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Conde, M. E.

Paper Title Page
WEXKI03 Survey of Advanced Dielectric Wakefield Accelerators 1899
  • M. E. Conde
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: Work supported by the US Department of Energy under contract # DE-AC02-06CH11357.

There has been continued interest in the development of dielectric-loaded wakefield structures that can be used to accelerate particle beams. The present search for materials able to withstand very intense RF fields has renewed this interest. Recent experiments at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator have generated short RF pulses with accelerating fields in excess of 80 MV/m. These experiments used ceramic-lined cylindrical waveguides, operating at frequencies between 10 and 15 GHz. Other important experiments, at different RF frequencies and using planar or cylindrical geometries, have been carried out at various other facilities. A number of new experiments are planned in the near future to explore the capabilities of this class of structures. This presentation will provide an up-to-date survey of the activities in this area of research.

slides icon Slides  
THPMN085 Proposed Dark Current Studies at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Facility 2904
  • S. P. Antipov, M. E. Conde, W. Gai, J. G. Power, Z. M. Yusof
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  • V. A. Dolgashev
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • L. K. Spentzouris
    Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois
  Funding: US Department of Energy

A study of breakdown mechanism has been initiated at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Facility (AWA). Breakdown may include several factors such as local field enhancement, explosive electron emission, Ohmic heating, tensile stress produced by electric field, and others. The AWA is building a dedicated facility to test various models for breakdown mechanisms and to determine the roles of different factors in the breakdown. An imaging system is being put together to identify single emitters on the cathode surface. This will allow us to study dark current properties in the gun. We also plan to trigger breakdown events with a high-powered laser at various wavelengths (IR to UV). Another experimental idea follows from the recent work on a Schottky-enabled photoemission in an RF photoinjector that allows us to determine in situ the field enhancement factor on a cathode surface. Monitoring the field enhancement factor before and after can shed some light on a modification of metal surface after the breakdown.

THPMN086 Metamaterial-loaded Waveguides for Accelerator Applications 2906
  • S. P. Antipov, M. E. Conde, W. Gai, R. Konecny, W. Liu, J. G. Power, Z. M. Yusof
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  • L. K. Spentzouris
    Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois
  Funding: US Department of Energy National Science Foundation grant # 0237162

Metamaterials (MTM) are artificial periodic structures made of small elements and designed to obtain specific electromagnetic properties. As long as the periodicity and the size of the elements are much smaller than the wavelength of interest, an artificial structure can be described by a permittivity and permeability, just like natural materials. Metamaterials can be customized to have the permittivity and permeability desired for a particular application. Waveguides loaded with metamaterials are of interest because the metamaterials can change the dispersion relation of the waveguide significantly. Slow backward waves, for example, can be produced in a LHM-loaded waveguide without corrugations. In this paper we present theoretical studies and computer modeling of waveguides loaded with 2D anisotropic metamaterials, including the dispersion relation for a MTM-loaded waveguide. The dispersion relation of a MTM-loaded waveguide has several interesting frequency bands which are described. It is shown theoretically that dipole mode suppression may be possible. Therefore, metamaterials can be used to suppress wakefields in accelerating structures.

THPMN088 C-Band High Power RF Generation and Extraction Using a Dielectric Loaded Waveguide 2912
  • F. Gao, M. E. Conde, W. Gai, R. Konecny, W. Liu, J. G. Power, Z. M. Yusof
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  • C.-J. Jing
    Euclid TechLabs, LLC, Solon, Ohio
  • T. Wong
    Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois
  Funding: Department of Energy

We report on the fabrication, simulation, and high-power testing of a C-band RF power extractor recently conducted at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility. Dielectric loaded accelerating (DLA) structures can be used for high-power RF generation [*,**] when a high-current electron beam passes through a DLA structure and loses energy into the modes of the structure due to self-wakefields. The AWA generates high charge (up to 100nC), short bunch length (1.5mm~2.5mm) electron beams, which is ideal for high-power RF generation. The generated RF power can be subsequently extracted with a properly designed extraction coupler in order to accelerate a second beam, or for other high power purposes. In this paper, the detailed design of a 7.8 GHz DLA power extractor, MAFIA simulations, and results of the high-power test are presented. Simulation predictions of an 79 MW, 2.2 ns long RF pulse (generated by a single 100 nC electron bunch) and a longer RF pulse of the same power (obtained from a 35 nC periodic bunch train) will be compared to experimental results.

* W. Gai, et al, Experimental Demonstration of Two Beam Acceleration Using Dielectric Step-up Transformer, PAC01, pp.1880-1882.** D. Yu, et al, 21GHz Ceramic RF Power Extractor, AAC02, pp.484-505.

THPMS074 High Transformer Ratios in Collinear Wakefield Accelerators 3154
  • C.-J. Jing, A. Kanareykin, P. Schoessow
    Euclid TechLabs, LLC, Solon, Ohio
  • M. E. Conde, W. Gai, J. G. Power, Z. M. Yusof
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: DOE SBIR Phase II, DE-FG02-02ER83418.

