Einstein and Physics

Paper Title Page
MOAA001 Einstein, Nobel Prize, and Accelerators
  • C. Jarlskog
    CERN, Geneva
  We are celebrating the year of physics thanks to Einstein’s monumental contributions a hundred years ago. Indeed, the current field of accelerator physics is also deeply indebted to him. Why did it take more than a decade and a half for him to be "crowned" in Stockholm by the Nobel Prize? Did he get the Prize for the "wrong" thing? Based on original material from the archives of the Swedish Academy of Sciences, I will discuss how Einstein got the Nobel Prize and will give a short summary of his everlasting impact on the field of accelerator physics.  
WOPB002 Symmetries and Einstein 217
  • M. Kobayashi
    KEK, Ibaraki
  After brief survey of influence of Einstein on current particle physics, fundamental symmetry between particles and antipaticles will be discussed. Existence of antiparticles is an important outcome of special relativity and quantum mechanics and disappearance of antiparticles from the present universe is one of the mysteries in Big Bang cosmology based on the Einstein equation. Remarkable progress has been made recently in the studies on the violation of symmetry between particles and antiparticles with the use of a new type of accelerator. Some of their achievements will be reported.  
WOPB004 The Quest for Dark Matter
  • C. Rubbia
    CERN, Geneva
  Recent experiments have brought for the first time under a strong experimental basis that the total density of the Universe is Wo = 1.02 ± 0.02. We have for the first time a cosmic agreement, namely matter density WM = 0.27 ± 0.04 and dark energy density WL = 0.73 ± 0.04 add up precisely to Wo ! WM + WL. On the other hand ordinary hadronic matter (quarks and leptons) determined by the Big Bang Nucleo-synthesis (BBN) is also firmly set to WBBN = 0.044 ± 0.004. About 100 years after Einstein’s birth we know experimentally the identity of less than 5% of what the Universe is made of, the remaining > 95% escaping to us completely. An enormous effort is being made at LHC in order to discover SUSY particles. SUSY is an “almost necessity” of elementary particle physics. The fact that such particles may also account for the observed non baryonic dark matter is either a big coincidence or a big hint. If such SUSY particles indeed exist, they must have been produced abundantly at the time of the Big Bang and should be detectable underground as some form of Cold Dark Matter (CDM). Indeed one of the main hopes of SUSY is to become the key to the CDM problem: this cannot be achieved unless some kind of relic neutral particles exists (WIMP). Therefore the a priori chance of detecting SUSY underground at the LNGS first should not be underestimated. We should also remark that SUSY is only one of the many candidates for WIMP: other kinds of massive relic particles may exist, which may have weak-like interaction properties and therefore detectable underground.