Author: Bregliozzi, G.
Paper Title Page
MOPMR027 Employing Beam-Gas Interaction Vertices for Transverse Profile Measurements 296
SUPSS073   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
  • M.N. Rihl, A. Alexopoulos, V. Baglin, C. Barschel, E. Bravin, G. Bregliozzi, N. Chritin, B. Dehning, M. Ferro-Luzzi, C. Gaspar, M. Giovannozzi, R. Jacobsson, L.K. Jensen, O.R. Jones, N.J. Jurado, V. Kain, M. Kuhn, B. Luthi, P. Magagnin, R. Matev, N. Neufeld, J. Panman, V. Salustino Guimaraes, B. Salvant, R. Veness, S. Vlachos
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • A. Bay, F. Blanc, S. Gianì, G.J. Haefeli, P. Hopchev, T. Nakada, B. Rakotomiaramanana, O. Schneider, M. Tobin, Q.D. Veyrat, Z. Xu
    EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
  • R. Greim, W. Karpinski, T. Kirn, S. Schael, G. Schwering, M. Wlochal, A. von Dratzig
    RWTH, Aachen, Germany
  Interactions of high-energy beam particles with residual gas offer a unique opportunity to measure the beam profile in a non-intrusive fashion. Such a method was successfully pioneered* at the LHCb experiment using a silicon microstrip vertex detector. During the recent Large Hadron Collider shutdown at CERN, a demonstrator Beam-Gas Vertexing system based on eight scintillating-fibre modules was designed**, constructed and installed on Ring 2 to be operated as a pure beam diagnostics device. The detector signals are read out and collected with LHCb-type front-end electronics and a DAQ system consisting of a CPU farm. Tracks and vertices will be reconstructed to obtain a beam profile in real time. Here, first commissioning results are reported. The advantages and potential for future applications of this technique are discussed.
* LHCb collaboration, Journal of Instrumentation, 9, P12005
** P. Hopchev in Proc. of IPAC 2014, June 15-20, 2014, Dresden Germany
DOI • reference for this paper ※ DOI:10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2016-MOPMR027  
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MOPOR008 Beam Induced RF Heating in LHC in 2015 602
  • B. Salvant, O. Aberle, M. Albert, R. Alemany-Fernandez, G. Arduini, J. Baechler, M.J. Barnes, P. Baudrenghien, O.E. Berrig, N. Biancacci, G. Bregliozzi, J.V. Campelo, F. Carra, F. Caspers, P. Chiggiato, A. Danisi, H.A. Day, M. Deile, D. Druzhkin, J.F. Esteban Müller, S. Jakobsen, J. Kuczerowski, A. Lechner, R. Losito, A. Masi, N. Minafra, E. Métral, A.A. Nosych, A. Perillo Marcone, D. Perini, S. Redaelli, F. Roncarolo, G. Rumolo, E.N. Shaposhnikova, J.A. Uythoven, C. Vollinger, A.J. Välimaa, N. Wang, M. Wendt, J. Wenninger, C. Zannini
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • M. Bozzo
    INFN Genova, Genova, Italy
  • J.F. Esteban Müller
    EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
  • N. Wang
    IHEP, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  Following the recurrent beam induced RF issues that perturbed LHC operation during LHC Run 1, a series of actions were put in place to minimize the risk that similar issues would occur in LHC Run 2: longitudinal impedance reduction campaign and/or improvement of cooling for equipment that were problematic or at the limit during Run 1, stringent constraints enforced on new equipment that would be installed in the machine, tests to control the bunch length and longitudinal distribution, additional monitoring of temperature, new monitoring tools and warning chains. This contribution reports the outcome of these actions, both successes as well as shortcomings, and details the lessons learnt for the future runs.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ DOI:10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2016-MOPOR008  
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THPMW030 Studies of Impedance-related Improvements of the SPS Injection Kicker System 3611
  • M.J. Barnes, A. Adraktas, M.S. Beck, G. Bregliozzi, H.A. Day, L. Ducimetière, J.A. Ferreira Somoza, B. Goddard, T. Kramer, C. Pasquino, G. Rumolo, B. Salvant, L. Sermeus, J.A. Uythoven, L. Vega Cid, W.J.M. Weterings, C. Zannini
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • F.M. Velotti
    EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
  The injection kicker system for the SPS consists of sixteen magnets housed in a total of four vacuum tanks. The kicker magnets in one tank have recently limited operation of the SPS with high-intensity beam: this is due to both beam induced heating in the ferrite yoke of the kicker magnets and abnormally high pressure in the vacuum tank. Furthermore, operation with the higher intensity beams needed in the future for HL-LHC is expected to exacerbate these problems. Hence studies of the longitudinal beam coupling impedance of the kicker magnets have been carried out to investigate effective methods to shield the ferrite yoke from the circulating beam. The shielding must not compromise the field quality or high voltage behaviour of the kicker magnets and should not significantly reduce the beam aperture: results of these studies, together with measurements, are presented. In addition results of tests to identify the causes of abnormal outgassing are presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ DOI:10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2016-THPMW030  
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THPMW033 Operational Experience of the Upgraded LHC Injection Kicker Magnets 3623
  • M.J. Barnes, A. Adraktas, G. Bregliozzi, S. Calatroni, H.A. Day, L. Ducimetière, B. Goddard, V. Gomes Namora, V. Mertens, B. Salvant, J.A. Uythoven, L. Vega Cid, W.J.M. Weterings, C. Yin Vallgren
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  During Run 1 of the LHC the injection kicker magnets caused occasional operational delays due to beam induced heating with high bunch intensity and short bunch lengths. In addition, sometimes there were also sporadic issues with microscopic unidentified falling objects, vacuum activity and electrical flashover of the injection kickers. An extensive program of studies was launched and significant upgrades were carried out during long shutdown 1. These upgrades include a new design of a beam screen to both reduce the beam coupling impedance of the kicker magnet, and to significantly reduce the electric field associated with the screen conductors, hence decreasing the probability of electrical breakdown in this region. In addition new cleaning procedures were implemented and equipment adjacent to the injection kickers and various vacuum components were modified. This paper presents operational experience of the injection kicker magnets during Run 2 of the LHC and assesses the effectiveness of the various upgrades.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ DOI:10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2016-THPMW033  
