|WEPC132||Simulations of Surface Effects and Electron Emission from Diamond-Amplifier Cathodes||2307|
Funding: The authors wish to acknowledge the support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under grants DE-SC0004431 (Tech-X Corp.), DE-AC02-98CH10886 (BNL), and DE-SC0005713 (Stony Brook University).
Emission of electrons in diamond experiments based on the promising diamond-amplifier concept* was recently demonstrated**. Transmission mode experiments have shown the potential to realize over two orders of magnitude charge amplification. However, the recent emission experiments indicate that surface effects should be understood in detail to build cathodes with optimal properties. We have made progress in understanding secondary electron generation and charge transport in diamond with models we implemented in the VORPAL particle-in-cell computational framework. We will introduce models that we have been implementing for surface effects (band bending and electron affinity), charge trapping, and electron emission from diamond. Then, we will present results from 3D VORPAL diamond-vacuum simulations with the integrated capabilities on generating electrons and holes, initiated by energetic primary electrons, charge transport, and then emission of electrons from diamond into vacuum. Finally, we will discuss simulation results on the dependence of the electron emission on diamond surface properties.
* I. Ben-Zvi et al., Secondary emission enhanced photoinjector, C-AD Accel. Phys. Rep. C-A/AP/149, BNL (2004).
** X. Chang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 164801 (2010).