Modern trends in accelerators
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Experimental Approach to the Synthesis of Exotic Nuclei Using Heavy Ion Accelerators  
  • A.G. Popeko
    JINR/FLNR, Moscow region, Russia
  Speaking of exotic nuclei, we have in mind nuclei with ratios of proton to neutron numbers significantly differing from those of nuclei lying at the beta-stability valley, nuclei existing only due to stabilizing effects of nuclear shells, nuclei having unusual form or nucleon density distribution. The study of exotic nuclei provides excellent possibilities for testing models of nuclear forces and structure, reaction mechanisms and astrophysical processes. For producing exotic nuclei, different types of reactions induced by heavy ions are used: direct reactions - Coulomb excitation, nucleon transfer and spallation reactions, fragmentation of target and projectile nuclei, heavy ion induced fission and complete fusion reactions. To induce reactions ions with energy from n*MeV up to n*GeV, in the full accessible range of atomic numbers and masses are used. Secondary beams of exotic nuclei employed for producing of even more exotic species. For isolation of reaction products from primary beam on-line electromagnetic fragment separators, electrostatic separators, velocity selectors and gas-filled set-ups equipped with sophisticated detection systems find application. For producing secondary beams, IGISOL technique is effective in several cases. Special attention is payed to synthesis of super heavy nuclei. Over the past decade, numerous isotopes of super heavy elements with Z=112-118 have been produced in complete fusion reactions of accelerated 48Ca ions with actinide targets.  
slides icon Slides MOYMH01 [52.037 MB]  
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Resent Advances with Crystal Deflectors at the U-70 Synchrotron - Status and Prospects  
  • A.G. Afonin
    IHEP, Moscow Region, Russia
  The report overviews recent results of activity in implementing crystal deflectors to extract proton and ion beams for the fixed-target experiments at the U-70 synchrotron of IHEP of NRC Kurchatov Institute. The results of experimental observation of characteristic X-ray radiation excited by extracted proton and ion beams are presented as well.  
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MOZMH03 Search for the Charged Particle Electric Dipole Moments in Storage Rings 6
  • V. Senichev
    FZJ, Jülich, Germany
  The idea of searching for the electric dipole moment (EDM) of proton and deuteron using polarized beams in a storage ring was originally proposed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), USA. Currently, the Jülich Electric Dipole moment Investigations (JEDI) collaboration develops the conceptual design of such a ring specifically for the search of the deuteron electrical dipole moment (dEDM). The idea is that the oscillation of the spin due to a possible finite electric dipole moment is separated from the influence of the magnetic dipole moment (MDM), and the spin behavior indicates the existence of dEDM. In connection with this problem, two questions arise: (i) how to create conditions for maximum growth of the total EDM signal of all particles in the beam bunch, and (ii) how to differentiate the EDM signal from the induced MDM signal. For the design of such a ring, we need to address three major challenges: - the ring lattice should meet the conditions of beam stability, and it has to have incorporated straight sections to accommodate the accelerating station, equipment for injection and extraction of the beam, a polarimeter, and sextupoles; - the polarization lifetime of the beam must be around ~1000 seconds; - systematic errors have to be minimized to eliminate the induced fake EDM signal. In my contribution, I will present the current status of the project.  
slides icon Slides MOZMH03 [5.491 MB]  
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TUPSA006 Development of RF Accelerator on Parallel-Coupled Structure - Trend in Accelerator Technique 219
  • Y.D. Chernousov
    ICKC, Novosibirsk, Russia
  Development of parallel-coupled accelerating structure (PCS), creation of RF linier accelerator based on PCS is new and rapidly developing field of accelerator technology. Compared with conventional accelerating structures with serial communication - the standard traveling and standing waves structures, the PCS has a lot of features and advantages. There are many problems in the development of RF linear accelerators: breakdowns at high power levels, the destruction of the structure due to overheating, the excitation of higher-order mode, the decline of field strength along the structure, transients, beam loading, beam focusing, multipactor, radiation accelerator cleanliness, etc. PCS - the best accelerating structure for solving these problems.  
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TUPSA007 New Experimental Results on RF Accelerator with Parallel-Coupled Structure and RF Controlled Gun 222
  • Y.D. Chernousov
    ICKC, Novosibirsk, Russia
  • I.M. Ikryanov, I.V. Shebolaev
    ICKC SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
  New data on the development and experimental investigation of the RF accelerator based on the 9-cavities parallel-coupled accelerating structure that is equipped with a high-frequency grid-controlled electron gun are presented. Accelerating structure, injection system and focusing system are improved. Previously observed second emission resonant discharge - multipactor is suppressed by increasing the field amplitude in the structure first cavity and using the protector. The parameters of the accelerated beam close to the design ones, i.e. electron energy up to 8 MeV, capture to the acceleration mode up to 100%, were received. Capture is provided by the RF electron focusing of the microwave field structure with usage of the magnetic focusing system based on permanent magnets and RF grid control in the electron gun.  
