MOPA  —  High-Energy Hadron Accelerators and Collliders   (16-May-05   13:50—17:05)

Chair: V.D. Shiltsev, Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois

Paper Title Page
MOPA001 Advances in the Understanding and Operations of Superconducting Colliders 54
  • P. Bauer, G. Annala, M.A. Martens, V.D. Shiltsev, G. Velev
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  • L. Bottura, N.J. Sammut
    CERN, Geneva
  Chromaticity drift is a well-known and more or less understood phenomenon in superconducting colliders such as the Tevatron. Less known is the effect of tune and coupling drift, also observed in the Tevatron during injection. Recently, in the context of the Tevatron collider run II, extensive studies of chromaticity, tune and coupling drifts were conducted to improve Tevatron performance. The studies included not only beam studies but also extensive off-line magnetic measurements on spare Tevatron dipoles. Some of these measurements were conducted in collaboration with Cern. Cern’s interest in multipole drifts is related to the future LHC, which will have similar issues. The following will report on the results of these studies. A new result, which will be presented here also, is related to fast drifts occurring in the first few seconds of the injection porch. These fast drifts were observed first in the Tevatron and efforts are underway to explain them. The author will also attempt to broaden the discussion to include the discussion of drift effects in the accelerating fields of superconducting linear accelerators.  
MOPA002 Performance Limitations in High-Energy Ion Colliders 122
  • W. Fischer
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work supported by U.S. DOE under contract No DE-AC02-98CH10886.

High-energy ion colliders (hadron colliders operating with species other than protons) are premier research tools for nuclear physics. The collision energy and high luminosity are important design and operations considerations. However, the experiments also expect flexibility with frequent changes in the collision energy, lattice configuration, and ion species, including asymmetric collisions. For the creation, acceleration, and storage of bright intense ion beams, attention must be paid to space charge, charge exchange, and intra-beam scattering effects. The latter leads to luminosity lifetimes of only a few hours for heavy ions. Ultimately cooling at full energy is needed to overcome this effect. Currently, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL is the only operating high-energy ion collider. The Large Hadron Collider, under construction at CERN, will also run with heavy ions.

MOPA003 Testing of the LHC Magnets in Cryogenic Conditions: Operation Challenges, Status, and Outlook 250
  • V. Chohan
    CERN, Geneva
  For the Large Hadron Collider under construction at CERN and the testing of its 1706 lattice magnets in cryogenic conditions, considerable challenges had to be overcome since 2002 to arrive at the situation of today, with semi-routine operation of the purpose built tests facility. With the setting up of an Operation Team comprising of non-expert CERN Accelerator operation staff, few in number and a large external collaboration, it was essential to develop the methodology of working in light of external collaboration limits and base it on CERN-known techniques and experience in accelerator running-in, commissioning and routine operation. A flavour of the operation tools that were necessary or developed will be given, i.e., web-based tests follow-up management & information systems, development of precisely defined ‘to do list’ of tests sequences, associated methods, procedures and strict check-lists, electronic logbooks and so forth. The presentation will briefly outline the test programme and its context & constraints, give a summary of the accomplishments so far, together with the outlook for the successful completion of the whole programme within the project goals.  
MOPA004 Status of Slip Stacking at Fermilab Main Injector 347
  • K. Seiya, T. Berenc, B. Chase, J.E. Dey, I. Kourbanis, J.A. MacLachlan, K.G. Meisner, R.J. Pasquinelli, J. Reid, C.H. Rivetta, J. Steimel
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Funding: Operated by Universities Research Association, Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-76CH03000.

In order to increase proton intensity on anti proton production cycle of the Main Injector we are going to use the technique of 'slip stacking' and doing machine studies. In slip stacking, one bunch train is injected at slightly lower energy and second train is at slightly higher energy. Afterwards they are aligned longitudinally and captured with one rf bucket. This longitudinal stacking process is expected to double the bunch intensity. The required intensity for anti proton production is 8·1012 protons in 84 bunches. Beam studies of the slip stacking process have started and we have already established that the stacking procedure works as expected for a low beam intensity. In order to make this stacking process usable for higher intensity beam in standard mode of operation, we are working on high intensity beam and the development of the feedback and feed forward system is under way.

