MOPEA  —  Poster Session   (24-May-10   16:00—18:00)

Paper Title Page
MOPEA001 Production and Characterisation of Inverse Compton Scattering X-rays with a 17 MeV Electron Beam 61
  • A.S. Chauchat, JP. Brasile
    THALES, Colombes
  • A. Binet, V. Le Flanchec, J-P. Nègre
    CEA, Arpajon
  • J.-M. Ortega

Inverse Compton scattering is a well-known process to produce X-rays. Thanks to recent progress in accelerators and laser field, such sources have been developed worldwide. The ELSA linear electron accelerator (CEA DAM DIF, Arpajon, France) just developed its own source. The 17 MeV electron beam interacts with a 532 nm laser to provide a pulsed 10 keV X-ray source. The X-ray beam profile is observed on radio-luminescent imaging plates. In order to increase the signal to noise ratio of this X-ray source, laser developments are in progress.

MOPEA002 Eye Tumour Therapy in Berlin 64
  • A. Denker
    HMI, Berlin
  • D. Cordini, J. Heufelder, R. Stark, A. Weber
    Charite, Berlin
  • C.R. Rethfeldt, J.R. Roehrich
    HZB, Berlin

The ion beam laboratory ISL at the Hahn-Meitner-Institute (HMI) Berlin supplied light and heavy ion beams for research and applications in solid state physics, industry, and medicine. Since 1998, eye tumours are treated with 68 MeV protons in collaboration with the University Hospital Benjamin Franklin, now Charité - Campus Benjamin Franklin. In autumn 2004 the board of directors of the HMI decided to close down ISL at the end of 2006. In December 2006, a cooperation contract between the Charité and the HMI was signed to assure the continuity of the eye tumour therapy, at the moment the only facility in Germany. The accelerator operation will be continued with reduced man-power, requiring changes in the set-up of the accelerators. A new, facile injector for protons is foreseen. Increasing the reliability will be a key issue. The last two years of operation of ISL as a full multi-purpose accelerator will be shown and examples of the research work will be demonstrated. The conversion of a multi-ion, variable energy accelerator to a dedicated accelerator for eye tumour therapy will be discussed.

The Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie has been formed by the merger of the Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin and the Berliner Elektronenspeicherring-Gesellschaft für Synchrotronstrahlung

MOPEA003 Linac Commissioning at the Italian Hadrontherapy Centre CNAO 67
  • B. Schlitt, G. Clemente, C.M. Kleffner, M.T. Maier, A. Reiter, W. Vinzenz, H. Vormann
    GSI, Darmstadt
  • C. Biscari
    INFN/LNF, Frascati (Roma)
  • E. Bressi, M. Pullia, E. Vacchieri, S. Vitulli
    CNAO Foundation, Milan
  • A. Pisent, P.A. Posocco, C. Roncolato
    INFN/LNL, Legnaro (PD)

The Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO) presently under commissioning in Pavia, Italy, will be the first Italian facility for the treatment of deeply seated tumours with proton and carbon ion beams. The CNAO accelerator comprises a 7 MeV/u injector linac and a 400 MeV/u synchrotron. The 216.8 MHz linac is a copy of the linac at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Centre (HIT) and consists of a 400 keV/u 4-rod type RFQ and of a 20 MV IH type drift tube linac. In 2004, a collaboration between CNAO and GSI was established for construction and commissioning of the linac. GSI supervised the manufacturing of the linac and of its technical systems, performed copper-plating, assembly, and tuning (together with IAP Frankfurt), and delivered complete beam diagnostics systems. The RFQ was tested at GSI with proton beams together with the BD systems prior to delivery to CNAO. Installation and commissioning in Pavia were performed in collaboration by CNAO, GSI, and INFN. RFQ and thereafter IH linac were successfully commissioned in two steps in 2009, both with (H3)+ and carbon ion beams. The results of the linac commissioning will be reported as well as a comparison to the HIT linac.

MOPEA005 Status of the SIEMENS Particle Therapy Accelerators 70
  • P. Urschütz, O. Chubarov, S. Emhofer, S. Göller, K. Haß, C.M. Kleffner, V.L. Lazarev, M. Leghissa, M.T. Maier, D. Ondreka, H. Rohdjess, R. Rottenbach, A.C. Sauer, R. Schedler, B. Schlitt, P. Schütt, B. Steiner, J. Tacke, T. Uhl, U. Weinrich, O. Wilhelmi
    Siemens Med, Erlangen
  • H.K. Andersen, M. Budde, F. Bødker, J.S. Gretlund, H.B. Jeppesen, C.V. Nielsen, C.G. Pedersen, Ka.T. Therkildsen, S.V. Weber
    Siemens DK, Jyllinge
  • E. Tanke
    FRIB, East Lansing, Michigan

Siemens has earned three contracts to deliver IONTRIS Particle Therapy accelerator systems* to be operated in Marburg and Kiel, both in Germany, and in Shanghai, China. The accelerator part consists of an injector (7 MeV/u protons and light ions) and a compact synchrotron able to accelerate proton beams up to 250 MeV and carbon ions up to 430 MeV/u. These beams can be slowly extracted and delivered to a choice of fixed-angle horizontal, semi-vertical and vertical beam-ports. An overview of the design will be given and the status of the installation and commissioning work for the first two projects will be shown.

*Particle Therapy is a work in progress and requires country-specific regulatory approval prior to clinical use.

MOPEA006 Operational Status and Further Enhancements of the HIT Accelerator Facility 73
  • A. Peters, R. Cee, E. Feldmeier, M. Galonska, Th. Haberer, K. Höppner, M.B. Ripert, S. Scheloske, C. Schömers, T. Winkelmann
    HIT, Heidelberg

Since November, 15th 2009 patients are treated with protons and carbon ions at the Heidelberg Ionbeam Therapy Centre (HIT). The facility - two ion sources, an injector linac and a compact synchrotron - is operated in 24/7-mode with high availability. The HIT beam time schedule is discussed along the statistics automatically generated by the control system. Besides the patient treatment in the first horizontal room beam time is also used to develop enhanced treatment software in the second horizontal room as well as for commissioning the gantry place. Additionally, biophysics studies are served at a separate experimental place. In parallel, an upgrade program for the accelerator is under way: at first a test bench for a third ion source, later on dedicated to He beams, will be used to study several ideas to increase the injector performance. Furthermore operation mechanisms are under progress to control directly the synchrotron dipole and quadrupole fields as well as to regulate the spill structure - the aim of both developments is to form a uniform and extremely stable extracted beam with high duty cycle. An overview on this entire accelerator R&D at HIT will be given.

MOPEA007 Fast Raster Scanning System for HIMAC New Treatment Facility 76
  • T. Furukawa, T. Inaniwa, Y. Iwata, K. Katagiri, K. Mizushima, K. Noda, S. Sato, T. Shirai, Y. Takei, E. Takeshita
    NIRS, Chiba-shi

Construction of new treatment facility as an extension of the existing HIMAC facility, in which all treatment room will be equipped with a 3D pencil beam scanning system, is in progress at NIRS. The challenge of this project is to realize treatment of a moving target by scanning irradiation, because pencil beam scanning is more sensitive to organ motions compared with the conventional broad-beam irradiation. To accomplish practical moving target irradiation, a prototype of the scanning irradiation system was constructed and installed into existing HIMAC physics experiment course. One of the most important features of the system to be tested is fast scanning toward moving target irradiation with a relatively large number of rescannings within an acceptable irradiation time. Commissioning of the prototype is successfully in progress cooperating with highly stabilized beam provided by the HIMAC accelerator complex. We will report the design of the system and the status of the beam study.

MOPEA008 Multiple-energy Operation with Quasi-DC Extension of Flattops at HIMAC 79
  • Y. Iwata, T. Furukawa, K. Mizushima, K. Noda, T. Shirai, E. Takada, E. Takeshita
    NIRS, Chiba-shi
  • T. Fujimoto, T. Kadowaki, Y. Sano, H. Uchiyama
    AEC, Chiba

Tumor therapy using energetic carbon ions, as provided by the HIMAC, has been performed since June 1994, and more than 5000 patients were treated until now. With the successful clinical results over more than ten years, we are constructing a new treatment facility. The new facility would have three treatment rooms; two of them have both horizontal and vertical fixed-irradiation-ports, and the other has a rotating-gantry-port. For all the ports, a scanning irradiation method is applied. The new facility is constructed in conjunction with the HIMAC, and heavy-ion beams will be provided by the HIMAC accelerators. To fulfill requirements for the scanning irradiation, we proposed multiple-energy operation with the quasi-DC extension of a flat top. With this operation, the beam energy can be successively varied within a single synchrotron-cycle, and therefore no energy degrader or the range shifter is required. The beam acceleration and extraction tests of the multiple-energy operation were successfully made. We will present the development of this operation as well as results of the beam acceleration tests.