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TUPSA008 Gradient Limitations for RF Accelerator on Parallel-Coupled Structure 225
  • Y.D. Chernousov
    ICKC, Novosibirsk, Russia
  • I.V. Shebolaev
    ICKC SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
  RF breakdown is the main gradient limitation for RF accelerator. It is believed that all the known ways to increase the accelerating gradient have been already investigated. These are increase in the frequency of the accelerating field, reduction in the pulse duration, the optimization of cavities form, selection of operating surface materials, preparation and training of accelerating structures. In this paper, we discuss the possibility of increasing the accelerating gradient due to the circuit design, i.e., the use of the parallel-coupled accelerating structure.  
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TUPSA009 Electron Beam Dynamics Calculation and Accelerating Structure Geometry Design in 10 MeV Hybrid Electron Linac 228
  • A.V. Bulanov, S.V. Matsievskiy, E.A. Savin, N.P. Sobenin
    MEPhI, Moscow, Russia
  Electron linear accelerators with an energy of 10 MeV are widely used for industrial purposes. This article presents the electron dynamic calculations and the design of linac with a standing wave (SW) buncher based on the biperiodic accelerating structure and a constant impedance backward traveling wave (BTW) accelerating section after it. In such accelerator, all unused RF power coming out from BTW section is used in SW section to improve the linac efficiency. Thus no RF load is needed. Also, a beam is experiencing an RF focusing in the SW buncher. Solenoid focusing field influence on the beam dynamics in the TW section was studied.  
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Preliminary Study on Graphene Coated RF Cavity  
  • Q.S. Chen, L. Cao, K. Fan, T. Hu, B. Qin, P. Tan, Y.Q. Xiong
    HUST, Wuhan, People's Republic of China
  Graphene has attracted great interest ever since due to its excellent performance in chemical and physical properties. For the aspect of modern accelerator technology, high beam power and stability are two main concerns. In this paper we will give a preliminary study on graphene coated RF cavities and show some potential advantages related to the graphene coat. Especially for the high electrical conductivity of graphene, it is possible to achieve a CW operation which is comparable to a superconducting machine. Another important character is the low multipacting, which would greatly reduce RF breakdown and improve the stability of the whole system.  
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WEPSB004 The Intelligent Object-oriented Interface in the Design Environment of The Charged Particles Relativistic Beams Transport Channels 357
  • G.P. Averyanov, V.A. Budkin, A.V. Kobylyatskiy, I.O. Osadchuk
    MEPhI, Moscow, Russia
  The effectiveness of the design during the computer modeling is significantly determined by the user interface convenience of the application package and the time adaptation of the user to that application. This paper presents a new approach in the implementation of KATRAN software interface for the transport channels design of the charged particles relativistic beams. The interface is a sequence of operations for the designer during the virtual channel creation ' setting beam parameters at the channel input, the choice of the displayed elements of the channel, the channel assembly, setting the calculation algorithm with the parameters optimization. Thus the immersion of the designer into the details of the computing environment, the features of the software and channel modeling mathematical methods is not needed. The data objects are the typical elements of the transport channels (quadrupole lenses, magnets, open intervals, etc.). The work is carried out in interactive mode. After the "build and run" of the channel is finished, the full-screen multi-factor analysis of all major parameters of the beam and channel transparency is provided.  
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WEPSB025 Application of GPGPUs and Multicore CPUs in Optimization of Some of the MpdRoot Codes 416
  • A.I. Fatkina, O.O. Iakushkin, N.O. Tikhonov
    Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia
  Funding: This research was partially supported by SPbU (Saint Petersburg State University) grants, and Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant (project no. 16-07-01113).
We analyzed the ways to optimize MPDRoot algorithms using existing solutions from external libraries. We also examined the libraries designed to work with graphics accelerators and multi-core CPUs, such as cuRAND, cuFFT and OpenCL FFT. The paper describes the ways to expedite a portion of Kalman filter by transferring it to GPUs or multi-core CPUs using the implementation included into the MPDRoot package.