Based on our previous experiment that successfully demonstrated wakefield transformer ratio enhancement in a 13.625 GHz dielectric-loaded collinear wakefield accelerator using the ramped bunch train technique, we present here a redesigned experimental scheme for even higher enhancement of the efficiency of this accelerator. Design of a collinear wakefield device with a transformer ratio R>>2, is presented. Using a ramped bunch train (RBT) rather than a single drive bunch, the enhanced transformer ratio (ETR) technique is able to increase the transformer ratio R above the ordinary limit of 2. To match the wavelength of the fundamental mode of the wakefield with the bunch length (σz=2 mm) of the new Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) drive gun, where the experiment will be performed, a 26.625 GHz dielectric based accelerating structure is required. This transformer ratio enhancement technique based on our dielectric-loaded waveguide design will result in a compact, high efficiency accelerating structure for future wakefield accelerators.

THPMS077 Progress towards Development of a Diamond-Based Cylindrical Dielectric Accelerating Structure 3163
  • A. Kanareykin, C.-J. Jing, P. Schoessow
    Euclid TechLabs, LLC, Solon, Ohio
  • M. E. Conde, W. Gai
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  • R. Gat
    Coating Technology Solution, Inc., Somerville
  Funding: This research is supported by the US Department of Energy

In this talk, we present our recent developments on a high gradient diamond-based cylindrical dielectric loaded accelerator (DLA). The final goal of this research is to achieve a record accelerating gradient (~ 600 MV/m) in a demonstration of the structure at high power and with accelerated beam. We discuss here a new technology for the development of cylindrical diamond-based waveguides and the design, fabrication and high power testing of a cylindrical diamond-based DLA accelerating structure. The electrical and mechanical properties of diamond make it an ideal candidate material for use in dielectric accelerators: high RF breakdown level, extremely low dielectric losses and the highest thermoconductive coefficient available. Multipacting of the CVD diamond can be suppressed by diamond surface dehydrogenation. A plasma supported Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technology to produce low loss high quality cylindrical diamond layers is presented. Special attention is devoted to the numerical optimization of the coupling section, where the surface magnetic and electric fields are minimized relative to the accelerating gradient and within known metal surface breakdown limits.

THPMS078 Status of the Microwave PASER Experiment 3166
  • P. Schoessow, A. Kanareykin
    Euclid TechLabs, LLC, Solon, Ohio
  • S. P. Antipov, M. E. Conde, W. Gai, J. G. Power
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  • E. Bagryanskaya
    International Tomography Center, SB RAS, Novosibirsk
  • V. Gorelik, A. Kovshik, A. V. Tyukhtin, N. Yevlampieva
    Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg
  • L. Schachter
    Technion, Haifa
  Funding: Work supported by US Department of Energy

The PASER is a new method for particle acceleration, in which energy from an active medium is transferred to a charged particle beam. The effect is similar to the action of a maser or laser with the stimulated emission of radiation being produced by the virtual photons in the electromagnetic field of the beam. We are developing a demonstration PASER device operating at X-band, based on the availability of a new class of active materials that exhibit photoinduced electron spin polarization. We will report on the status of active material development and measurements, numerical simulations, and preparations for microwave PASER experiments at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator facility.

FRPMN117 Pepper-pot Based Emittance Measurements of the AWA Photoinjector 4393
  • J. G. Power, M. E. Conde, W. Gai, F. Gao, R. Konecny, W. Liu, Z. M. Yusof
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  • P. Piot, M. M. Rihaoui
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois
  The Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) RF photocathode gun is a 1.5 cell, L-band, RF photocathode gun operating at 80 MV/m, with an emittance compensating solenoid, and a magnesium photocathode and generates an 8 MeV, 1 nC - 100 nC beam. In this paper, we report on a parametric set of measurements to characterize the transverse trace space of the 1 nC electron beam directly out of the gun. The entire experiment is simulated with PARMELA, from the photocathode, through the pepper pot, and to the imaging screen. The transverse trace-space is sampled with a 2-D pepper pot which allows for simultaneous, single-shot measurements, of both the x and y distributions. A series of pepper pots were available during the experiment to increase the dynamic range of emittance measurements. Realistic particle distributions are used for the simulations and are derived from actual laser profiles, which were captured from a virtual cathode and generated with MATLAB-based particle generator. We report both the second moment (emittance) and the detailed phase space distribution over a gun launch phase range of approximately 50 degrees.  
FRPMS034 Optical Diffraction-Dielectric Foil Radiation Interferometry Diagnostic for Low Energy Electron Beams 4012
  • A. G. Shkvarunets, R. B. Fiorito, P. G. O'Shea
    UMD, College Park, Maryland
  • M. E. Conde, W. Gai, J. G. Power
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois
  Funding: ONR and the DOD/Joint Technology Office

We have developed a new optical diffraction radiation (ODR) - dielectric foil radiation interferometer to measure the divergence of the low energy (8 - 14 MeV) ANL - Advanced Wakefield Accelerator electron beam. The interferometer employs an electro-formed micromesh first foil, which overcomes the inherent scattering limitation in the solid first foil of a conventional OTR interferometer, and an optically transparent second foil. The interference of forward directed ODR from the mesh and optical radiation from the dielectric foil is observed in transmission. This geometry allows a small gap between the foils (1 - 2 mm), which is required to observe fringes from two foils at low beam energies. Our measurements indicate that a single Gaussian distribution is sufficient to fit the data.

correspondance email: shkvar@umd.edu