MOPEA010 Beam Measurement Experiment of X-band Linac for Compton Scattering X-ray Generation 82
  • T. Natsui
    UTNL, Ibaraki
  • K. Lee, M. Uesaka
    The University of Tokyo, Nuclear Professional School, Ibaraki-ken
  • A. Mori
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo
  • F. Sakamoto
    Akita National College of Technology, Akita

We are developing an X-band linac system for monochromatic X-rays source. The monochromatic X-ray is obtained by Compton scattering. Our system has an X-band (11.424 GHz) 3.5-cell thermionic cathode RF gun, traversing wave accelerating tube and a Q-switch Nd:YAG laser with a wavelength of 532 nm. We adopt a laser pulse circulation system. The RF gun can generate multi-bunch electron beam. We aim to generate 1 μs maximum energy electron beam and collide it to circulated laser pulse. I will present a current status of beam measurement of this linac.

MOPEA012 A Compact and High-Proton-Yield Microwave Ion Source for Proton Linac 85
  • T. Iga, S. Hara, T. Seki
    Hitachi, Ltd., Energy and Environmental System Laboratory, Hitachi-shi

A compact and high-proton-yield 2.45 GHz microwave ion source has been developed and tested on an AccSys Model PL-7 linac. The source that has an overall diameter of 115 mm uses permanent magnets and iron yokes. Microwave power was fed to a plasma chamber with a double ridged waveguide via a coaxial cable. A pulsed hydrogen ion beam of 45 mA was extracted from a single 5 mm diameter extraction aperture with a proton fraction of >90 % at 30 keV and a hydrogen gas flow rate of 1 sccm. A 7-MeV proton current out of the linac with the source reached up to 16 mApeak, which exceeds its design value of 15 mApeak. Excellent stability of no more than 1.5 % in both the ion source extraction current and the linac output current was also demonstrated in an 8-hour operation test.

MOPEA013 Laser-driven Proton Accelerator for Medical Application 88
  • M. Nishiuchi, P.R. Bolton, T. Hori, K. Kondo, A.S. Pirozhkov, A. Sagisaka, H. Sakaki, A. Yogo
    JAEA, Ibaraki-ken
  • Y. Iseki, T. Yoshiyuki
    Toshiba, Tokyo
  • S. Kanazawa, H. Kiriyama, M. Mori, K. Ogura, S. Orimo
    JAEA/Kansai, Kyoto
  • A. Noda, H. Souda, H. Tongu
    Kyoto ICR, Uji, Kyoto
  • T. Shirai
    NIRS, Chiba-shi

The interaction between the high intensity laser and the solid target produces a strong electrostatic proton acceleration field (1 TV/m) with extraordinary small size, contributing to downsizing of the particle accelerator. The proton beam exhibits significant features. having very small source size(~10 um), short pulse duration (~ps) and very low transverse emittance. However it is a diverging beam (half angle of ~10 deg) with wide energy spread of ~100 %. Because of these peculiar characteristics the proton beam attracts many fields for applications including medical applications. To preserve these peculiar characteristics, which are not possessed by those beams from the conventional accelerators, towards the irradiation points, we need to establish a peculiar beam transport line. As the first step, here we report the demonstration of the proto-type laser-driven proton medical accelerator beam line in which we combine the laser-driven proton source with the beam transport technique already established in the conventional accelerator for the purpose of comparison between the data and the particle transport simulation code, PARMILA*.

*Harunori Takeda, 2005, Parmila LANL (LA-UR-98-4478).

MOPEA014 DNA Double-Strand Break Induction in A549 Cells with a Single-Bunch Beam of Laser-Accelerated Protons 91
  • A. Yogo
    JAEA, Ibaraki-ken

We report the demonstrated irradiation effect of laser-accelerated protons on human cancer cells. In-vitro (living) A549 cells are irradiated with a proton beam having a single bunch duration of 20 ns and a beam flux of ~1014cm−2s−1*. The dynamics differ by seven orders of magnitude to the case of a typical Ion Beam Therapy (IBT) operation with a synchrotron: 0.4 s in bunch duration and ~107cm−2s−1 in beam flux. We have measured the yield of DNA double-strand break with phosphorylated histone H2AX immunostaining method and estimated Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) of the laser-accelerated protons.

* A. Yogo et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181502 (2009).

MOPEA015 Calculation of Radiation Shielding for Laser-driven Hadron Beams Therapeutic Instrument 94
  • H. Sakaki, P.R. Bolton, T. Hori, K. Kondo, M. Nishiuchi, F. Saito, H. Takahashi, M. Ueno, A. Yogo
    JAEA, Kyoto
  • H. Iwase
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • K. Niita
    RIST, Ibaraki

The concept of a compact ion particle accelerator has become attractive in view of recent progress in laser-driven hadrons acceleration. The Photo Medical Research Centre (PMRC) of JAEA was established to address the challenge of laser-driven ion accelerator development for hadrons therapeutic. In the development of the instrument, it is necessary to do the bench-mark of the amount of the different types of radiation by the simulation code for shielding. The Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code (PHITS) was used for bench-mark the dose on laser-shot radiations of short duration. The code predicts reasonably well the observed total dose as measured with a glass dosimeter in the laser-driven radiations.

MOPEA016 The Beam Characteristics of Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy 6MeV Standing Wave Accelerating Tube 97
  • H. Chen, Q.X. Jin, R.K. Li, Y. Z. Lin
    TUB, Beijing
  • J. Gao
    Tsinghua University, Beijing

The method of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is increasingly concerned by the medical world in recent years. Based on the performance characteristic of IMRT accelerator, a 6MeV S-band on axis-coupled SW, Suitable for IMRT, electron linear accelerating tube has been developed in Accelerator Lab of Tsinghua University. This paper provides the design performance characteristics of the tube and the results of the high-power tests,analyzes the performance and problems in the operation.

MOPEA017 Developing of a C-Band 9 MeV / 6 MeV SW Electron Linear Accelerating Tube 100
  • Q.X. Jin, H. Chen, D.C. Tong
    TUB, Beijing

In this paper, the design of a C-band SW accelerating tube is presented and its high power test set is shown. The tube can accelerate electrons to 9 MeV or 6 MeV. Its length is about 620mm, and a Pierce electron gun is used. A 2.5MW pulsed magnetron at 5712 MHz is served as the tube's RF power source. Two energy modes are performed by changing the input RF power and the injecting voltage of electron gun.

MOPEA018 Study of the Installtion of a Small Animal Experiment Equipment in a MC-50 Cyclotron LEPT Beam Line 103
  • M.H. Jung, J.-K. Kil, K. R. Kim, S.J. Ra
    KAERI, Daejon

Proton therapy has features of minimal effect on tumor surrounding healthy tissue and huge damage on tumor volumes specifically. Due to these characteristics of proton therapy the number of patients with receiving proton therapy is increasing every year. Proton therapy is useful for tumor treatment but still not know mechanism of proton beam that how to kill the tumor cells. In korea, a lot of current research progressed at the cellular level by using a proton accelerator, the animal experiments was not held virtually because of the absence of the device. In this study, we installed a animal experiment device for proton beam irradiation in MC-50 cyclotron LEPT (Low Energy Proton Therapy) beam line. Bouls and collimator, we easily made to be installed and we used PMMA sheet in order to reduce the energy. In addition, we used ridge filter type modulator for making SOBP and depth-dose measurement system for a proton beam dosimetry.

MOPEA019 Study on the Injection System for Compact Cyclotron Mass Spectrometry 106
  • D.G. Kim, H.-C. Bhang, J.Y. Kim
    SNU, Seoul
  • J.-W. Kim
    NCC, Korea, Kyonggi
  • C.C. Yun
    Chung-Ang University, Seoul

Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) using a cyclotron has been studied because the system can be more compact and economical compared to the widespread commercial Tandem AMS. However, the previous efforts to build such a system showed that it has weakness in stability and transmission efficiency. To increase transmission efficiency it is important for the injection system to match not only the transverse phase space of a beam but also the longitudinal phase space with cyclotron acceptance. We plan to adopt a sawtooth RF buncher to increase transmission efficiency in the acceleration region of the cyclotron and a radial injection beam line. A goal in designing the injection line is to minimize the number of beam line elements to keep the system compact. The design of the injection system was carried out using the codes such as TRANSPORT and TRACE-3D. A prototype of the injection system is being constructed, and some results will be presented.