MOPA005 Protection Against Accidental Beam Losses at the LHC 492
  • J. Wenninger, R. Schmidt
    CERN, Geneva
  Protection of the LHC against uncontrolled beam losses is of prime importance due to the very high stored beam energy. For nominal beam intensities, each of the two 7 TeV/c proton beams has a stored energy of 350 MJ threatening to damage accelerator equipment. At injection a number of passive beam absorbers must be correctly positioned and specific procedures have been proposed to ensure safe injection of high intensity. The LHC beam dump block being the only LHC element that can safety absorb the full LHC beam, it is essential that the beams are extracted unto the dump block in case of emergency. The failure time constants extend from 100 microseconds to few seconds depending on the equipment. Failures must be detected at a sufficiently early stage and transmitted to the beam interlock system that triggers the beam dumping system. To ensure safe operation the machine protection system uses a variety of systems to detect such failures. The strategy for protection of the LHC will be illustrated, with emphasis on new developments and studies that aim for an increased redundancy of the protection system.  
MOPA006 Theory and Reality of Beam-Beam Effects at Hadron Colliders 544
  • Y. Alexahin
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  The beam-beam phenomena in hadron colliders is just as rich as in e+e- machines: orbit and focusing perturbations, excitation of nonlinear resonances, coherent tuneshifts. Moreover, the absence of radiation damping and long duration of a store permit even high-order (and correspondingly weak) resonances to manifest themselves presenting a major challenge for both theoretical analysis and machine operation. The recent progress in understanding of and coping with the beam-beam effects at hadron colliders, primarily at the Tevatron, is discussed.  
MOPA007 Polarized Proton Collisions at RHIC 600
  • M. Bai, L. Ahrens, J.G. Alessi, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, A. Bravar, J.M. Brennan, D. Bruno, G. Bunce, J.J. Butler, P. Cameron, R. Connolly, T. D'Ottavio, J. DeLong, K.A. Drees, W. Fischer, G. Ganetis, C.J. Gardner, J. Glenn, T. Hayes, H.-C. Hseuh, H. Huang, P. Ingrassia, U. Iriso, J.S. Laster, R.C. Lee, A.U. Luccio, Y. Luo, W.W. MacKay, Y. Makdisi, G.J. Marr, A. Marusic, G.T. McIntyre, R.J. Michnoff, C. Montag, J. Morris, T. Nicoletti, P. Oddo, B. Oerter, O. Osamu, F.C. Pilat, V. Ptitsyn, T. Roser, T. Satogata, K. Smith, S. Tepikian, R. Tomas, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J.E. Tuozzolo, K. Vetter, M. Wilinski, A. Zaltsman, A. Zelenski, K. Zeno, S.Y. Zhang
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • I.G. Alekseev, D. Svirida
    ITEP, Moscow
  Funding: The work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy and RIKEN Japan.

The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider~(RHIC) provides not only collisions of ions but also collisions of polarized protons. In a circular accelerator, the polarization of polarized proton beam can be partially or fully lost when a spin depolarizing resonance is encountered. To preserve the beam polarization during acceleration, two full Siberian snakes were employed in RHIC to avoid depolarizing resonances. In 2003, polarized proton beams were accelerated to 100~GeV and collided in RHIC. Beams were brought into collisions with longitudinal polarization at the experiments STAR and PHENIX by using spin rotators. RHIC polarized proton run experience demonstrates that optimizing polarization transmission efficiency and improving luminosity performance are significant challenges. Currently, the luminosity lifetime in RHIC is limited by the beam-beam effect. The current state of RHIC polarized proton program, including its dedicated physics run in 2005 and efforts to optimize luminosity production in beam-beam limited conditions are reported.

MOPA008 On the Feasibility of a Tripler Upgrade for LHC 634
  • P.M. McIntyre, A. Sattarov
    Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas
  Funding: This work is supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, grant #DE-FG03-95ER40924.

Recent developments in the performance of superconductors and the design of high-field superconducting dipoles have opened the possibility to extend dipole field strength to ~25 Tesla in the arc dipoles of a future hadron collider. Design issues are presented for a concept of a Tripler upgrade of LHC, in which a second dual ring would be installed over the LHC ring in the same tunnel. Proton beams from LHC would be transferred to the Tripler midway through the LHC cycle and accelerated to ~20 TeV/beam for collisions. A number of obvious issues are explored. Synchrotron radiation power would be 80 times greater, but the critical energy would come as soft X-rays rather than hard UV, and so could be absorbed locally on ~150 K photon stops following each dipole so that total refrigeration power could perhaps be no more than that for LHC. Synchrotron damping would be dramatically enhanced in the Tripler compared to LHC, with damping times of ~one hour. Alternatives for beam transfer and low-beta insertions will be discussed. Like LHC, the Tripler would access new mass scales primarily through gluon fusion. The Tripler should reach about twice the mass scale attainable with LHC.

MOPA009 Global Decoupling on the RHIC Ramp 659
  • Y. Luo, P. Cameron, A. Della Penna, W. Fischer, J.S. Laster, A. Marusic, F.C. Pilat, T. Roser, D. Trbojevic
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  Funding: Work supported by U.S. DOE under contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

The global betatron decoupling on the ramp is an important issue for the operation of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). In the polarized proton run, the betatron tunes are required to keep almost constant on the ramp to avoid spin resonance line crossing and the beam polarization loss. Some possible correction schemes on the ramp, like three-ramp correction, the coupling amplitude modulation and the coupling phase modulaxtion, have been found. The principles of these schemes are shortly reviewed and compared. Operational results of their applications on the RHIC ramps are given.

MOPA010 Studies of the Chromaticity, Tune, and Coupling Drift in the Tevatron 725
  • M.A. Martens, J. Annala, P. Bauer, V.D. Shiltsev, G. Velev
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
  Chromaticity drift is a well-known and more or less well-understood phenomenon in superconducting colliders such as the Tevatron. Less known is the effect of tune and coupling drift, also observed in the Tevatron during injection. These effects are caused by field drifts in the superconducting magnets. Understanding of the behavior of the tune, coupling, and chromaticity at the start of the ramp is an important part of understanding the observed 5-10% loss in beam intensity at the start of the Tevatron ramp. In addition modifications in the Tevatron shot set-up procedure are being implemented to allow for a gain in integrated luminosity. In this context we conducted several beam-studies, during the period of April to August 2004, in which we measured the drift in the Tevatron chromaticity, tune and coupling during the injection porch. In some case we also measured the snapback at the start of the ramp. We will present the results of these studies data and put them into context of the results of off-line magnetic measurements conducted in spare Tevatron dipoles at the same time. Finally we will propose optimized feed-forward algorithms that successfully compensate for the drift effects in the Tevatron.