Author: Shepherd, R.
Paper Title Page
The Creation of Large-Volume, Gradient-Free Warm Dense Matter with an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser  
  • A. Levy
    UPMC, Paris, France
  • P. Audebert, J. Fuchs, M. Gauthier
    LULI, Palaiseau, France
  • M. Cammarata, D.M. Fritz, H.J. Lee, R.W. Lee, H. Lemke, B. Nagler
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • O. Ciricosta, S.M. Vinko, J.S. Wark
    University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford, United Kingdom
  • F. Deneuville, F. Dorchies, C. Fourment, O. Peyrusse
    CELIA, Talence, France
  • J. Dunn, A. Graf, J. Park, R. Shepherd, A. Steel
    LLNL, Livermore, California, USA
  • M. Fajardo
    IPFN, Lisbon, Portugal
  • J. Gaudin
    XFEL. EU, Hamburg, Germany
  • G. Williams
    IST, Lisboa, Portugal
  We report on an experiment performed using the hard x-ray beamline (X-ray Pump Probe-XPP) at the Stanford Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free electron laser adapted to the study of high-pressure high-energy density states. This warm dense matter regime, which is barely described by present-day theoretical models, is poorly understood due to the difficulty of achieving these conditions in a manner that allows accurate diagnosis. The development of free electron lasers opens a unique opportunity to generate this regime in laboratory allowing one to efficiently and uniformly heat the matter up to 10 eV within less than 100 fs. In this context, we irradiated thin Ag foils with a 9 keV x-ray beam of 60 fs duration and an irradiance approaching 1016 W/cm2. The temporal evolution of the sample was monitored with two time-and-space resolved interferometry diagnostics measuring the phase of an optical laser beam reflected from the front and back of the sample. This measurement had provided crucial information on the heating uniformity and on the achievable temperature. These conclusions have been obtained by means of a precise modelling of this regime of interaction.  
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