MOPEA020 Overview of the MedAustron Design and Technology Choices 109
  • M. Benedikt, J. Gutleber, M. Palm, W. Pirkl
    CERN, Geneva
  • U. Dorda, A. Fabich
    EBG MedAustron, Wr. Neustadt

MedAustron is a synchrotron based accelerator facility for cancer treatment in Austria currently in the development phase. The design is based on the PIMMS study* and CNAO** synchrotron. In addition to the clinical application, the accelerator will also provide beams for nonclinical research in the fields of medical radiation physics, radiation biology and experimental physics with an extended proton energy range beyond medical requirements to 800 MeV. The differences to others medical accelerator-based facilities will be elaborated, specifically the used source technologies and configuration (starting up with protons (p) and carbon ions (C6+) allowing a later upgrade to ion species up to neon) and the online verification of all relevant beam parameters. The current project status is presented.

* PIMMS Proton-ion medical machine study, Bryant, Philip J (ed.) et al., CERN, 2000.
** CNAO,

MOPEA021 PAMELA Overview and Status 112
  • K.J. Peach, J.H. Cobb, S.L. Sheehy, H. Witte, T. Yokoi
    JAI, Oxford
  • M. Aslaninejad, M.J. Easton, J. Pasternak
    Imperial College of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, London
  • R.J. Barlow, H.L. Owen, S.C. Tygier
    UMAN, Manchester
  • C.D. Beard, P.A. McIntosh, S.M. Pattalwar, S.L. Smith, S.I. Tzenov
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire
  • N. Bliss, T.J. Jones, J. Strachan
    STFC/DL, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire
  • T.R. Edgecock, J.K. Pozimski
    STFC/RAL, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon
  • R.J.L. Fenning, A. Khan
    Brunel University, Middlesex
  • I.S.K. Gardner, D.J. Kelliher, S. Machida
    STFC/RAL/ASTeC, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon
  • M.A. Hill
    GIROB, Oxford
  • C. Johnstone
    Fermilab, Batavia
  • B. Jones, B. Vojnovic
    Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, Oxford
  • R. Seviour
    Cockcroft Institute, Lancaster University, Lancaster

The status of PAMELA (Particle Accelerator for MEdicaL Applications) ' an accelerator for proton and light ion therapy using a non-scaling FFAG (ns-FFAG) accelerator ' is reviewed and discussed.

MOPEA022 PAMELA: Lattice Solution for a Medical C6+ Therapy Facility 115
  • S.L. Sheehy, K.J. Peach, H. Witte, T. Yokoi
    JAI, Oxford
  • D.J. Kelliher, S. Machida
    STFC/RAL/ASTeC, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon

PAMELA (Particle Accelerator for MEdicaL Applications) employs novel non-scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (NS-FFAG) technology in the development of a proton and C6+ particle therapy facility. One of the challenges of this design is the acceleration of high energy C6+ in a lattice which enables high flexibility and reliability for treatments, yet remains minimal in size and complexity. Discussed here is the Carbon 6+ lattice solution in terms of both design and performance.

MOPEA023 Engaging Schools and the Public with Accelerator Physics 118
  • S.L. Sheehy
    JAI, Oxford

Accelerator physics is often viewed as a difficult subject to communicate to schools and the public. The "Accelerate!" project, initiated in the UK in 2008, engages audiences with accelerator physics through a 45-minute live, interactive demonstration show, using basic physics demonstrations to explain the physics of particle accelerators and what they are used for. Feedback has been overwhelmingly positive from all areas, and demand for the show is very high, with over 3000 students involved in the first year of running. The program is also contributing to the science communication skills of physics graduate students. I discuss how to portray basic accelerator concepts through easy to access demonstrations and initial results of audience evaluation of the show.

MOPEA025 Accelerator Production Options for 99Mo 121
  • K.J. Bertsche
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California

Shortages of 99Mo, the most commonly used diagnostic medical isotope, have caused great concern and have prompted numerous suggestions for alternate production methods. A wide variety of accelerator-based approaches have been suggested. In this paper we survey and compare the various accelerator-based approaches.

MOPEA026 Update on the Innovative Carbon/Proton Non-scaling FFAG Isocentric Gantries for the Cancer Therapy 124
  • D. Trbojevic
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York

There is a dramatic increase in number of proton/carbon cancer therapy facilities in recent years due to their clear advantage over other radiation therapy treatments. The cost of ion cancer therapy is still prohibitive for most of the hospitals, and the dominant costs are beam delivery systems. We previously presented designs of carbon and proton isocentric gantries using non-scaling alternating gradient fixed field magnets (NS-FFAG) *, where gantry magnet size and weight are dramatically reduced. The weight of the transport elements of our NS-FFAG carbon isocentric gantry is 1.5 tons compared to 130 ton gantries recently constructed Heidelberg C facility at Heidelberg. We have also designed a proton NS-FFAG permanent magnet gantry with an estimated weight of 500 kg. We present an update on these designs.

* D. Trbojevic, B. Parker, E. Keil, and A. M. Sessler,
"Carbon/proton therapy: A novel gantry design," PHYSICAL REVIEW SPEC.
TOP. - ACCELERATORS AND BEAMS 10, 053503 (2007).

MOPEA028 Lattice Design for the ERL Electron Ion Collider in RHIC 127
  • D. Trbojevic, J. Beebe-Wang, X. Chang, Y. Hao, A. Kayran, V. Litvinenko, B. Parker, V. Ptitsyn, N. Tsoupas
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York
  • E. Pozdeyev
    FRIB, East Lansing, Michigan

We present a medium-energy (4 GeV) electron ion collider (MeRHIC) lattice design for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). MeRHIC represents a staged approach towards the higher energy eRHIC, with MeRHIC hardware being reused for eRHIC. The lattice design includes two Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), multiple isochronous arcs connected to the ERLs, an interaction region design, a low energy ERL with a polarized electron source, and connecting beam lines.

* V. Litvinenko, proceedings from this conference.

MOPEA030 Material Recognition System using 950 keV X-band Linac with Dual Energy X-ray Scintillator Array 130
  • K. Lee, S. Hirai, M. Uesaka, T. Yamamoto
    The University of Tokyo, Nuclear Professional School, Ibaraki-ken
  • E. Hashimoto
    JAEA, Ibaraki-ken
  • T. Natsui
    UTNL, Ibaraki

Dual energy X-ray system using high energy X-ray from linear accelerator (Linac) applies two times X-ray irradiation which have different energy spectrum each other in many cases. Two different X-rays yield two tomography images which is analyzed through numerical calculation with pixel values for material recognition of a object. However if the X-ray generation is not stable, the results of numerical calculation shows irregular tendency during the inspection. We propose the scintillator array in detection part, because two tomography images are obtained by just one irradiation. That leads to the time saving during inspection and the cost down for additional facilities. The optimal condition is researched to increase the ability of material recognition in interesting materials designing the detector with CsI and CdWO4 scintillators. We focus on the discrimination between heavy materials and light materials with the system in the research. X-ray source is 950 keV X-band Linac we developed for industrial application, which produce pulsed X-ray, 10 pps with around 400 mA beam current.

MOPEA031 Application of Liquid Cluster Ion Beams in Surface Processing 133
  • H. Ryuto, G.H. Takaoka, M. Takeuchi
    Kyoto University, Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto

A liquid cluster ion beam irradiation system has been developed for surface processing and modification of solid materials used in the semiconductor industry. The liquid clusters are produced by the adiabatic expansion method. The vapor pressure of the source materials such as water or ethanol is increased by heating, and ejected to a vacuum chamber through a supersonic nozzle. The ionized clusters by the electron impact ionization are accelerated to typically 3-9 kV after the elimination of monomers by the retarding voltage method, and irradiated on the solid surfaces. The sputtering yield of silicon by the ethanol cluster ion beam irradiation was more than 100 times larger than that by an argon monomer ion beam. On the other hand, the radiation damage and surface roughness caused by the ethanol cluster ion beam irradiation decreased when the mean cluster size was increased by increasing the retarding voltage. Irradiation effects of liquid cluster ion beams on polymers are also discussed.

MOPEA032 Carbon Implantation by Polyatomic Ion Source of Organic Liquids 136
  • M. Takeuchi, H. Ryuto, G.H. Takaoka
    Kyoto University, Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto

In order to establish a shallow implantation of polyatomic carbons, a polyatomic ion source for organic liquids with a high-vapor pressure was developed. Vapor of n-octane was ionized by an electron bombardment, and the ion current of 230 μA was obtained at an extraction voltage of 2 kV. The mass spectra indicated that C3H7 ion was the highest in the ion concentration and some fragmentations of octane molecule took place, which might be caused by the electron bombardment. Depth profile of carbon into single crystalline silicon irradiated with C3H7 or C6H13 at different acceleration voltage was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. As a result, the implanted depth increased with increase of the acceleration voltage. In addition, the C6H13 was implanted deeper than the C3H7 at the same incident energy per atom even though shallow implantation due to binary collision effect had been expected. The depth profile are also discussed in comparison with computer simulation results.

