Author: Lamont, M.
Paper Title Page
MOPPC016 Combined Ramp and Squeeze at the Large Hadron Collider 157
  • S. Redaelli, M. Lamont, G.J. Müller, R. Tomás, J. Wenninger
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • N. Ryckx
    EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
  In the first two years of operation of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the betatron squeeze has been carried out at constant flat top energy of 3.5 TeV. Squeeze setting functions are separated from the energy ramp functions. This ensured a maximum flexibility during commissioning because stopping at all intermediate optics for detailed measurements was possible. In order to then improve the efficiency of the operational cycle, combining the ramp and squeeze has been considered. In this paper, the various possibilities for this scheme are reviewed, and proposals of optimized operational cycles with combined ramp and squeeze are presented for different energies. Results of beam tests are also discussed.  
TUPPR068 The Achromatic Telescopic Squeezing Scheme: Basic Principles and First Demonstration at the LHC 1978
  • S.D. Fartoukh, R. De Maria, B. Goddard, W. Höfle, M. Lamont, G.J. Müller, L. Ponce, S. Redaelli, R.J. Steinhagen, M. Strzelczyk, R. Tomás, G. Vanbavinckhove, J. Wenninger
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • R. Miyamoto
    ESS, Lund, Sweden
  The Achromatic Telescopic Squeezing (ATS) scheme [1] is a novel squeezing mechanism enabling the production of very low β* in circular colliders. The basic principles of the ATS scheme will be reviewed together with its strong justification for the High-Luminosity LHC Project. In this context, a few dedicated beam experiments were meticulously prepared and took place at the LHC in 2011. The results obtained will be highlighted, demonstrating already the potential of the ATS scheme for any upgrade project relying on a strong reduction of β*.
[1] S. Fartoukh, "An Achromatic Telescopic Squeezing (ATS) Scheme For The LHC Upgrade," IPAC'11, WEPC037, p. 2088 (2001).
WEEPPB014 The Magnetic Model of the LHC during the 3.5 TeV Run 2194
  • E. Todesco, N. Aquilina, M. Giovannozzi, M. Lamont, F. Schmidt, R.J. Steinhagen, M. Strzelczyk, R. Tomás
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • N.J. Sammut
    University of Malta, Information and Communication Technology, Msida, Malta
  The magnetic model of the LHC is based on a fit of the magnetic measurements through equations that model the field components (geometric, saturation, persistent) at different currents. In this paper we will review the main results related to the magnetic model during the run of the LHC in 2010-2011: with a top energy of 3.5 TeV, all components of the model but the saturation are visible. We first give an estimate of the reproducibility of the main components and multipolar errors as they can be deduced from beam measurements, i.e. orbit, tune, chromaticity, beta beating and coupling. We then review the main results relative to the decay at injection plateau, dependence on powering history, and snapback at the beginning of the ramp for both tune and chromaticity. We discuss the precision obtained in tracking the magnets during the ramp, where the persistent current components gradually disappear. We conclude by presenting the behaviour of the quadrupoles model during the squeeze. A list of the major changes implemented during the operation together with what are considered as the main open issues is given.  
THPPP018 Operation of the LHC at High Luminosity and High Stored Energy 3767
  • J. Wenninger, R. Alemany-Fernandez, G. Arduini, R.W. Assmann, B.J. Holzer, E.B. Holzer, V. Kain, M. Lamont, A. Macpherson, G. Papotti, M. Pojer, L. Ponce, S. Redaelli, M. Solfaroli Camillocci, J.A. Uythoven, W. Venturini Delsolaro
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  In 2011 the operation of the Large Hadron Collider LHC entered its first year of high luminosity production at a beam energy of 3.5 TeV. In the first months of 2011 the number of bunches was progressively increased to 1380, followed by a reduction of the transverse emittance, an increase of the bunch population and a reduction of the betatron function at the collision points. The performance improvements steps that were accumulated in 2011 eventually brought the peak luminosity to 3.6·1033 cm-2s−1. The integrated luminosity delivered to each of the high luminosity experiments amounted to 5.6 fb-1, a factor of 5 above the initial target defined in 2010. The operational experience with high intensity and high luminosity at the LHC will be presented here, together with the issues that had to be tackled on the road to high intensity and luminosity.  
THPPR040 First Operational Experience with the LHC Machine Protection System when Operating with Beam Energies Beyond the 100 MJ Range 4062
  • M. Zerlauth, R.W. Assmann, B. Dehning, M. Ferro-Luzzi, B. Goddard, M. Lamont, R. Schmidt, A.P. Siemko, J.A. Uythoven, J. Wenninger
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  The LHC made a remarkable progress in luminosity production during 2011 operation. This was made possible by a progressive increase of beam intensities by more than 5 orders of magnitude, reaching stored beam energies beyond 100MJ at the end of the year. The correct functioning of the machine protection systems was vital during initial operation and even more when approaching nominal beam parameters, where an uncontrolled loss of a small fraction of the beam is already sufficient to damage accelerator equipment or the large experimental detectors The machine protection system depends on the interplay of many different elements: beam dumping system, beam interlocks, beam instrumentation, equipment monitoring, collimators and absorbers, etc. The strategy applied during 2011 to allow for an efficient but yet safe increase of the beam intensities is presented along with the associated risks and drawbacks of a too aggressive approach. The experience gained with the key systems will be discussed along with possibilities to further enhance machine availability whilst maintaining the current level of safety.