Author: Apollonio, A.
Paper Title Page
TUPFI012 HL-LHC: Integrated Luminosity and Availability 1352
  • A. Apollonio, M. Jonker, R. Schmidt, B. Todd, S. Wagner, D. Wollmann, M. Zerlauth
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  The objective of LHC operation is to optimise the output for particle physics by maximising the integrated luminosity. An important constraint comes from the event pile–up for one bunch crossing that should not exceed 140 events per bunch crossing. With bunches every 25 ns the luminosity for data taking of the experiments should therefore not exceed 5*1034 s−1cm-2. For the optimisation of the integrated luminosity it is planned to design HL-LHC for much higher luminosity than acceptable for the experiments and to limit the initial luminosity by operating with larger beam size at the collision points. During the fill, the beam size will be slowly reduced to keep the luminosity constant. The gain from luminosity levelling depends on the average length of the fills. Today, with the LHC operating at 4 TeV, most fills are terminated due to equipment failures, resulting in an average fill length of about 5 h. In this paper we discuss the expected integrated luminosity for HL-LHC as a function of fill length and time between fills, depending on the expected MTBF of the LHC systems with HL-LHC parameters. We derive an availability target for HL-LHC and discuss steps to achieve this.  
THPFI045 Reliability Approach for Machine Protection Design in Particle Accelerators 3388
  • A. Apollonio, J.-B. Lallement, B. Mikulec, B. Puccio, J.L. Sanchez Alvarez, R. Schmidt, S. Wagner
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  Particle accelerators require Machine Protection Systems (MPS) to prevent beam induced damage of equipment in case of failures. This becomes increasingly important for proton colliders with large energy stored in the beam such as LHC, for high power accelerators with a beam power of up to 10 MW, such as the European Spallation Source (ESS), and for linear colliders with high beam power and very small beam size. The reliability of Machine Protection Systems is crucial for safe machine operation; all possible sources of risk need to be taken into account in the early design stage. This paper presents a systematic approach to classify failures and to assess the associated risk, and discusses the impact of such considerations on the design of Machine Protection Systems. The application of this approach will be illustrated using the new design of the MPS for LINAC 4, a linear accelerator under construction at CERN.