MOPEA033 Characteristics of the Electron Linac Based Coherent Radiation Light Source at OPU 139
  • S. Okuda, T. Kojima, R. Taniguchi
    Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai

The coherent synchrotron and transition radiation from the bunched electron beams of a linear accelerator (linac) has continuous spectra in a submillimeter to millimeter wavelength range at relatively high peak-intensity. The coherent radiation has been applied to absorption spectroscopy for various kinds of matters. However, the number of such light sources are very small. A new pulsed coherent transition radiation light source has been established by using the electron beams of a 18 MeV S-band electron linac at Osaka Prefecture University (OPU). In the linac pulsed electron beams are injected from a thermionic triode gun with a cathode-grid assembly at pulse lengths of 5 ns-4 μs at a pulse repetition rate of 500 pulses/s in maximum. The light source will be also applied to the pump-probe experiment using the pulsed electron beam or the pulsed coherent radiation as a beam for pumping matters and the coherent radiation for probing them. The transient properties of the matters excited with the electron beams or the coherent radiation will be investigated. The characteristics of the light source are reported.

MOPEA034 Study of Positron Production System using Superconducting Electron Linac 142
  • N. Hayashizaki
    RLNR, Tokyo
  • R. Kuroda, B.E. O'Rourke, N. Oshima, R. Suzuki
    AIST, Tsukuba, Ibaraki
  • E.J. Minehara
    WERC, Tsuruga , Fukui

Positron that is the antiparticle of the electron, by the specific character, can evaluate vacant spaces in microstructure from atomic level to nanometer level, which is difficult in other measurement methods. In the case of high functional material, this structure often relates directly to the performance, and the evaluation method that uses the positron beam is expected as a useful measurement tool to develop a new material. If it is able to produce more high-intense and low-energy positron beam with an accelerator, the microstructure evaluation is carried out in prompt and high accuracy for various demands of the material analysis. We have studied a positron production system using a superconducting electron linac instead of normal conducting one. Electron beam accelerated with the superconducting linac is irradiated on tantalum and converted to bremstrahlung photons, and positron beam is produced by pair creation of them. The designed acceleration energy of the superconducting electron linac is 15-40 MeV and the maximum beam power is 10 kW. The system configuration and the progress status will be presented.

MOPEA035 Pulse Radiolysis with Supercontinuum Probe Generated by PCF 145
  • Y. Hosaka, R. Betto, A. Fujita, K. Sakaue, M. Washio
    RISE, Tokyo
  • S. Kashiwagi
    ISIR, Osaka
  • R. Kuroda
    AIST, Tsukuba, Ibaraki
  • K. Ushida
    RIKEN, Saitama

We have been studying a pump-probe pulse radiolysis as an application of the S-band photo cathode RF-Gun. Pump-probe spectroscopy is well-known method of pulse radiolysis measurement. We had used 5MeV electron beam obtained from the photo cathode RF-Gun as a pump beam, and used the white light emitted from Xe flash lamp or generated by self-phase modulation in the water cell as a probe light. However, the white probe light with high intensity, good stability and broad spectrum is a key issue for pump-probe pulse radiolysis. Supercontinuum light with photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is a new technique of white light generation. Short pulse laser through PCF spreads its spectrum by nonlinear optical effect. Supercontinuum light has very continuous spectrum, and it is studied for various applications recently. For applying supercontinuum light as a probe of pulse radiolysis experiment, we have generated a supercontinuum radiation with 7 picoseconds pulse width IR (1064nm) laser and PCF, and measured its properties. The experimental results of supercontinuum generation and design of a supercontinuum based pulse radiolysis system will be presented.

MOPEA036 Design of High Brightness Light Source based on Laser-Compton Undulator for EUV Lithography Mask Inspection 148
  • K. Sakaue, A. Endo, M. Washio
    RISE, Tokyo

We will present a design of high brightness light source for EUV lithography mask inspection. The required system parameters are minimum brightness of 2500W/mm2/Sr at 13.5nm/2% bandwidth. Our design consists of super-conducting DC RF-gun as a radiator and 10.74nm CO2 laser stacked in an optical cavity as a laser undulator. Recent achievements of each component technologies, which is 1.3GHz SC-RF-gun, 10kW average power short pulse CO2 laser, and laser storage optical super-cavity, indicate the feasibility of producing required brightness based on laser Compton undulator. Design parameters of high brightness EUV source, the technological gap of the present component technologies and required further developments will be resented at the conference.

MOPEA037 Activation and Discoloration of Polymer by Proton Beam 151
  • S.J. Ra, M.H. Jung, K. R. Kim
    KAERI, Daejon

During the beam irradiation experiments with more than a few MeV energetic protons, nuclear reactions are occurred in sample materials. Because of these nuclear reactions, the samples are activated so many kinds of additional problems for the post-processing of the samples are caused; such as time-loss, inconvenience of sample handling, personal radiation safety, etc. For in-vitro experiments, we observe death of tumor cells by proton irradiation. The use of large activated container material can cause erroneous results in this case. To solve these problems, we studied why the samples are activated and how the level of the activation can be reduced. In our proton beam irradiation experiments, the target materials can be defined as the container and sample itself. We could easily reduce activation of container material comparing to activation of sample itself. Therefore, we tried to find less activated container material by irradiating proton beam in PS (Polystyrene), PMP (Polymethypenten), and PMMA (Poly methacrylate). We used 45 MeV proton beams (MC-50 Cyclotron, KIRAM) with 10 nA.

MOPEA038 Gamma-Ray Source for Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Based on Compton Storage Ring 154
  • P. Gladkikh, E.V. Bulyak, V.A. Skomorokhov
    NSC/KIPT, Kharkov
  • T. Omori, J. Urakawa
    KEK, Ibaraki

Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) is the one of the most promising methods of the nuclear waste management and of the modern technologies of the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. There are a few proposals of the usage of NRF *,**. Yet linac and energy recovery linac are suggested as the electron source for the Compton scattering (CS) of the laser photons. The storage ring is capable to produce sufficiently higher beam intensity and is more effective since the electrons interact with the laser pulse many times. The storage ring with the electron energy from 240 to 530 MeV is proposed for the CS of 1.16 eV laser photons in the report. Maximal energy of the scattered gamma rays lies within range from 1 MeV to 5 MeV. It allows detecting of practically any isotope in analyzed objects. The specificity of the proposed storage ring is usage of the crab-crossing of the electron and laser beams. Due to crab-crossing we expect to obtain the gamma beam intensity approximately 5*1013 gammas/s for laser flash energy 5 mJ stored in the optical cavity. Both electron beam and gamma beam parameters are studied analytically and by simulation of the CS in the designed ring lattice.

* J. Pruet et al. Detecting clandestine material with nuclear resonance fluorescence. J. Appl. Phys., 99, 123102-1-11 (2006).
** R. Hajima et al. J. Nucl. Sci. Tech., vol. 45, pp. 441-451, 2008.

MOPEA039 Beam Study for FFAG Accelerator at KURRI 157
  • Y. Kuriyama, Y. Ishi, J.-B. Lagrange, Y. Mori, T. Planche, M. Takashima, T. Uesugi, E. Yamakawa
    KURRI, Osaka
  • H. Imazu, K. Okabe, I. Sakai, Y. Takahoko
    University of Fukui, Faculty of Engineering, Fukui

In Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), The FFAG accelerator complex for accelerator driven sub-critical reactor (ADSR) project has been already constructed and world first ADSR experiment has been done at May, 2009. In the main ring, proton beams of 11.5 MeV are injected and accelerated up to 100 MeV. During the acceleration, two different types of beam loss have been observed. To investigate these beam loss, betatron and synchrotron motion have been measured experimentally. The details of measurements will be described in this presentation.

MOPEA040 Study on Neutronics Design of an Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactor 160
  • C. Bungau
    Manchester University, Manchester
  • R.J. Barlow
    UMAN, Manchester
  • R. Cywinski
    University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield

Thorium fueled Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors have been proposed as a more comprehensive alternative to conventional nuclear reactors for both energy production and for burning radioactive waste. Several new classes have been added by the authors to the GEANT4 simulation code, extension which allows the state-of-the-art code to be used for the first time for nuclear reactor criticality calculations. In this paper we investigate the impact of the subcriticality and injected proton beam energy on the ADSR performance for novel ADSR configurations involving multiple accelerator drivers and associated neutron spallation targets within the reactor core.