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WEPSB026 Dynamical Aperture Beyond Perturbations: From Qualitative Analysis to Maps 419
  • A.N. Fedorova, M.G. Zeitlin
    RAS/IPME, St. Petersburg, Russia
  We start with a qualitative approach based on the detailed analysis of smoothness classes of the underlying functional spaces provided possible evaluation of the dynamical aperture in general nonlinear/polynomial models of particle/beam motion in accelerators. We present the applications of discrete multiresolution analysis technique to the maps which arise as the invariant discretization of continuous nonlinear polynomial problems. It provides a generalization of the machinery of local nonlinear harmonic analysis, which can be applied for both discrete and continuous cases and allows to construct the explicit multiresolution decomposition for solutions of discrete problems which are the correct discretizations of the corresponding continuous cases.  
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Acceleration of Electron Bunches Generated by a Laser Pulse Interacting with an Inhomogeneous Plasma  
  • S.V. Kuznetsov
    JIHT RAS, Moscow, Russia
  Funding: This work was supported in part by the Russian Science Foundation, project no. 14-50-00124.
The process of the generation of a short electron bunches by a laser pulse of relativistic intensity that passes through a sharp boundary of plasma and their subsequent acceleration in the wake wave of a laser pulse has been analytically studied*. It is shown in one-dimensional geometry that one physical mechanism that is responsible for the generation of electron bunches is self-injection of electrons into the wake field of a laser pulse, which occurs due to the mixing of electrons during the action of the laser pulse on plasma. The length of the trapped electron bunch is determined by the effect of kinematic grouping, which consists in the fact that electron self-injection into the wake wave occurs at the point of space and the moment of time when the previously trapped electrons are close to this point. Subsequently, during acceleration of trapped electrons in the wake wave, the length of the bunch increases as a result of the initial spread in the conditions of electron injection and their mutual repulsion in the bunch. Simple analytic relationships were obtained that can be used for estimating the length, charge of an electron bunch and the spread of electron energies**.
*S.V. Kuznetsov Tech. Phys. Lett., 2016, Vol. 42, No. 7, pp. 740-742.
** S.V. Kuznetsov JETP, 2016, Vol. 123, No. 2, in print.
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Power GeV-positron Beams as a Novel Branch of the Accelerator Science  
  • V.V. Gorev
    NRC, Moscow, Russia
  It is becoming clear that future applications of the readily available form of antimatter (especially, in the form of power and high brightness positron beams) will lead to the excellent progress in a few avenue of inquiries of accelerator science and, consequently, it will be useful for development of fundamental and apply physics. Especially, this concerned this clue and stubborn problems as high velocity macroparticle acceleration for strong shock waves research, trims the size of heavy ions accelerator for ICF and any others(*-***)In this report we reveal that such problems mention above can result from today technology and trust of the nowadays research is to reduce the cost of the future machines through development of an ideas such as "charge pumping mode". The paper will discuss the scientific ideas, directions of the critical researchers and limitations of basic principles.
* V.V.Gorev. About annihilation mode of macroparticle acceleration for ICF. Doklady AS USSR.v.274, p68-71.1984.
** V.V.Gorev. Power positron beams. High Power particle Beams Conf. USA, Washington, 2014. p.78.
*** V.V.Gorev. Power positron beams for HEDP. Pulse Power Conf. USA, Chicago, 2011, p.69.
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Boundary-Value Problem for Elliptic Equation in the Corner Domain in the Numerical Simulation of Magnetic Systems  
  • R.V. Polyakova, A.D. Kovalenko, E.E. Perepelkin, I.P. Yudin
    JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia
  Modern particle accelerators and detectors* contain magnetic systems of complex geometrical configuration. Design and optimization of the systems led to the necessity of solving a nonlinear boundary-value problem of the magnetostatic. The considered region consists of two sub-domains namely: vacuum and ferromagnetic. In view of complexity of magnetic systems, the ferromagnetic/vacuum boundary can be non-smooth, i.e. it includes a corner point that separate two smooth curves belongs to different sub-domains and crossed in the corner point at some angle. A nonlinear differential equation of divergent type in the domain with a corner and the opportunity of existence of solutions with an unlimitedly growing module of gradient in the vicinity of the corner point have been considers in**. A theorem of limitation of the module of gradient of the solution in the vicinity of the corner point in the case of the magnetic permeability satisfying to certain conditions at high fields was proved. An upper estimate of the maximum possible growth of the magnetic field in the corner domain is presented in [4]. The method of designing the differential mesh near the corner domain allowed reducing considerably a relative error of calculating the magnetic field in the considered design problems. Examples of calculating some magnetic systems containing a domain with the corner point are given in [2-4].
* Perepelkin E. and ATLAS collaboration, Aad, JINST 2008, S08003, vol.3, p.437.
** Perepelkin E.E. et al. Estimation of magnetic field growth and construction of adaptive mesh in corner domain for magnetostatic problem. Physics of Particles and Nuclei Letters, V 13, Issue 6, 2016.
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