Author: Mertens, T.
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TUPMW006 Power Deposition in LHC Magnets Due to Bound-Free Pair Production in the Experimental Insertions 1418
  • C. Bahamonde Castro, B. Auchmann, M.I. Besana, K. Brodzinski, R. Bruce, F. Cerutti, J.M. Jowett, A. Lechner, T. Mertens, V. Parma, S. Redaelli, M. Schaumann, N.V. Shetty, E. Skordis, G.E. Steele, R. van Weelderen
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  The peak luminosity achieved during Pb-Pb collisions in the LHC in 2015 (3x1027cm-2s−1) well exceeded the design luminosity and is anticipated to increase by another factor 2 after the next Long Shutdown (2019- 2020). A significant fraction of the power dissipated in ultra-peripheral Pb-Pb collisions is carried by ions from bound-free pair production, which are lost in the dispersion suppressors adjacent to the experimental insertions. At higher luminosities, these ions risk to quench superconducting magnets and might limit their operation due to the dynamic heat load that needs to be evacuated by the cryogenic system. In this paper, we estimate the power deposition in superconducting coils and the magnet cold mass and we quantify the achievable reduction by deviating losses to less sensitive locations or by installing collimators at strategic positions. The second option is considered for the dispersion suppressor next to the ALICE insertion, where a selective displacement of losses to a magnet-free region is not possible.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ DOI:10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2016-TUPMW006  
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TUPMW027 The 2015 Heavy-Ion Run of the LHC 1493
  • J.M. Jowett, R. Alemany-Fernandez, R. Bruce, M. Giovannozzi, P.D. Hermes, W. Höfle, M. Lamont, T. Mertens, S. Redaelli, M. Schaumann, J.A. Uythoven, J. Wenninger
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  In late 2015 the LHC collided lead nuclei at a beam energy of 6.37 Z TeV, chosen to match the 5.02 TeV per colliding nucleon pair of the p-Pb collision run in 2013. In so doing, it surpassed its design luminosity by a factor of 2. Besides the higher energy, the operational configuration had a number of new features with respect to the previous Pb-Pb run at 3.5 Z TeV in 2011; unusual bunch patterns providing collisions in the LHCb experiment for the first time, luminosity levelling and sharing requirements, a vertical displacement of the interaction point in the ALICE experiment, and operation closer to magnet quench limits with mitigation measures. We present a summary of the commissioning and operation and what has been learned in view of future heavy-ion operation at higher luminosity.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ DOI:10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2016-TUPMW027  
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TUPMW028 Bound-Free Pair Production in LHC Pb-Pb Operation at 6.37 Z TeV per Beam 1497
  • J.M. Jowett, B. Auchmann, C. Bahamonde Castro, M.K. Kalliokoski, A. Lechner, T. Mertens, M. Schaumann, C. Xu
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  In the 2015 Pb-Pb collision run of the LHC, the power of the secondary beams emitted from the interaction point by the bound-free pair production process reached new levels while the propensity of the bending magnets to quench is higher at the new magnetic field levels. This beam power is about 70 times greater than that contained in the luminosity debris and is focussed on a specific location. As long foreseen, orbit bumps were introduced in the dispersion suppressors around the highest luminosity experiments to mitigate the risk by displacing and spreading out these losses. An experiment designed to induce quenches and determine the quench levels and luminosity limit was carried out to assess the need for special collimators to intercept these secondary beams.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ DOI:10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2016-TUPMW028  
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