MOPEA041 High Power SRF Linacs for ADS Reactors 163
  • R.P. Johnson, C.M. Ankenbrandt
    Muons, Inc, Batavia
  • M. Popovic
    Fermilab, Batavia

A Superconducting RF (SRF) Linac can be used for an accelerator-driven subcritical (ADS) nuclear power station to produce more than 5 GW electrical power in an inherently safe region below criticality, generating no greenhouse gases, producing minimal nuclear waste and no byproducts that are useful to rogue nations or terrorists, incinerating waste from conventional nuclear reactors, and efficiently using abundant thorium fuel that does not need enrichment. First, the feasibility of the accelerator technology must be demonstrated. We describe the Linac parameters that can enable this vision of an almost inexhaustible source of power and we discuss how the corresponding reactor technology can be matched to these parameters.

MOPEA042 Epicyclic Twin-helix Magnetic Structure for Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling 166
  • A. Afanasev, R.P. Johnson
    Muons, Inc, Batavia
  • Y.S. Derbenev
    JLAB, Newport News, Virginia
  • V.S. Morozov
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia

Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) is envisioned as the final 6D cooling stage of a high-luminosity muon collider. Implementing PIC imposes stringent constraints on the cooling channel's magnetic optics design. This paper presents a linear optics solution compatible with PIC. Our solution consists of a superposition of two opposite-helicity equal-period and equal-strength helical dipole harmonics and a straight normal quadrupole. We demonstrate that such a system can be adjusted to meet all of the PIC linear optics requirements while retaining large acceptance.

MOPEA043 Quasi-Monoenergetic Photon Source Based on Electron-Positron In-Flight Annihilation 169
  • A. Afanasev, R.J. Abrams, C.M. Ankenbrandt, K.B. Beard, R.P. Johnson, T.J. Roberts, C. Y. Yoshikawa
    Muons, Inc, Batavia
  • M. Popovic
    Fermilab, Batavia

We study electron-positron in-flight annihilation as a potential source of quasi-monoenergetic photon (or gamma-ray) beams. A high-intensity tunable-energy (1.5 MeV to 15 MeV) gamma source has many potential uses in medical, industrial and security applications. Several electron-positron collision geometries are considered: a) head-on; b) collinear; and c) positron beam incident on a fixed electron target. We analyze advantages of each of the geometries in order to optimize parameters of the generated gamma-ray beams.

MOPEA044 Quasi-monochromatic Positrons using Dipole and Wedge 172
  • R.J. Abrams, C.M. Ankenbrandt, C. Y. Yoshikawa
    Muons, Inc, Batavia

Positrons produced by electrons impinging on a target cover a broad momentum range. By bending the positrons 180° in a dipole magnetic field the momenta are dispersed according to their momenta along the exit plane of the magnet. A wedge-shaped absorber placed at the exit plane can reduce the momenta accordingly to produce a quasi-monochromatic beam of positrons. Simulation results are presented for 2 to 10 MeV/c quasi-mono-chromatic positrons produced by 75 MeV electrons on a tungsten target.

MOPEA045 Positron Production for a Compact Tunable Intense Gamma Ray Source 175
  • C. Y. Yoshikawa, R.J. Abrams, A. Afanasev, C.M. Ankenbrandt, K.B. Beard
    Muons, Inc, Batavia
  • D.V. Neuffer
    Fermilab, Batavia

A compact tunable gamma ray source has many potential uses in medical and industrial applications. One novel scheme to produce an intense beam of gammas relies on the ability to create a high flux of positrons. We present various positron production methods that are compatible with this approach for producing the intense beam of gammas.

MOPEA047 Design of a Compact, Inexpensive Linac for Use in Self-contained Irradiators 178
  • S. Boucher, X.D. Ding, A.Y. Murokh
    RadiaBeam, Marina del Rey

Self-contained irradiators are used for a number of applications, such as blood irradiation to prevent Graft-Versus-Host-Disease, biomedical and radiation research, and detector calibration. They typically use a sealed Cs-137 source to irradiate an item within a treatment compartment. The US National Research Council has identified as a priority the replacement of such high-activity sources with alternative technologies, in order to prevent them from falling into the hands of terrorists for use in a Radiological Dispersal Device ("dirty bomb"). RadiaBeam Technologies is developing a novel, compact, low-cost linear accelerator "the MicroLinac" for use in self-contained irradiators in order to effectively replace Cs-137 in such devices. A previous version of the MicroLinac, originally developed at SLAC, was designed to produce 1 MeV electron energy and 10 μA of average current. RadiaBeam has redesigned the linac to produce 1.5 MeV and 20 μA current, in order to match the penetration and dose rate of a typical blood irradiator. This paper describes the new design of the MicroLinac and our future development plans.

MOPEA048 Highlights of Accelerator Activities in France on behalf of the Accelerator Division of the French Physics Society 181
  • J.-L. Revol
    ESRF, Grenoble
  • P. Ausset
    IPN, Orsay
  • M.A. Baylac
    LPSC, Grenoble
  • F. Chautard
    GANIL, Caen
  • B. Cros
    Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas, Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay
  • J.-C. Denard
    SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette
  • F. Kircher, J.-L. Lemaire
    CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette
  • P. Maccioni
    SDMS, Saint Romans
  • R. Roux
    LAL, Orsay

The French Physics Society is an association the purpose of which is to promote physics and physicists. In this context, the accelerator physics and associated technology division is in charge of the promotion of accelerator activities in France. This paper presents the missions and actions of the division, highlighting those concerning young scientists. A brief presentation of the laboratories, institutes or facilities who are the main actors in the field will then be given. Significant projects which are underway or planned will be described, including medical applications. The major contribution of France to international projects will then be introduced. Finally the cultural and technical relations between industry and laboratories will be discussed.

MOPEA049 Application of Particle Accelerators to High Energy Density Physics Research: The HEDgeHOB Collaboration 184
  • N.A. Tahir, T. Stöhlker
    GSI, Darmstadt
  • V.E. Fortov, I. Lomonosov, A. Shutov
    IPCP, Chernogolovka, Moscow region
  • R. Piriz
    Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real
  • R. Redmer
    Rostock University, Rostock

Intense particle beams lead to volumetric heating of solid targets that generates large samples of High Energy Density (HED) matter. Such samples are very suitable to study the thermophysical properties of this important state of matter that spans over numerous fields of basic and applied physics. Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt, will generate very powerful bunched beams of the heaviest particles (uranium) that will deposit unprecedented high levels of specific power in the target. Extensive theoretical work has been carried out over the past decade to design HED physics experiments at the FAIR. So far, four different experimental schemes have been proposed. These include, HIHEX (Heavy Ion Heating and Expansion, which is suitable to study equation-of-state properties of HED matter), LAPLAS (Laboratory Planetary Science, which is suitable to generate physical conditions that exist in the interiors of the giant planets), Study of the growth of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and finally , the ion beam driven Ramp Compression which is suitable to study material properties like shear modulus and yield strength, under dynamic conditions.

MOPEA050 Development of a prototype 15 MeV Electron Linac 187
  • T.S. Dixit, S.T. Chavan, R. Krishnan, C.S. Nainwad, S.N. Pethe, K.A. Thakur, T. Tiwari, M.M. Vidwans
    SAMEER, Mumbai
  • A. Deshpande
    Sokendai, Ibaraki

A successful development of a 6 MeV electron radiotherapy machine at SAMEER, India was reported earlier*. Now a 15 MeV electron linac prototype is designed, developed and tested at our site. We have measured a beam current of 80 mA at the X-ray target attached to the linac. Energy gained by electrons in a cavity chain of about 1.2 m length is measured to be more than 15 MeV using a 6 MW klystron power source. An RF window capable of handling 12kW average power is attached to the linac tube and it is cooled by water. The final linac parameters measured were at par with the designed values. A high voltage modulator and control console for the linac are designed and developed in house. This paper will describe key aspects of the design and development process of the complete system. Also future applications are planned like-dual energy dual mode linac for radiotherapy, cargo scanning system and compact compton X-ray source using this technology is briefed in this paper.

* R.Krishnan et. al. "S band linac tube developmental work in SAMEER", FR5REP083, PAC09, Vancouver, Canada.

