosity in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, the beta functions at the two interaction points (IPs) will be reduced from 1.0 m to 0.9m in 2007. In addition, it is planned to increase the bunch intensity from 1.5*1011 to 2.0*1011. To accommodate these changes, the nonlinear chromaticities and the third resonance driving term should be corrected. In 2007, the number of the arc sextupole power supplies will be doubled from 12 to 24, which allows nonlinear chromaticity correction. With the updated field errors in the interaction regions (IRs), detailed dynamic aperture studies are carried out to optimize the nonlinear correction schemes, and increase the available tune space in collision.

THPAS103 Design of a Thin Quadrupole to be Used in the AGS Synchrotron 3723
  • N. Tsoupas, L. Ahrens, R. Alforque, M. Bai, K. A. Brown, E. D. Courant, J. W. Glenn, H. Huang, A. K. Jain, W. W. MacKay, M. Okamura, T. Roser, S. Tepikian
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work supported by the US Department of Energy

The AGS synchrotron employs two partial helical snakes* to preserve the polarization of the proton beam during acceleration in the AGS. The effect of the helical snakes on the beam optics is significant at injection energy, with the effect greatly diminishing early in the acceleration cycle. In order to compensate for the effect of the snakes on the beam optics, we have introduced eight compensation quadrupoles in straight sections of the AGS at the proximity of the partial snakes. At injection the strength of these eight quads is set at a high value but ramped down to zero when the effect of the snakes diminishes. Four of the compensation quadrupoles had to be placed in very short straight sections therefore had to be 'thin' with a length of ~30 cm. The 'thin' quadrupoles were laminated and designed to minimize the strength of the dodecoupole harmonic. The thickness of the lamination was also calculated** to keep the ohmic losses generated by the eddy currents in the laminations below an acceptable limit. Comparison of the measured and calculated harmonics will be presented and the ohmic losses due to the eddy currents, as a function of time during rumping will be discussed.

* H. Huang, et al., Proc. EPAC06, (2006), p. 273.** OPERA computer code. Vector Fields Inc.