Author: Liang, X.
Paper Title Page
MOPFI080 Fabrication, Transport and Characterization of Cesium Potassium Antimonide Cathode in Electron Guns 461
  • T. Rao, S.A. Belomestnykh, I. Ben-Zvi, X. Liang, I. Pinayev, B. Sheehy, J. Skaritka, J. Smedley, E. Wang, T. Xin
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  • R.R. Mammei, J.L. McCarter, M. Poelker
    JLAB, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • M. Ruiz-Osés
    Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, USA
  a number of accelerator applications need high current, low emittance and high brightness electron beams. Recent studies have shown cesium potassium antimonide to be a robust photocathode capable of producing high peak and average currents. However, for some applications, the UHV conditions required for producing these cathodes necessitate their fabrication site to be physically removed from the gun location and the cathode to be transferred between the two sites in UHV load-lock chambers. We have fabricated two cathodes at BNL, transported and tested them in DC gun at JLab at 100 kV and 200 kV. These cathodes have delivered up to 8A/cm2 without significant degradation. Localized changes in the QE have been attributed to heating due to laser, increasing the QE at lower laser power, but damaging the cathode at higher power. Two more load-lock chambers have been built to transport and insert similar cathodes in SRF guns operating at 700 MHz and 112 MHz for the first time. In this paper, we will describe the design of the load-lock chambers, transfer mechanisms, transport of the cathodes over ~ 1000 km and the cathode performance in gun environment.  
MOPFI005 XPS and UHV-AFM Analysis of the K2CsSb Photocathodes Growth 291
  • S.G. Schubert
    HZB, Berlin, Germany
  • I. Ben-Zvi, M. Ruiz-Osés
    Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, USA
  • X. Liang
    SBU, Stony Brook, New York, USA
  • H.A. Padmore, T. Vecchione
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  • T. Rao, J. Smedley
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  Funding: This work is funded by the Department of Energy, under Contract No. KC0407-ALSJNT-I0013, DE-SC0005713, the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) and the state of Berlin, Germany.
Next generation light sources, based on Energy Recovery Linac and Free Electron Laser technology will rely on photoinjector based electron sources. Successful operation of such sources requires reliable photocathodes with long operational life, uniform and high quantum efficiency, low thermal emittance and low dark current. The goal of this project is to construct a cathode which meets these requirements. Advances in photocathode research must take a combined effort. The materials have to be analyzed by means of chemical composition, surface structure and these findings have to be correlated to the quantum efficiency and performance in the injector. The presented work focuses on the chemical composition and surface structure of K2CsSb photocathodes. The XPS and AFM measurements were performed at the Center of Functional Nanomaterials at BNL. K2CsSb photocathodes were grown under UHV conditions. The components were adsorbed one at a time and after each growth step the corresponding XPS spectra was taken. During growth the quantum efficiency was recorded. As last step the sample was moved into the AFM without exposure to air to determine the surface roughness.
MOPFI081 Correlating Structure and Function - In situ X-ray Analysis of High QE Alkali-antimonide Photocathodes 464
  • J. Smedley, K. Attenkofer, S.G. Schubert
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  • I. Ben-Zvi, X. Liang, E.M. Muller, M. Ruiz-Osés
    Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, USA
  • T. Forrest, H.A. Padmore, T. Vecchione, J.J. Wong
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  • J. Xie
    ANL, Argonne, USA
  Funding: The authors wish to acknowledge the support of the US DOE, under Contract No. KC0407-ALSJNT-I0013, DE-AC02-98CH10886 and DE-SC0005713. Use of CHESS is supported by NSF award DMR-0936384.
Alkali antimonide photocathodes have high quantum efficiency and low emittance when illuminated by visible light, and are thought to be well suited for use in high-brightness photoinjectors of 4th generation light sources. Here we report on the growth of multi-alkali K2CsSb cathodes on [100] silicon substrates measured using in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray reflection (XRR). Correlations between cathode structure and growth parameters and the resulting quantum efficiency (QE) are also explored. The best cathodes have a QE at 532 nm in excess of 6% and are structurally textured K2CsSb with grain sizes in excess of 20 nm. In an attempt to reduce the complexity of the current growth methodology we are also making alkali antimonides in parallel via the reaction of bulk materials in an inert environment. This approach has the advantage that the desired stoichiometry can be obtained exactly. Initial diffraction results from prepared bulk materials are promising and show the formation of well reacted K3Sb. In the future we intend to transfer this material to smooth thin photocathode films by either sputtering or pulsed laser deposition.