MOPEA051 Preliminary Design of the AEGIS Test Facility 190
  • L. Dassa, D. Cambiaghi
    Università di Brescia, Brescia
  • L. Dassa
    I.N.F.N., Pavia
  • D. Perini
    CERN, Geneva

The AEGIS experiment is expected to be installed at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator in a very close future, since the main goal of the AEGIS experiment is the measurement of gravity impact on antihydrogen, which will be produced on the purpose. Antihydrogen production implies very challenging environmental conditions: at the heart of the AEGIS facility 50 mK temperature, 10-12 mbar pressure and a 1 T magnetic field are required. Interfacing extreme cryogenics with ultra high vacuum will affect very strongly the design of the whole facility, requiring a very careful mechanical design. This paper presents an overview of the actual design of the AEGIS experimental facility, paying special care to mechanical aspects. Each subsystem of the facility - ranging from the positron source to the recombination region and the measurement region - will be shortly described. The ultra cold region, which is the most critical with respect to the antihydrogen formation, will be dealt in detail. The assembly procedures will be considered too, as they are expected to be critical to make the set-up phase easier, as well as to make possible any future improvement of the facility itself.

MOPEA052 Sub-micrometer Resolution Transverse Electron Beam Size Measurement System based on Optical Transition Radiation 193
  • A.S. Aryshev, N. Terunuma, J. Urakawa
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • S.T. Boogert, V. Karataev
    JAI, Egham, Surrey
  • D.F. Howell
    OXFORDphysics, Oxford, Oxon

Optical Transition Radiation (OTR) appearing when a charged particle crosses a boundary between two media with different dielectric properties has widely been used as a tool for transverse profile measurements of charged particle beams in various facilities worldwide. The resolution of the conventional monitors is defined by so-called Point Spread Function (PSF) dimension - the source distribution generated by a single electron and projected by an optical system onto a screen. In our experiment we managed to create a system which can practically measure the PSF distribution. We demonstrated that is it is non-uniform. In this paper we represent the development of a novel sub-micrometer electron beam profile monitor based on the measurements of the PSF structure. The visibility of the structure is sensitive to micrometer electron beam dimensions. In this report we shall represent the recent experimental results. The future plans on the optimization of the monitor will also be presented.

MOPEA053 A Compact Soft X-ray Source based on Thomson Scattering of Coherent Diffraction Radiation 196
  • A.S. Aryshev, S. Araki, M.K. Fukuda, J. Urakawa
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • V. Karataev
    JAI, Egham, Surrey
  • G.A. Naumenko
    INPR, Tomsk
  • A. Potylitsyn, L.G. Sukhikh, D. Verigin
    TPU, Tomsk
  • K. Sakaue
    RISE, Tokyo

High-brightness and reliable sources in the VUV and the soft X-ray region may be used for numerous applications in such areas as medicine, biology, biochemistry, material science, etc. 4th generation light sources based on X-ray free electron lasers are being built in a few world's leading laboratories. However, those installations are very expensive and the access to wider community is very limited. We propose a new approach to produce the intense beams of X-rays in the range of less than 500 eV based on compact electron accelerator. An ultimate goal of the project is to create a compact soft X-ray source based on Thomson scattering of Coherent Diffraction Radiation (CDR) using a small accelerator machine. CDR is generated when a charged particle moves in the vicinity of an obstacle. The radiation is coherent when its wavelength is comparable to or longer than the bunch length. The CDR waves will be generated in an opened resonator formed by two mirrors. In this report we represent the status of the experiment. The pilot experimental results and general hardware design will be demonstrated.

MOPEA055 Development of the Focusing System for a Highly Bright X-ray Generator 199
  • T. Sakai, M. Ikeda, S. Ohsawa, T. Sugimura
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • N. Sakabe
    FAIS, Akatsuka, Tsukuba, Ibaraki

A new type of rotating anticathode X-ray generator has been developed, in which the electron beam irradiates the inner surface of a U-shaped Cu anticathode. A high-flux electron beam is focused on the inner surface of the anticathode by optimizing the geometry of the bending magnet. In order to minimize the sizes of the X-ray source, the electron beam is focused in a short distance by the combined function magnets. A shape on the surface of the bending magnet was determined by simulation. The beam trajectories and bending magnet were optimized by the General Particle Tracer(GPT) and Opera-3D code simulation. The result of simulation clearly shows that the bending magnet gap surface angle parameters are important to the beam focused in a short distance. FWHM sizes of the beam from the simulation were obtained to be 0.45mm(horizontal) and 0.05mm(vertical) of which the anticathode with a beam voltage and current were 120kV and 75mA, respectively. The effective brilliance to be about 500kW/mm2 simulated predict that with the supposition of a two-dimensional Gaussian distribution. In this paper, the optimization of the focusing magnet and the results of the prototype test are reported.

MOPEA056 Lifetime Measurement of HBC Stripper Foil using 3.2 MeV Ne+ for RCS of J-PARC 202
  • Y. Takeda, Y. Irie, H. Kawakami, M. Oyaizu, I. Sugai, A. Takagi
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • T. Hattori, K.K. Kawasaki
    TIT, Tokyo

Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) requires thick carbon stripper foils (200-500 ug/cm2) to strip electrons from the H- beam supplied by the linac before injection into the Rapid Cyclic Synchrotron. A H- beam of 181MeV energy is injected into the 3 GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) with a pulse length of 0.5 ms, a repetition rate of 25 Hz, and an average beam current of 200 μA. The H- ions are stripped into protons by a charge stripper foil in the injection section. For this high-energy and high-intensity beam, the conventional carbon stripper foils will be ruptured in a very short time. Thus, long-lived thick carbon stripper foils are needed to this high-power accelerator. For this purpose, we are described R and D of long-lived Hybrid Boron-mixed Carbon foils (HBC-foils) of 100 - 500 μg/cm2 by arc discharge method. The preparation procedure is described and lifetime measurement by using a 3.2MeV Ne+ DC beam of 2-3 μA are reported.

MOPEA057 Social Aspects of Japanese High Energy Accelerators 205
  • K. Hirata
    GUAS, Kanagawa
  • E. Kikutani, M. Sekimoto
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • Y. Takaiwa
    Tsukuba University of Technology, Kasuga Campus, Tsukuba, Ibaraki

Japanese research to build accelerators for high energy physics started with Electron Synchrotron at Institute of Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS). The development was slow in the beginning, in particular before the construction of KEK-PS. After the experience of TRISTAN, KEKB, one of the best colliders in the world, was eventually constructed. We will review the history of high energy accelerators in Japan from physics, technological and particularly social points of view referring to documents at KEK and other archives. This is the first of a series of papers and will outline the over-all view.

MOPEA058 Measurement of the Parametric X-rays with the Rocking Curve Method 208
  • Y. Hayashi, S.V. Bulanov, T. Homma, M. Kando, K. Kawase, H. Kotaki
    JAEA, Kyoto

Parametric X-ray generation is one of the ways to obtain a monochromatic X-ray. The X-ray is generated through the interaction between high energy electrons and a crystal. The relationship between an X-ray wavelength and an angle of emission is followed by the Bragg condition. Therefore the monochromatic energy of the X-ray can be varied continuously by rotating the crystal. This tunability of X-ray wavelength is suitable for various applications. Usually a single photon counting method is utilized for measuring of the parametric X-rays. Although this method has an advantage to obtain clear energy spectrum, it takes long time. Here, we have measured 10 keV parametric X-rays with applying a rocking curve method. In this scheme, a large number of parametric X-rays are detected simultaneously. This enables us to find and tune the parametric X-ray quickly. As a result, we could find the sharp peak from this method with the Microtron accelerator (150MeV, 20 - 30 pC) at JAEA and a Si crystal. Since the peak angle is consistent to the Bragg condition for the 10 keV parametric X-ray generation, we think 10 keV photons have been generated through the parametric X-ray mechanism.

MOPEA059 Laser Acceleration of Negative Ions by Coulomb Implosion Mechanism 211
  • T. Nakamura, S.V. Bulanov, H. Daido, T. Esirkepov, A. Faenov, Y. Fukuda, Y. Hayashi, T.K. Kameshima, M. Kando, T. Pikuz, A.S. Pirozhkov, M. Tampo, A. Yogo
    JAEA/Kansai, Kyoto

Intense laser pulse is utilized to generate compact sources of electrons, ions, x-rays, neutrons. Recently, high energy negative ions are also observed in experiments using cluster or gas target*. To explain the acceleration of negative ions from laser-generated plasmas, we proposed Coulomb implosion mechanism**. When clusters or underdense plasmas are irradiated by an intense laser pulse, positive ions are accelerated inside the clusters or in the self-focusing channel by the Coulomb explosion. This could lead to the acceleration of negative ions towards target center. The maximum energy of negative ions is typically several times lower than that of positive ions. A theoretical description and corresponding Particle-in-Cell simulations of Coulomb implosion mechanism are presented. We show the evidence of the negative ion acceleration observed in our experiments using high intensity laser pulse and the cluster-gas targets.

* S.Ter-Avetisyan et al., J. Phys. B 37 (2004) 3633.
** T.Nakamura et al., Phys. Plasmas 16 (2009) 113106.