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THPMY007 Vacuum Performance of Amorphous Carbon Coating at Cryogenic Temperature with Presence of Proton Beams 3663
  • R. Salemme, V. Baglin, G. Bregliozzi, P. Chiggiato
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  Amorphous carbon (a-C) coating is the baseline electron multipacting mitigation strategy proposed for the Inner Triplets (IT) in the High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). As of 2014, the COLD bore EXperiment (COLDEX) is qualifying the performance of a-C coating at cryogenic temperature in a LHC type cryogenic vacuum system. In this paper, the experimental results following a cryogenic vacuum characterization of a-C coating in the 5 to 150 K temperature range are reviewed. We discuss the dynamic pressure rise, gas composition, dissipated heat load and electron activity observed within an accumulated beam time of 9 Ah. The results of dedicated experiments including pre-adsorption of different gas species (H2, CO) on the a-C coating are discussed. Based of phenomenological modeling, up-to-date secondary emission input parameters for a-C coatings are retrieved for electron cloud build-up simulations. Finally, first implications for the HL-LHC ITs design are drawn.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ DOI:10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2016-THPMY007  
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THPMY008 Mechanical and Vacuum Stability Studies for the LHC Experiments Upgrade 3667
  • J. Sestak, G. Bregliozzi, P. Chiggiato
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  In April 2015, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has entered its second operational period that will last for 3 years with expected end of the operations at the beginning of 2019. Afterward, the LHC will undergo a long shutdown (LS2) for upgrade and maintenance. The four LHC experiments, ATLAS, ALICE, CMS and LHCb, will experience an important upgrade too. From the design point of view, the LS2 experimental beam vacuum upgrade requires multi-disciplinary approach: based on the geometrical envelope defined by experiment, the vacuum chambers size and shape must be optimized. This included Monte Carlo pressure profile simulations and vacuum stability studies in order to meet the specific pressure requests in the interaction region. Together with vacuum studies the structural analysis are performed in order to optimise chambers thickness and position of the operational and maintenance supports. The material selection for vacuum chambers in the experimental area follows the CERN ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle. This paper gives an overview of the LS2 experimental vacuum sectors upgrades. The most extensive design studies, done for the two experiments CMS and ALICE are discussed in detail.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ DOI:10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2016-THPMY008  
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THPMY010 LHC Beam Vacuum Evolution During 2015 Machine Operation 3673
  • C. Yin Vallgren, G. Bregliozzi, P. Chiggiato
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  The LHC successfully returned to operation in April, 2015 after almost 2 years of Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) for various upgrade and consolidation programs. During 2015 operation, the LHC operated for more than 1000 fills. The 2015 LHC proton physics ended with 2244 bunches per beam circulating with 25 ns bunch spacing at top energy of 6.5 TeV. This paper summarizes the dynamic vacuum observations in different locations along the LHC during dedicated fills as well as during physics runs with both 50 ns and 25 ns bunch spacing. The causes for the dynamic pressure rises are investigated and are presented. A clear beam conditioning effect is observed, as well as a so-called de-conditioning effect. Furthermore, for the experimental areas, the dynamic pressure evolution is also presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ DOI:10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2016-THPMY010  
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THPMY019 LHC Injection Protection Devices, Thermo-mechanical Studies through the Design Phase 3698
  • I. Lamas Garcia, N. Biancacci, G. Bregliozzi, M. Calviani, M.I. Frankl, L. Gentini, S.S. Gilardoni, A. Lechner, A. Perillo-Marcone, B. Salvant, N.V. Shetty, J.A. Uythoven
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  The TDI is a beam intercepting device installed on the two injection lines of the LHC. Its function is to protect the superconducting machine elements during injection in the case of a malfunction of the injection kickers. The TDIS, which will replace the TDI, is foreseen to be installed for high luminosity operation. Due to the higher bunch intensities and smaller beam emittances expected, and following the operational experiences of the TDI, a complete revision of the design of the jaws must be performed, with a main focus on the material selection. Furthermore, the new TDIS will also improve the TDI reliability by means of a robust design of the jaw positioning mechanism, the efficiency of the cooling circuit and by reducing its impedance. A simplified installation procedure and maintenance will also be an important requirement for the new design. This paper introduces the main characteristics of the TDI as LHC injection protection device, showing the needs and requirements for its upgrade. It also discusses the thermo-mechanical simulations that are supporting and guiding the design phase and the material selection, and describes the modifications to be implemented, so far, for this new device.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ DOI:10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2016-THPMY019  
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