Author: Garrel, N.
Paper Title Page
TUPPR090 Analysis of Ferrite Heating of the LHC Injection Kickers and Proposals for Future Reduction of Temperature 2038
  • M.J. Barnes, L. Ducimetière, N. Garrel, B. Goddard, V. Mertens, W.J.M. Weterings
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  The two LHC injection kicker magnet (MKI) systems produce a kick of 1.3 T-m with a flattop duration variable up to 7860 ns, and rise and fall times of less than 900 ns and 3000 ns, respectively. A beam screen, consisting of a ceramic tube with conductors on the inner wall, is placed in the aperture of the magnets. The conductors provide a path for the image current of the, high intensity, LHC beam and screen the ferrite against wake fields. The conductors initially used gave adequately low beam coupling impedance however inter-conductor discharges occurred during pulsing of the magnet; hence an alternative design was implemented to meet the often conflicting requirements for low beam coupling impedance, fast magnetic field rise-time and good high voltage behaviour. During 2011 the LHC has been operated with high intensity beam, coasting for many hours at a time, resulting in heating of both the ferrite yoke and beam impedance reduction ferrites, of the MKIs. This paper presents an analysis of thermal measurement data and an extrapolation of the heating for future operation; in addition means are discussed for reducing ferrite heating and improving cooling.  
TUPPR092 Transient Beam Losses in the LHC Injection Kickers from Micron Scale Dust Particles 2044
  • B. Goddard, P. Adraktas, T. Baer, M.J. Barnes, F. Cerutti, A. Ferrari, N. Garrel, A.H.J. Gerardin, M. Guinchard, A. Lechner, A. Masi, V. Mertens, R. Morón Ballester, S. Redaelli, J.A. Uythoven, V. Vlachoudis, F. Zimmermann
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  Transient beam losses on a time scale of a few ms have been observed in the LHC injection kickers, occurring mainly shortly after beam injection with a strong correlation in time to the kicker pulsing. The beam losses, which have at times affected LHC availability, are attributed to micron scale ceramic dust particles detached from the alumina beam pipe and accelerated into the beam. The beam related observations are described, together with laboratory measurements of beam pipe contamination and kicker vibration, simulations of electric field in the beam pipe and the basic dynamic model. Energy deposition simulations modelling the beam losses are presented and compared to measurement. Extrapolations to future LHC operation at higher intensities and energies are made, and prospects for mitigation are discussed.  
THPPP086 UFOs in the LHC: Observations, Studies and Extrapolations 3936
  • T. Baer, M.J. Barnes, F. Cerutti, A. Ferrari, N. Garrel, B. Goddard, E.B. Holzer, S. Jackson, A. Lechner, V. Mertens, M. Misiowiec, E. Nebot Del Busto, A. Nordt, J.A. Uythoven, V. Vlachoudis, J. Wenninger, C. Zamantzas, F. Zimmermann
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • T. Baer
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • N. Fuster Martinez
    Valencia University, Atomic Molecular and Nuclear Physics Department, Valencia, Spain
  Unidentified falling objects (UFOs) are potentially a major luminosity limitation for nominal LHC operation. They are presumably micrometer sized dust particles which lead to fast beam losses when they interact with the beam. With large-scale increases and optimizations of the beam loss monitor (BLM) thresholds, their impact on LHC availability was mitigated from mid 2011 onwards. For higher beam energy and lower magnet quench limits, the problem is expected to be considerably worse, though. In 2011/12, the diagnostics for UFO events were significantly improved: dedicated experiments and measurements in the LHC and in the laboratory were made and complemented by FLUKA simulations and theoretical studies. The state of knowledge, extrapolations for nominal LHC operation and mitigation strategies are presented.