MOPEA060 Reconstructions of the Control System for the Charge Exchange System at the 3GeV RCS in J-PARC 214
  • M. Kawase, M. Kinsho, O. Takeda, Y. Yamazaki, M. Yoshimoto
    JAEA/J-PARC, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken

The charge exchange device for 3GeV RCS in J-PARC, which require that a broken foil is exchanged for a new foil by remote control and automatically in vacuum. The control system's important task will be to control under the unified management of the vacuum system and foil driving system and to support EPICS. This device consists of the vacuum system using PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) and the foil driving system using MCU (Multi Control Unit). A workstation (WS) was required, and we developed control system which control under the unified management of 2 different type of system. The uniform management control system became complex system. In fact, therefore control system was unfinished system, it did not protect trouble such as the vacuum gate valve closed while transfer rod insert in the ring. Each algorithm of PLC, MCU and WS was reviewed, and the control system that was able to do the unified management was restructured. Each algorithm of PLC, MCU and WS was debugged so that this control system is made remote control using EPICS. We introduce the reconstruction of the control system for the charge exchange system at the RCS in J-PARC.

MOPEA061 Status Report on RAPID, 1.7MV Tandem Accelerator System, the University of Tokyo 217
  • S. Ito, H. Matsuzaki, Y. Miyairi, A. Morita, N. Nakano, Y. Sunohara
    The University of Tokyo, Tokyo

RAPID (Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopic Analyzer with Particle Induced X-ray Emission and Ion Implantation Devices), the University of Tokyo has been dedicated to various scientific and engineering studies in a wide range of fields by the ion beam analysis availability, including RBS, NRA, PIXE and ion implantation. The system consists of a 1.7MV tandem accelerator (Model 4117-HC,provided by HVEE corp., Netherland), two negative ion sources (a Cs sputter solid ion source and duoplasmatron gas ion source) and three beam lines. RAPID was installed in 1994 at Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology, the University of Tokyo at first and since then it has been used for various research fields using ion beams. As the Center was reorganized to be a department of School of Engineering in 2005, the educational utilization came to be an important mission of RAPID. Besides several application studies with PIXE analysis, environmental analysis (pond sediments and atmospheric SPM (Suspended Particulate Matter) is performed as a student experiment. Recently, a low level ion irradiation system was also developed and applied for the study of CR-39 track detector with proton beam.

MOPEA062 Development of Advanced Quantum Radiation Source based on S-band Compact Electron Linac 220
  • R. Kuroda, H. Ikeura-Sekiguchi, M. Koike, H. Ogawa, N. Sei, H. Toyokawa, K. Yamada, M.Y. Yasumoto
    AIST, Tsukuba, Ibaraki

Advanced quantum radiation sources such as a laser Compton scattering X-ray source and a coherent THz radiation source have been developed based on an S-band compact electron linac at AIST in Japan. The laser Compton scattering X-ray source using a TW Ti:Sa laser can generate a hard X-ray pulse which has variable energy of 12 keV - 40 keV with narrow bandwidth by changing electron energy and collision angle for medical and biological applications. The coherent THz radiation source based on the electron linac has been also developed instead of a conventional laser based THz source. The designed THz pulse has high peak power more than 1 kW in frequency range between 0.1 - 2 THz. The THz pulse will be generated with coherent radiation such as synchrotron radiation and transition radiation using an ultra-short electron bunch with bunch length of less than 0.5 ps (rms). The coherent synchrotron radiation in the THz region has been already generated and it will be applied to the THz time domain spectroscopy (TDS). In this work shop, we will report present status of our advanced quantum radiation sources.

MOPEA064 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the Tsukuba 12 MV Pelletron Tandem Accelerator 223
  • K. Sasa, N. Kinoshita, Y. Nagashima, K. Sueki, T. Takahashi, Y. Tosaki
    UTTAC, Tsukuba, Ibaraki
  • K. Bessho, H. Matsumura
    KEK, Ibaraki
  • Y. Matsushi
    University of Tokyo, Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology, Tokyo

Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is a highly sensitive mass spectrometric method for measuring rare isotopes. The technique is mainly applied in chronology, earth and environmental sciences to date samples using long-lived radioisotopes. With a multi-nuclide AMS system on the 12 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator at the University of Tsukuba (Tsukuba AMS system), we are able to measure environmental levels of long-lived radioisotopes of C-14, Al-26, Cl-36, Ca-41 and I-129 by employing a molecular pilot beam method. The high terminal voltage of 12 MV is an advantage for AMS to detect heavy radioisotopes. The principle of AMS and applications with the Tsukuba AMS system will be reported in this paper.

MOPEA065 DPIS for Warm Dense Matter 226
  • K. Kondo
    Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama
  • K. Horioka
    TIT, Yokohama
  • T. Kanesue
    Kyushu University, Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Fukuoka
  • M. Okamura
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York

Warm Dense Matter (WDM) is an challenging problem because WDM, which is beyond ideal plasma, is low temperature and high density state with partially degenerate electrons and coupled ions. WDM is a common state of matter in astrophysical objects such as cores of giant planets and white dwarfs. The WDM studies require large energy deposition into a small target volume in a shorter time than the hydrodynamical time and need uniformity across the full thickness of the target. Since moderate energy ion beams (~ 0.3 MeV/amu) can be useful tool for WDM physics*, we propose WDM generation using Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS). In the DPIS, laser ion source is connected to the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linac directly without the beam transport line. The discussions of DPIS for WDM are presented.

* L. R. Grisham, Physics of Plasmas, 11, 5727 (2004).

MOPEA066 Recent Progress of MeV Ultrafast Electron Diffraction at Tsinghua University 229
  • R.K. Li, H. Chen, Q. Du, T. Du, Y.-C. Du, Hua, J.F. Hua, W.-H. Huang, X. H. Lu, J. Shi, C.-X. Tang, H. S. Xu, L.X. Yan
    TUB, Beijing

Recent years have witnessed rapid advances of MeV ultrafast electron diffraction (UED), in which high quality, ultrashort, MeV electron pulses from a photocathode RF gun are employed as probes for ultrafast structural dynamics. We've built a prototype MeV UED system at the Accelerator Laboratory of Tsinghua University, optimized the the electron pulse parameters as well as hardware performances, and achieved high quality single-shot diffraction patterns. Moreover, MeV UED can be operated in a so-called 'continuously time-resolved (CTR)' mode, in which an RF deflecting cavity streaks the electron pulse thus each diffraction pattern constitutes an 'atomic movie'. We report our experimental progress on MeV UED in this paper.

MOPEA067 PIC Simulation of the Coaxial Magnetron for Low Energy X-band Linear Accelerators 232
  • J.Q. Qiu, H. Chen, C.-X. Tang
    TUB, Beijing

For the miniaturization of low energy linear accelerators, X-band pulsed magnetron with stable performance of 1.5 MW peak power is needed to be developed. This paper presents the 3D particle-in-cell (PIC) of an X-band coaxial magnetron. A time evolved electron flow exhibits N/2 spokes in the simulations, which confirms the generation of pi-mode. Computer modeling indicates the mode competition in the startup process according to the spectra. By changing the DC voltage, we got the voltage-current characteristics of this magnetron, and comparison with the experiment was also been presented.

MOPEA069 Platinum Nano Particle Synthesis by Proton Beam Irradiation 235
  • J.-K. Kil, M.H. Jung, K. R. Kim, S.J. Ra
    KAERI, Daejon

We made an experiment apparatus for the investigation of nano particle synthesis by proton inducing. It is composed of water tank, thin sample case with large area, ultrasonic oscillator, beam entrance window, monitoring camera, etc. Pt nano particles were fabricated. Nano particle characteristics are influenced by the condition of the solution, such as concentrations of H2PtCl6, CP and IPA. The experiment apparatus was designed that Pt nano particles were fabricated fore conditions. For a proton induced synthesis, some parameters, such as beam energy, beam current, flux, total dose, dose rate, etc. are also known as important process variables. To identify the effects of these irradiation parameters, we investigated the properties of nano particles according to the changes of these parameters. The energy was changed in the range of 10 ~ 40 MeV, beam current 1 uA. It could be examined by using an experiment apparatus developed for this purpose.

MOPEA070 Development of theTarget System for Large-Area Uniform Irradiation Using 2D Motional Stage 238
  • K. R. Kim, M.H. Jung, J.-K. Kil, S.J. Ra
    KAERI, Daejon

Uniform irradiation is very important for many kinds of experiments of proton beam utilization. In general, scanning magnet have been used for the uniform irradiation of high energy proton beam in the type of wobbler scanning, raster scanning, spiral scanning, etc. In the case of using magnets, it is not easy and needs high cost to install and operate because the magnet size and power become bigger with increase of beam energy accordingly. In this paper, we proposed simpler method and apparatus for uniform irradiation using 2D motional stage. It is composed of two motion systems for X- and Y- direction motion and goniostage. The maximum area is 20cm x 20cm and the incident angle can be controlled from +15 to -15 degree. Maximum sample weight have to be less than 5kg. In this paper, preliminary results for simple wobbler scanning is shown when the proton energy and beam current are about 40MeV and 1~10 nA respectively. The uniform scanning area was checked by using GAF film, MD-55 or HD-810. The stage can be used for the beam alignment and beam profile measurement at any position of beam line.

MOPEA071 The Solid Target Control System for the RFT-30 30 MeV Cyclotron in KAERI 241
  • I.J. Kim, S.M. Choi, M.G. Hur, S.W. Kim, J.H. Park, S.D. Yang
    KAERI, Daejon

The solid target of the RFT-30 30 MeV cyclotron in KAERI was designed to produce the metalic radioisotopes, such as Zn-62, Cu-67, Ge-68, Pd-103, and In-111. The target control system should provide high reliability to prevent any kind of failure. Moreover, the operating procedures and maintenance cycle should be optimized and well organized to cover the unexpected situations. In this study, a simulation of the control system for the solid target in KAERI was carried out to confirm the operability of the solid target transport system. The receiving and irradiation stations are connected each other through square tube, and the control software was also checked. The developed solid target control system controls vacuum, cooling, and the whole procedures before, during, and after the irradiation.

MOPEA074 Resonant Transition Radiation Induced by an Ultrashort Electron Bunch from Aluminium Foil Stack 244
  • W.C. Cheng
    National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu
  • N.Y. Huang
    NTHU, Hsinchu
  • W.K. Lau
    NSRRC, Hsinchu

Resonant transition radiation (RTR) driven by a femtosecond electron beam is being studied. An aluminum foil stack with vacuum spacers is used as the radiator. With a 27 MeV electron bunch with pulse duration at ~ 100 fsec incident normally on the aluminum foil stack, high photon yields in hard X-ray regime can be obtained. Characteristics of the radiation such as emission spectrum, spatial distribution are calculated. The dependence of RTR photon yields on beam size and bunch length are also studied.

MOPEA075 GEANT4 Validation Studies at the ISIS Muon Facility 247
  • A. Bungau, R. Cywinski
    University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield
  • C. Bungau
    Manchester University, Manchester
  • P.J.C. King, J.S. Lord
    STFC/RAL, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon

GEANT4 provides an extensive set of alternative hadronic models. Simulations of the ISIS muon production using three such models applicable in the energy range of interest are presented in this paper and compared with the experimental data.

MOPEA076 Geometry Optimization of the ISIS Muon Target 250
  • A. Bungau, R. Cywinski
    University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield
  • C. Bungau
    Manchester University, Manchester
  • P.J.C. King, J.S. Lord
    STFC/RAL, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon

ISIS is the world's most successful pulsed spallation neutron source that provides beams of neutrons and muons that enable scientists to study the properties of the matter at the atomic level. Restrictions are imposed on the muon target regarding thickness as this will affect the proton transmission to the second neutron target. However, it could be possible to improve the muon production by optimizing the target geometry. Currently the muon target is a 7 mm thick graphite plate oriented at 45 degrees with respect to the proton beam. A set of slabs placed at variable distance is proposed instead of the 7 mm thick graphite target. The performance of the set of slabs is examined in this paper.

MOPEA077 Material Studies for the ISIS Muon Target 253
  • A. Bungau, R. Cywinski
    University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield
  • C. Bungau
    Manchester University, Manchester
  • P.J.C. King, J.S. Lord
    STFC/RAL, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon

The ISIS neutron spallation source uses a separate muon target 20 m upstream of the neutron target for MuSR research. Because ISIS is primarily a neutron source, it imposes restrictions upon the muon target, which normally are not present at other muon facilities like PSI or TRIUMF. In particular it is not possible to use thicker targets and higher energy proton drivers because of the loss of neutrons and the increased background at neutron instruments. In this paper we investigate possible material choices for the ISIS muon target for increased muon yield.

MOPEA078 Target Optimisation Studies for the European Spallation Source 256
  • A. Bungau, R. Cywinski
    University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield
  • C. Bungau
    Manchester University, Manchester

The European Spallation Source (ESS) is one of Europe's biggest and most prestigious science projects to design and construct the next generation facility for research with neutrons. ESS will be the world's most powerful spallation source and it will provide a unique tool for research into the atomic structure and dynamics of matter. We investigate the effects of the dimensions of the ESS spallation target on the total neutron yield integrated over the neutron energy and emission angle. We also investigate different material choices for the ESS target.

MOPEA079 Impact of the Energy of the Proton Driver on Muon Production 259
  • A. Bungau, R. Cywinski
    University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield
  • C. Bungau
    Manchester University, Manchester
  • P.J.C. King, J.S. Lord
    STFC/RAL, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon

Simulations studies have been carried out to examine the impact of the energy of the proton driver on muon production. The muon flux is calculated as a function of proton energy over a wide range, which covers the energies at the existing muon and neutron facilities worldwide. The muon and higher energy pion yields are normalised per beam current and accelerator power. The case of a higher energy of the proton driver at the ISIS muon facility is also examined.

MOPEA080 Electron Beam Polarization Measurement using Touschek Lifetime Technique 262
  • C. Sun, J.Y. Li, S.F. Mikhailov, V. Popov, W. Wu, Y.K. Wu
    FEL/Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
  • A. Chao
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California
  • H. Xu, J. Zhang
    USTC/NSRL, Hefei, Anhui

Touschek lifetime of an electron beam in a storage ring depends on the beam polarization through the intrabeam scattering effect. Consequently, the electron beam polarization can be determined by comparing the measured Touschek lifetime of a polarized beam and an unpolarized beam. In this paper, we report a systematic experimental procedure to study the radiative polarization of a stored electron beam. Based upon this technique, we have successfully observed the polarization build-up of a 1.15 GeV electron beam in the Duke storage ring. Using the Touchek lifetime data, we are able to determine the equilibrium degree of the electron beam polarization and the time constant for the polarization build-up process.

MOPEA081 A Semi-analytical Algorithm for Modelling Compton Gamma-ray beams 265
  • C. Sun, Y.K. Wu
    FEL/Duke University, Durham, North Carolina

Compton scattering of a laser beam with a relativistic electron beam has been used to generate an intense, highly polarized, and nearly monoenergetic gamma-ray beam at several facilities. The ability of predicting the spatial and spectral distributions of a Compton gamma-ray beam is crucial for the optimization of the operation of a Compton light source as well as for the applications utilizing the Compton beam. Based upon the Lorentz invariant Compton scattering cross section, we have derived an analytical formula to study the Compton scattering process. Using this formula, we have developed an integration code to produce the smooth results for the spatial and spectral distributions of the Compton beam. This code has been characterized at the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIGS) facility at Duke University for varying electron and laser beam parameters as well as different gamma-ray beam collimation conditions.

MOPEA082 The ALPHA Project at IU CEEM 268
  • S.-Y. Lee, G.W. East, R.W. Ellis, Y.C. Jing, Y. Kim, T.H. Luo, P.D. McChesney, X. Pang, T. Rinckel, P.E. Sokol
    IUCF, Bloomington, Indiana
  • J.E. Doskow
    IUCMB, Bloomington, Indiana

We are building a low energy electron storage ring that has many desirable properties, such as varying momentum compaction factor, damping partition numbers, favorable betatron tunes for multiturn accumulations, and excellent dynamic aperture. This storage ring can be used for debunching rf linac beams in one turn, for compression of linac pulses, and more importantly for a compact photon source based on inverse Compton scattering of laser beams.

MOPEA084 Timestamping for Relativistic Electron Diffraction 271
  • C.M. Scoby, M.S. Gutierrez, J.T. Moody, P. Musumeci, M.T. Westfall
    UCLA, Los Angeles, California

High brightness ultrashort electron beams have been produced at the UCLA Pegasus photoinjector lab for use in time-resolved electron diffraction applications. Beams have been generated with high enough brightness to obtain single shot diffraction patterns of thin solid targets. These beams contain a few pC at 3.5 MeV in a 200 fs pulse. Pump-probe experiments on thin metal foils have already shown promising results on picosecond time scales*. Current research focuses on materials with processes that are observable on the sub-100 fs scale. To overcome rf jitter and synchronization problems, electro-optic sampling is used as a single shot time-of-arrival diagnostic** to help reconstruct the melting "movie."

*P. Musumeci, et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 013302 (2009)
**C. Scoby, et al., PR-ST Beams and Accel. 13 (2010)